Growing Mushrooms at Home

Mushroom Growing 4 You

This ebook from Jake White, Certified Mushroom Grower, teaches you how to grow your own mushrooms in your backyard! Since you were a kid, you have probably been told to never eat wild mushrooms But what if you had a way to grow your own wonderful-tasting mushrooms? Wouldn't that taste so much better than bland, grocery store mushrooms? Food that you grow in your own backyard tastes so much better than food from the store. Mushrooms from the store can actually be very dangerous They are as absorbent as sponges. When farmers spray pesticides all over them, they absorb every little drop. Eating store-bought mushrooms is like buying a box full of poison. Jake White can teach you how to easily grow all of the mushrooms that you want, of any kind! Learn how to grow amazing tasting mushrooms that do not have any of the bad drugs on them that store bought ones will! Read more...

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Highly Recommended

The writer has done a thorough research even about the obscure and minor details related to the subject area. And also facts weren’t just dumped, but presented in an interesting manner.

Purchasing this book was one of the best decisions I have made, since it is worth every penny I invested on it. I highly recommend this to everyone out there.

Cultivation of Edible Mycorrhizal Mushrooms

As is evident, about half of the world's species of edible mushrooms are mycorrhi-zal, and among them are some of the world's most expensive foods. A few of these mushrooms have well-established worldwide markets measured in billions of dollars. All of the mycorrhizal mushrooms are seasonal, best-eaten fresh, and do not preserve well (Hall et al. 2007). Of more than 300 ectomycorrhizal mushrooms eaten around the world, those held in the highest regard are the Perigord black truffle (Hall et al. 1994), Italian white truffle (Hall et al. 1998a), porcini (Hall et al. 1998b), chanterelle (C. cibarius Danell 2001), and matsutake (T. matsutake Wang et al. 1997). However, many of the other edible mycorrhizal mushrooms like Caesar's mushroom (Amanita caesaria), honshimeji (Lyophilum shimeji), Burgundy truffle (Tuber uncinatum), Oregon white truffle (Tuber gibbosum), and saffron milk cap (L. deliciosus) also have significant local markets. Figure 19.1 showed the different edible...

Important Poisonous Compounds Found in Plants and Mushrooms

There are many different kinds of plant and mushroom toxins. Alkaloids, the major type of poisonous compound found in the potato and its relatives, are common and widely distributed in the plant kingdom, especially but not exclusively among the flowering plants or angiosperms. Alkaloids are compounds derived from amino acids and are alkaline in nature. Their molecular structure is cyclical, and they all contain nitrogen. They are generally bitter tasting, and many are similar in chemical structure to substances produced by humans and other animals to transmit nerve impulses. Consequently, when ingested, they often affect animals' nervous systems. Many alkaloids, while potentially toxic, are also valued as medicines. Some, like the caffeine found in coffee (Coffea arabica), tea (Camellia sinensis), and other beverages, are consumed by humans all over the world as stimulants. One particularly useful alkaloid-containing plant is ipecac (Cephaelis ipecacuanha), a plant in the...

Mycorrhizal Mushrooms

There is a wide taxonomic and structural diversity of higher fungi. The reproductive structures of larger fungi include epigeous mushrooms, puffballs, coral fungi, crust fungi, etc., and subterranean (hypogeal) fungi called truffles, or truffle-like fungi. Most of these categories contain ectomycorrhizal mushrooms. The fact to be noted is that each species of host plant is not restricted to just one mycorrhizal fungus. For example, Douglas fir can form mycorrhizas with hundreds of different mycorrhizal fungi. Similarly, some oaks can form ectomycorrhizas with a wide range of fungi, such as Amanita caesarea, Amanita phalloides, Boletus edulis, as well as the Perigord black truffle Tuber melanosporum, and it is not unusual to find half a dozen different ECM fungi competing for space on the roots of a suitable host (Hall and Wang 1998). A list of putative 955 mycorrhizal edible and or medicinal mushrooms has been provided by Hall et al. (2003). This suggests that most mushrooms are...

Ectomycorrhizal Mushrooms and Wildlife Association

A highly evolved beneficial relationship exists between ectomycorrhizal fruiting bodies, host trees, and wildlife. Fruiting bodies of ectomycorrhizal fungi are an important food source for many temperate forest mammals and invertebrates (Fogel 1975 Fogel and Trappe 1978 Bruns 1984 Lawrence 1989 Cazares and Trappe 1994 Johnson 1994 Janos and Sahley 1995 North and Trappe 1996). In the process of consuming the fruiting body, fungal inoculum is dispersed throughout the animal's range, thereby exposing the ectomycorrhizal host trees to a higher diversity of inocula. Aboveground sporocarps generally disperse their spores through the forest by means of air and water currents. Below-ground fruiting bodies, by contrast, depend on animals for spore dispersal. Animals are attracted to the aromatic compounds produced by truffles and false-truffles (i.e., true truffles belong to the class Ascomycete false-truffles belong to the class Basidiomycete), which lead them to excavate and consume these...


