Positional Signaling and Genetic Network Operating in Root Patterning

Positional information established through both long-distance signals and cell-to-cell interactions as well as specific transcription factor activity are known to be important throughout plant development (Meyerowitz 2002 Vernoux and Benfey 2005 Qu and Zhu 2006 Veit 2006 Sablowski 2007 Scheres 2007 Benjamins and Scheres 2008 Kiefer 2009 Robert and Friml 2009 Stahl and Simon 2010). Cell-to-cell interactions involve plasmodesmata and the cell wall. It is known that plasmodesmata dynamically...

Leaf Development and Senescence in L temulentum

Because L. temulentum combines the physiological and genetic characteristics of a cereal and a forage grass, it has been a favoured subject for studies of the development and senescence of foliage, the primary determinants of grain and fodder production. It is particularly useful as a model for the agronomic Lolium spp. (perenne and multiflorum), since its genetic uniformity and rapid rate of development makes it more experimentally convenient than its slower growing, outbreeding relatives....

Environmental Cues and RAM Patterning

In plants, both endogenous developmental factors and environmental cues can modulate cell differentiation and morphogenesis. Regarding root systems, an extensive literature exists about structural and functional modifications in a range of unrelated species, in response to water and nutrient availability, mechanical and gravitational stimuli, and responses to magnetic fields, as well as in relation to symbiotic or pathogenic interactions with heterologous organisms (Audus 1960 Behrens et al....

Nor

Fig. 5 Introgression of stay-green, a mutant leaf senescence gene, from Festuca pratensis into Lolium temulentum. (a) Senescing leaves of the introgression mutant line remain green while wildtype leaf tissue turns yellow. (b) The chromosomes of F. pratensis (Fp - blue) are readily distinguished from those of L. temulentum (Lt - pink) in an F1 hybrid by genomic in-situ hybridization. NOR nucleolar organizer region. (c) Repeated backcrossing reduces the size of the introgressed Fp segment in the...

L temulentum in History and Literature

Biollante King Caesar

This concluding section is a brief and selective treatment drawn from a more comprehensive review by the authors to be published elsewhere (see Marggraf Turley et al. 2010). Darnel has been written about throughout history in many cultures. The medicinal and entheogenic uses of this species have been mentioned above. There are numerous references to darnel as a pernicious weed of cereals in Classical narratives (see Smith and Secoy 1975). The principal Classical sources on the subject of darnel...

Phylogeny and Evolution of L temulentum 21 The L temulentum Genome

Lolium species have been among the favoured subjects for investigating genome size and organisation in relation to interspecific and intergeneric hybridisation. The annual inbreeding Lolium spp. L. temulentum, L. remotum and L. persicum have nuclear DNA contents about 50 greater than that of the perennial outbreeder Fig. 1 Morphological and physiological features of a range of Lolium temulentum genotypes. a Late heading accession. b Early heading accession. c Awned type. d Awnless type. e, f...