The shiitake mushroom (Lentinus edodes) has been used historically for anti-cancer and immune-modulating activity. An ethyl acetate fraction from shiitake mushrooms was evaluated in breast cell carcinoma and myeloma cell lines. The results showed an up-regulation of pro-apoptotic proteins inducing apoptosis and resulting in a 51 anti-proliferative effect in cancer cells treated with the shiitake extract.55 A study was conducted to examine the anticancer effects of four alpha-D-glucans extracted from shiitake mushrooms compared with O-sulfonated alpha-D-glucan derivatives. The results showed that the O-sulfonation of the alpha-D-glucan considerably increased the anti-tumor activities compared to the native alpha-D-glucans.56 The constituent lentinan was also shown to exhibit anti-cancer activity. Lentinan extract was given orally to mice for seven days prior to inoculation with either murine lymphoma cells or human colon-carcinoma cells. The results showed significant regression in...

Medicinal Mushrooms

Most people, if they think about mushrooms at all, consider them a food with no particular value beyond taste. As a significant source of protein, fiber, several minerals, B vitamins, and ascorbic acid, mushrooms are actually a healthy addition to the diet. They also have uses beyond nutrition, having numerous medicinal qualities. A large body of work details the health benefits of mushrooms. There is even ajournal that specializes in mushroom use in medicine, the International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms. Recent interest in the medicinal qualities of mushrooms has paralleled the rise in widespread commercial cultivation of these useful fungi. Their production and sales in the year 1999 totaled 18 billion, an amount similar to that of coffee sales worldwide.1 However, the use of fungi for medicinal purposes predates modern cultivation and scientific interest by thousands of years. In traditional Eastern medicine, mushrooms were used to treat diseases, increase longevity, and...

Poisonous Mushrooms

Mushrooms are part of the diverse kingdom called fungi. Unlike green plants, fungi do not fuel their development, growth, and reproduction with sunlight and carbon dioxide in the process of photosynthesis. Instead, they feed off dead or living plant and animal matter. Mushrooms, which are characterized by a central stalk and rounded cap, can be easily distinguished. While some mushrooms are widely eaten, others can cause sickness if consumed, and some can be fatally toxic even in small amounts. Distinguishing between poisonous and edible mushrooms can be extremely difficult. Sometimes identification can only be verified at the microscopic level and requires the expertise of a mycologist, a person who studies fungi. Wild mushrooms should never be eaten without certain identification. As with poisonous plants, the level of toxicity in mushrooms can vary depending on genetic and environmental factors, and the same species of mushroom that can be eaten in one area may be poisonous under...

The Status of Acacia mangium Growing and Utilization in Asia and the Pacific

A. mangium is grown for pulp and paper production in Sumatra, Sabah, and Vietnam. In Taiwan (Republic of China), A. mangium sawdust provides a good-quality substrate in the lucrative production of shiitake mushrooms. Other non-wood uses for which it shows potential include honey production and adhesives.

Urban Woodland and Parks As a Recreational Resource

In urban forests walking tends to be the most common recreational activity. Other common activities are cycling, jogging, picnicking as well as picking berries and mushrooms (Fig. 1). However, there exist clear differences between European countries. Cycling within forests is not that common in Italy. Picking berries and mushrooms is relatively infrequent in Dutch and Danish forests, while cross-country skiing in winter is very common in Finland, Sweden and Norway. These differences are related to the recreation possibilities that the nearest forests in one's environment offer, in combination with the forests' proximity. Using a forest environment for daily physical exercise takes place only if such an environment is available nearby (Tyrvainen 2001 De Vries and Goossen 2002).

Economic Values of Urban Forests

The consumptive use values of forests include values of market-priced products such as timber, game, berries and mushrooms. Timber is traditionally seen as the most important market-priced product of forests in many rural areas across Europe. However, the values of timber production and of picking mushrooms and berries in urban forests are lower than in rural areas. This is because the environmental conditions for growth are limited due to pollution, fragmentation of forests and trampling effects. In addition, the net revenues from timber are usually fairly small if any, because management of areas is relatively expensive due to small-scale management practices. Moreover, the market price of berries and mushrooms reflects their true value only partially, as the recreational value of their picking is excluded. The value of game is also unimportant as hunting is often not allowed in urban areas.

The European Dimension

The northern forest culture covers Norway, most of Sweden, Finland and the Baltic states. Here the forest is a major element of the landscape, the national economy and in the everyday lives of the people. Cities such as Stockholm, Oslo, Helsinki, Tallinn, Riga or Vilnius, tend to be set within and surrounded by large tracts of forest, which expand beyond the urban boundary. The cities have expanded into the forests and the people go out into them almost as much for mushroom and berry picking as for walking or skiing (Sievanen 2001).

Epidermis fate initiation and receptor signaling

Recently, the redundant leucine-rich repeat receptor kinases RECEPTORLIKE PROTEIN KINASE1 (RPK1) and TOADSTOOL2 (TOAD2) have been shown to be critical for radial patterning (Nodine et al., 2007). rpk1toad2 double mutants are embryo lethal and arrest as mushroom-shaped embryos at heart stage. Phenotypic defects are first observed at the early globular stage, correlating with the overlapping expression of both proteins and consist of bloated central protoderm cells. These cells initially express the protoderm marker ML1, but fail to maintain its expression as the phenotype becomes apparent. In addition, the vascular primordium markers ZWILLE PINHEAD and SHR are ectopically expressed in ground tissue and protoderm, whereas the ground tissue marker SCR is absent. Interestingly, also the correct asymmetric division of the hypophysis is impaired, failing to produce the lens-shaped cell. However, frequent failure to express SCR and the ectopic provascular marker indicates that defects in...

Provisioning of nonwood forest products in diverse plantations

In addition to the production of wood, the production function of plantations also extends to other plant products and animals that may be harvested for human consumption. Forest products that are not related to timber have been important to human beings since the hunting and gathering age. The importance of non-wood forest products (NWFPs) for the livelihood systems of people all over the world, in developing as well as industrialized countries, has been clearly pointed out in the literature (Wickens, 1991 SCBD, 2001 Chamberlain et al, 2002 Ticktin, 2004 Kaushal and Melkani, 2005 Emery et al, 2006). Here, the term non-wood forest products (NWFPs) will be used for all the biological material (other than wood products) that can be utilized within the household, be marketed or have social, cultural or religious significance (Wickens, 1994). Typically this includes nuts, fruits, berries, mushrooms, herbs, bark, resin, rubber, etc. This definition does not include forage, which sustains...

Systematics and Society

Systematics plays a key role in benefiting human society, both directly and indirectly, and has been part of the human endeavor for millennia. To understand and appreciate the extent of human impact on either local communities or global ecosystems, it is first critical to know what species inhabit the community or area in question. Systematists also play a major role in conservation biology and in the study of invasive species, identifying those species that are endangered by human activities, as well as those being spread by humans from one part of the globe to another. Another aspect of sys-tematics involves the careful study of relationships of domesticated plant and animal species and their nondomesticated wild relatives. For example, determination of the closest wild relatives of a particular crop may provide new sources of genetic variation for breeding programs and crop improvement. Such research has led to significant improvements in the yield and disease resistance of many of...

Methods for Synthesizing Ectomycorrhizas

Modern methods to culture ectomycorrhizal mushrooms first require the production of mycorrhizal plants under semi-sterile or totally sterile conditions. The colonized plants are then transplanted into areas where the soil andclimatesuit thegrowthofboththeplantandthefungus. Seedlings, cuttings and micropropagated plantlets can be inoculated by spores, infected roots (mother-plant technique), or mycelial pure cultures to produce my-corrhizal plants.

In Vitro Results to Date

Most of the in vitro mycorrhization techniques applied to edible mushrooms have been developed to obtain mycorrhizal plantlets, which are then planted to produce fruiting bodies. Plantlets colonized with Cantharellus have produced fruiting bodies in the greenhouse (Danell and Camacho 1997). In New Zealand, the first Pinus radiata D. Don plantlets colonized with L. deliciosus mycelia in pure culture produced commercially viable fruiting bodies less than 2 years after planting (Wang et al. 2002). Although plants colonized with porcini and T. matsutake have been obtained, these have yet to lead to commercial production (Hall et al. 2003b).

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Armillaria shoestrings climb the barkless trunk of a partially decayed white oak. The gilled fruiting bodies (honey mushrooms) may be found around tree bases in the fall. All year. On dead or dying oaks with loose, shedding bark, look for blackish, fibrous, rootlike strands extending up the tree beneath the bark. These are the shoestrings (rhizomorphs) of shoestring or armillaria root rot (Armillaria mellea), outgrowths of a fungus infecting the tree roots. The gilled fruiting body, appearing in midsummer to late fall, is called the honey mushroom.

Structure and Life Cycle

Fungi are nonphotosynthetic, lacking the chlorophyll of higher plants and algae, and are recognized by their fruiting bodies, which is the visible part of the fungus. Examples include mushrooms, puffballs, molds, cup fungi, and morels. The vegetative structure consists of minute filamentous cells called hyphae, which are microscopic in size, usually from 1 micron to 10 microns in diameter. An aggregate of hyphae is called a mycelium, which is the thallus or vegetative part of the fungus plant known as spawn in the mushroom industry. In the kingdom Fungi, the mycelium has one haploid nucleus per cell (only one set of chromosomes) or is dikaryotic (two haploid nuclei per cell). In contrast, in the kingdom Stramenopila, mycelium has diploid nuclei (one nucleus with chromosomes from both parents). In both kingdoms, the mycelium has rigid cell walls usually composed of chitin (a complex carbon compound), although it is infrequently made up of cellulose in kingdom Fungi. The hyphae grow...

Antagonistic Interactions with Rhizosphere Fungi

Shaw et al. (1995) reported growth suppression of R. roseolus by several saprotrophic basidiomycetes. Furthermore growth of S. granulatus (L. Fr.) Rouss, has been shown to be inhibited by rhizoplane fungi of Pinus halepensis (Girlanda et al. 1995). Baar and Stanton (2000) attributed low investment of N in mycelial biomass for reduced competition of some ECM fungi. Hardly any sporocarps of saprotrophic basidiomycetes found to occur in bamboo forest but species of Ramaria, Clavaria, and Clitocybe have been collected from bamboo forests and can be studied for their competitiveness with chanterelle. In a study, Clitocybe marginella Harmaja inhibited the growth of C. geophilum and L. bicolor (Baar and Stanton 2000). Leake et al. (2001) observed limited effect of mycorrhiza on growth of saprotroph. In our studies, ectomycorrhizal fungi suppressed soil microfungi indicating that Cantharellus mycelia has higher competitiveness than soil microfungi, which may...

Why Are Plants Poisonous

Many toxic compounds are secondary metabolites, which are produced as by-products of a plant's primary physiological processes. In some cases scientists do not yet understand why a particular type of plant or mushroom produces such poisons. Even within a single species, some individuals may have high concentrations of toxic compounds while others have minimal amounts. Over thousands of years, in the process of domesticating plants, we have learned to select and propagate less-toxic strains, and by these means, humans have been able to convert poisonous species into major foods. The common potato (Solanum tuberosum) is a good example its wild relatives in the South American Andes are bitter and toxic due to intense concentrations of harmful alkaloids. Indigenous horticulturalists over many generations developed sweet and edible varieties of potato and learned how to process them to minimize these toxins. The Spanish introduced potatoes to the rest of Europe some time in the late 1500s,...

The Electrochemical Ligand Parameter Metal Affinities and Chemical Ecology

Relationship whatsoever between abundance of some element inside an organism and essentiality, and this renders attempts to link environmental abundances or BCF values to essentiality or even number of functions (Kaim and Schwederski 1993) futile. Even less tenable is the idea (advanced, e.g. by Egami 1974) that assumption of some biological functions - and thus essentiality - might be due to a particular abundance of that element in the environment or there might even be some lower limit of environmental (e.g. ocean water) concentrations to have essentiality. Moreover, living beings are composed of thousands of different chemical components - although they principally share certain identical monomer parts such as 22 proteinogenic amino acids or five nucleotide bases, a couple of sugars and 7 essential trace metals - yet sequestration, transport and biochemical integration of some trace or ultratrace element may well be effected by some selective compounds produced in rather small...

Production and Forest Management

Wild edible mushroom harvest generates millions of dollars each year and consists largely of ectomycorrhizal fungi, such as pine mushrooms (Tricholoma magnivelare), chanterelles (Cantharellus formosus and Cantharellus subalbidus), and boletes (B. edulis) (Danell and Camacho 1997). Pine mushrooms are the most commercially important wild forest mushroom and are exported exclusively to Japan (de Geus 1995), while chanterelles, boletes, and others are primarily exported to parts of North America and Europe (de Geus 1995). Known commercial mycorrhizal mushroom (particularly tubers) sites are located across all the regions of France (de Geus 1995 Freeman 1997 Trowbridge and Macadam 1999 Ehlers and Frederickson 2000 Berch and Wiensczyk 2001 Kranabetter et al. 2002), in forests from 20 to more than 200 years old (Hosford and Ohara 1995 Norvell 1995 Redhead 1997 Pilz et al. 1998). Forest practices, such as logging, site preparation, tree selection, fire, fertilization, pesticide use, brushing...

Simplified Technique of Ectomycorrhizal Synthesis

Purpose (Cairney and Meharg 2002 Whipps 2004 Cairney 2005). For this we need to study the process of mycorrhization in controlled environment under laboratory conditions. Before carrying out small- scale field experiments it is important to select a technique which can suit Cantharellus mycelia for symbiotic association with host plant seedlings. It is essential for development of an effective mycorrhizal symbiosis towards exploitation of this symbiosis. Several devices have been developed for in vitro ECM synthesis for performing physiological, biochemical, and structural experiments using various ectomycorrhizal mushrooms (Danell 1994 Cairney and Chambers 1999 Vaario et al. 1999, 2000 Yamada et al. 2001a Danell 2002 Theodorou and Reddell 2006). But most of the equipments were found bulky and did not allow investigation of large number of experimental units at the same time.

Antihistamine and antiinflammatory activities of barbaloin

Aloe Vera Anatomy Images

It is well known that Kidachi aloe extract shows skin-whitening activity and the active component is barbaloin. Recently, aloesin esters as well as barbaloin, were found as the active inhibitory components against mushroom tyrosinase, which converts tyrosine into melanin. The active components were determined to feruloyl- and -coumaroyl aloesin (Yagi etal, 1987a). The skin-whitening activity of semi-synthetic aloesin derivatives was demonstrated by monitoring on rat melanoma cells (KB cells) and in clinical tests (Jones, 1999).

Abiotic Stress Reaction In Spruce Trees

Agricultural soils contain Hg levels between 0.06 and 0.2 mg kg, and some edible plants such as carrots, potatoes, and mushrooms have been reported to take up mercury compounds. Some accumulation has been observed in mushrooms, aquatic plants, carrots, and potatoes. Ferrara et al. (1989) observed that the aquatic Posidonia oceanica could be a biological indicator for mercury in sediments. Wyttenbach et al. (1989) found that Hg concentrations in spruce needles increased continuously with age.

Mechanisms of Metal Tolerance in ECMF

Most studies on the elemental composition of ECMF were based on sporophores, motivated by the interest in nutritional value and ecotoxicological concerns, since wild edible fungi are an important component of human diets in many parts of the world. Earlier studies on metal contents in macrofungi were reviewed by Kalac and Svoboda (2000). They summarized that BCFs in wild edible mushrooms were found high for Cd (50-300), which is probably the most problematic element in mushrooms, and Hg (30-500) but low for Pb (10 2-10 1). Melgar et al. (2009) confirmed that all fungal species investigated accumulated Hg (BCF 1). Highest values were found in ECM Boletus pinophilus and B. aereus and in saprotrophic Agaricus macrosporus and Lepista nuda (mean BCF between 300 and 450 in the hymeno-phore). Other ECM species had generally lower BCF values than saproptrophs. Bioavailability, nutritional value and toxicity of metals and metalloids in ECMF depend on speciation. Slejkovec et al. (1997) found...

Other Metal Chelating Agents Thiol Peptides

PCs are peptides rich in Cys, with a general (g-Glu-Cys)n-Gly (n 2-11) structure, of low molecular weight, which in fungi does not seem to exceed 2 kDa. Unlike MTs, PCs are not codified in the genome and their presence has been shown mainly in plants, where they have been related to the detoxification of Cd (Cobbett 2000 Mejare and Bulow 2001 Hall 2002). They are synthesized from GSH, through the action of an enzyme (PC synthase), whose activity is regulated by metal ions such as Hg, Ag, Cu, Ni, Au, Pb, Zn, but mainly by Cd, which is the strongest inducer of PC synthase (Gadd 1993 Cobbett 2000 Mejare and Bulow 2001). Until recently, there were no reports of their presence in ECM fungi, and even the synthesis of these peptides has been shown in only a very few fungal species (Bellion et al. 2006). Nevertheless, Collin-Hansen et al. (2007) described for the first time the presence of PCs in the well known edible wild mushroom Boletus edulis. In this fungus, metal exposure induced the...

Irritants and Allergens

Many people also experience individual allergies to plants and mushrooms that are edible to the general population. Allergies to specific food plants, such as peanuts, lentils, or wheat, can be very serious. In some cases, these otherwise edible species are deadly poisonous allergens for those affected. Plant allergies, including hay fever, can develop at any age and may be alleviated by a program of immunization. The American fly agaric (Amanita muscaria), a common poisonous mushroom.

Bioavailability of Trace Elements as Related to Mycorrhizal Fungi

Gast et al. 71 studied the heavy metals in mushrooms and their relationship with soil characteristics and they found large differences between metals with very high accumulation for Cd, exclusion for Pb, and a narrower range of concentrations for Zn and Cu. These workers suggested a regulation of uptake for essential elements and concluded that species differences not soil factors are the primary determinants of metal levels in fungi.

Interactions Plant Fungal

A mycorrhiza is a fungus-root association in which the fungus infects the root without causing harm. In fact, the plant often benefits because the fungal hyphae in the soil obtain mineral nutrients that are some distance from the root. Ectomycorrhizae are commonly found on both hardwood and coniferous trees in the forest or yard. A fungal mantle covers the root, and a network of hyphae can be found between cells in the root cortex. A special benefit of this mycorrhiza is that pathogens cannot penetrate the root. Many different fungi may serve as the fungal symbiont. A mushroom or puffball in the forest may be evidence of an ectomycorrhizal association.

Fungal and Algal Components of Lichens

The fungi that form lichens mainly belong to the sac fungi or Asco-mycetes, although a few are mushroom-forming fungi, the Basidiomycetes. Each recognizable lichen (with a few interesting exceptions) represents a separate species of fungus about fourteen thousand are known. The name

Food Drugs and Poisons

The new age of antibiotics was ushered in with Sir Alexander Fleming's discovery of penicillin in 1929. It was first produced by the blue-green mold Penicillium notatum. Many other antibiotics are produced from Actino-mycetes. On the other hand, aflatoxins produced by species of Aspergillus cause food spoilage and are carcinogenic. Mushrooms also produce toxins that only affect humans when they are eaten. Examples of these are the am-atoxins and phallotoxins produced by a mushroom, Amanita virosa, that are often fatal to humans muscarine and muscimol produced by the fly agaric, Amanita muscaria, are usually not fatal. Hallucinogens such as psilocybin and psilocin are produced by several species of mushrooms including Psilo-cybe cubensis and the protoplasmic poison monomethyhydrozine (MMH) by the false morel Gyromitra esculenta.

Fungi in the Food

As a component of the ecosystem, fungi are available to be consumed by animals as a food resource. Indeed, fungi provide a highly nutritious form of food since it has been shown that they contain high levels of proteins and vitamins (Fogel, 1979 Gronwall and Pehrson, 1984). The production of mushrooms for human consumption in the United States currently runs at approximately 430,000 mg per year. In the natural environment, fungi form the food base for a variety of animals. Mushroom-forming species, along with lichens, are staple food items for reindeer and moose in boreal ecosystems (Cooper and Wookey, 2001 Kumpula, 2001), whereas the hyphae and spores of soil fungi are food for microscopic fungivorous mites, collembola, and nematodes (Shaw, 1992 McGonigle, 1997). The fruit bodies of hypogeous fungi, such as truffles, are food for rodents and wild boar, and adaptations of those fungi that fruit below ground are often such that spore dispersal is only possible though an animal vector...

Ectomycorrhiza supply trees with nutrients

Many trees in temperate and cool climates form a symbiosis with fungi termed ectomycorrhiza. In this the hyphae of the fungi do not penetrate the cortex cells, but colonize only the surface and the intercellular space of the cortex with a network of hyphae, termed Hartig net, which is connected to a very extensive mycel in the soil. Microsymbionts are Asco- and Basiodiomycetae from more than 60 genera, including several mushrooms. The plant roots colonized by the fungi become thicker and do not form root hairs. The uptake of nutrients and water is delegated to the microsymbi-ont, which in turn is served by the plant with carbon metabolites to maintain its metabolism. The exchange of compounds occurs, as in arbuscular mycorrhiza, via closely neighbored fungal and plant plasma membranes. The ectomycorrhiza also enables a transfer of assimilates between adjacent plants. Ectomycorrhiza are of great importance for the growth of trees, such as beech, oak, and pine, as it increases the...

Ectomycorrhizal Interaction

In most instances, a fungus is considered ECM forming based on field observation. Consistent association of basidiomata with one or more tree species forms the basis of ECM forming fungi as an indirect method of ECM assessment. However, not all ectomycorrhizal fungi found associated with adult trees in field form mycorrhizae with young seedlings (Last et al. 1992). Pure culture synthesis technique has been modified by several workers for different mushroom species. Few edible ectomy-corrhizal mushrooms have been successfully cultivated under controlled conditions. Numerous studies on ECM formation between host plant seedlings and mushroom mycelia has been conducted and widely reviewed (Nezzar-Hocine et al. 1998 Vaario et al. 1999, 2000 Yamada et al. 1999, 2001b Dahlstrom et al. 2000 Guerin-Laguette et al. 2000a, b). On the other hand, Lyophillum shimeji (Kawam) Hongo., C. cibarius Fr., and Tuber melanosporum Vitt. sporocarps have been produced under laboratory, green house, and field...

Mycorrhizal Synthesis In Vitro

Numerous in vitro mycorrhizal synthesis methods have been developed and are described in detail by Peterson and Chakravarty (1991), a few of these having been used for edible ectomycorrhizal mushrooms. A system similar to Molina's (1979) test tube technique has been developed for the ectomycorrhizal synthesis of T. borchii with Tilia platyphyllos Scop. (Sisti et al. 1998), Populus and Cistus (Zambonelli et al. 2002), and Quer-cus (Giomaro et al. 2002 Fig. 1). The method involves raising plantlets in a medium with a low concentration of auxin (0.2 mg l of NAA) to allow the differentiation of roots with multiple secondary roots of limited growth. The mycelium of T. b or chii is propagated in a Petri plate on PDA and, after about 30 days, mycelial plugs are taken from the edge of the actively growing fungal colony and cultivated in MMN liquid medium. The mycorrhizal synthesis is performed in vermiculite moistened with MS 2 liquid medium at pH 6.3. The volume of MS 2 medium is critical -...

Ecological Studies 1831 General Ecology

C. tropicalis has been reported from older natural forests and plantations but has not been reported from nurseries. However, during past several years their has been overharvesting of Cantharellus from the bamboo forests of Madhya Pradesh (Sharma unpublished). The observations are based on the sites visited by the author during 2004-2008. This may lead to decrease in productivity of Cantharellus in the region. The need for restricted harvesting and technique for harvesting has been emphasized as the tribals and villagers lack the knowledge of sustainable harvesting. It disturbs the below ground mycelia of mushroom and affects successive sporocarp formation. Danell (1999) has highlighted that whatever estimates we make is based on the above ground basidiomata and decrease in below ground mycelia and ECM should also be emphasized.

Growth Response of Host Seedlings

Ectomycorrhizal mushrooms help in survival and growth of host seedlings. This association increases plant ability for nutrient and water uptake (Whipps 2001). It has been successfully demonstrated through various experiments that Pisolithus and Rhizopogon increased growth of host seedlings (Cairney and Chambers 1999). Apart from these, several other ectomycorrhizal mushrooms viz., Tuber, Lactarius, Laccaria, Scleroderma, Canharellus, Paxillus., Hebeloma, and Tricholoma have been reported experimentally to enhance growth of host seedlings. During our studies in green house condition it was observed that although C. tropicalis formed ECM with Dendrocalamus strictus, D. asper and Bambusa nutans seedlings they were not stable, whereas fungus failed to form ECM with B. vulgaris. Further, Sharma et al. (2008b) reported that uninoculated seedlings conditioned to cyclic drought were smaller than mycelia inoculated seedlings. Natarajan et al. (1995) while studying ECM with Acacia nilotica...

Cultivation of Other Species

While some plants can live in the absence of the fungal partner, at least under amended (fertilized) environments, mycorrhizal fungi cannot live in the absence of the host (Harley and Smith 1983). In poor, dry tropical soils, however, mycorrhizal associations are vital for plant growth and survival (Munyanziza 1994). The normal reproductive cycle of mushroom-producing mycorrhizal fungi involves the following stages (1) spore germination, (2) mycelium growth, (3) infection of the specific host, and (4) fruiting-body (mushroom) production and sporulation. Without the right host, the fungus does not reach stages 3 and 4. Plants infected following inoculation with spore suspensions (Hall and Wang 1998 Hall et al. 2002) or pure cultures prepared either from fruiting bodies (Sisti et al 1998) or mycorrhizal root tips (Kagan-Zur 2002) have led to the formation of edible mycorrhizal mushroom fruiting bodies in the field, including L. deliciosus (Poitou et al. 1989 Wang et al. 2002a, b),...


Sporocarps and spores of various fungi were used as inoculum to form specific ectomycorrhizae on various forest tree species. Sporocarps are essentially spore inoculum, since their vegetative matrix is killed by dessication during drying or by decomposition when added to soil (Marx and Kenney 1982). Gastromycete, such as genera Rhizopogon, Scleroderma, and Pisolithus, produces numerous basidiospores that are easier to collect in large quantities than those of mushroom-produced ECM fungi. Advantages of using spores for inoculation are that spores require no extended growth phase under aseptic conditions like vegetative inoculum, spore inoculum is very light, and spores are able to survive storage from one season to the next. Major disadvantages are the lack of standard laboratory tests to determine spore viability, insufficiency of sporocarps of many fungi in any year, delay in ectomycorrhiza formation as compared with vegetative inoculum, and lack of genetic definition.


Decomposers are the choppers, shredders, plowers, and dissolvers of the biological world. They break down tree leaves, dead flowers, grass blades, old logs in forests, and plant roots into small parts, and, finally, into carbon dioxide, water, and numerous basic chemical compounds in soils, water bodies, and sediments. Organisms involved in decomposition vary from earthworms that drag leaves into their burrows, chew up parts of the leaves, and pass them through their guts to microscopic bacteria that make the final breakdown of fragments into basic chemicals. Some decomposers are specialized and act most effectively on only, for example, oak leaves or maple seeds. Others decompose parts of many plant or animal remains that fall on the soil or into a stream or lake. Most decomposers are often not visible, but in some lawn areas, especially under deciduous trees, we can see little volcano-like earthworm mounds. Mushrooms in our gardens and forests are the visible parts of fungi that are...

Sporal Inoculum

Spores are the preferred inoculum for the colonization of forest tree transplants with Pisolithus tinctorius, Rhizopogon luteolus and Rhizopogon vini-color (Garbaye 1991). This method has also been the mainstay for producing Tuber spp. colonized plants for the past 30 years in Italy, France and New Zealand (Fontana 1967 Chevalier et al. 1973 Mannozzi Torini 1976 Bencivenga 1982 Tibiletti and Zambonelli 1999 Chevalier 2001 Hall et al. 2003b). However, those details of this method ensuring success, such as the amount and treatment of sporal inoculum, potting mix and greenhouse conditions remain trade secrets (Hall et al. 2003b). This inoculation method can be applied to most of the prized Tuber species, such as T. melanosporum, T. aestivum and T. borchii, but not to T. magnatum because of difficulties with the germination of its spores (Gregori 2002). Although sporal inocula have also been used for T. matsutake and some other edible ectomycorrhizal mushrooms, they have not proved...


The fungus cell must grow into the host plant or a bit of organic material in order to gain nutrition from it. This is achieved by discharging enzymes (called exoenzymes) from the cells. Complex carbohydrates and proteins are broken down by this process and then are absorbed by the hy-phae. The nutrients can then be translocated from one cell to another. The growth of most fungi is indeterminate (that is, it never stops) because the fungus must continue to grow into new areas to seek new sources of food. The typical fairy ring represents a visible bright green grass ring where the active mycelium is, and it is along this ring that the mushrooms will fruit. Each year the diameter of the ring will increase while the mycelium dies out in the middle because the food base is exhausted.

Growth in Culture

Cantharellus is relatively easy to isolate as compared to other mushrooms viz., C. cibarius wherein Pseudomonas lives in association (Danell 1994). To isolate, fruit body of a freshly collected mushroom is taken up for isolation. It is free from any insect or disease infestation. Usually young basidiomata is used for the same. Stipe of a clean basidiomata is broken vertically and a small tissue piece is aseptically transferred into Petri dish containing Melin-Norkrans Agar Medium (MNM) with the help of a sterile forcep (Sharma et al. 2009b). Wide mouth vials of 50ml capacity filled with moistened used tea-leaves (pre-sterilized) were also used. It prevents bacterial contamination as mushroom mycelia colonizes the cellulose, lignin rich substrate faster (Sharma 2008). We also observed that acidic pH is more suitable to C. tropicalis. When grown in liquid media C. tropicalis tends to bring final pH to acidic (Sharma unpublished). It grew faster when the medium (agar and liquid media)...


Cordyceps sinensis has perhaps one of the oddest places of origin of any natural medicine. Sometimes referred to as caterpillar fungus,'' cordyceps was originally found on the surface of a caterpillar, Hepialus armoricanus. Considered to be rare, the fungus was found at high elevations in the mountains of Asia and its use was limited to ancient royalty. Traditional uses included enhancing endurance and stamina boosting energy and fighting fatigue promoting sexual vitality supporting the lungs, heart, kidney, and immune system nourishing the vital essence and promoting longevity. Cordyceps research has increased markedly, together with research on other popular medicinal mushrooms. Modern investigations on the benefits of cordyceps have supported its ancient use as a tonifying agent. One of the most frequent therapeutic uses of medicinal mushrooms is for immune enhancement. While not the leading mushroom for this purpose, cordyceps nonetheless has some value. Several studies...


A truffle is a subterranean fungal fruiting body that develops underground and relies on mycophagy for spore dispersal (FEMAT 1993). There are 70 known varieties of truffles, 32 of which are found in Europe, but the fruiting bodies of some are highly prized as a food. They have a pungent, intense, earthy fragrance and lend a unique flavor to food, sometimes referred to as Black gold or black diamonds because of their scarcity and worth. Edible truffles are held in high esteem in international haute cuisine. They prefer argillaceous or calcareous soils, which are well drained and neutral or alkaline (Martin et al. 2010). Truffles fruit throughout the year, depending on the species, and can be found buried between the leaf litter and the soil. One of the best-known is the French truffles or the Perigord black truffle (T. melanosporum). This mushroom is found in the forests of southern France, northern Italy, and northeastern Spain on the roots of, for example, oaks and hazels. It is...


Fr.) S.F. Gray accounts in a large measure for monsoon mushroom flora in forests. It is cosmopolitan and largely ectomycorrhizal genus with a wide range of Gymnosperms and Angiosperms (Richardson 1970 Agerer 2002). A number of Russula species form ectomycorrhizas with different tree species (Arora 1986). Russula brevipes and its morphotypes ectomycorrhiza have been described and illustrated (Niazi et al. 2006) from moist temperate forests of Pakistan, associated with Pinus wallichiana. Russula species is widely distributed and mainly associated with species of Abies, Picea, Tsuga, and Pseu-dosuga (Stanis 1979 Pillukat and Agerer 1992 Kraigher et al. 1995 Kernaghan et al. 1997). It is more commonly found in Himalayan forests under conifers in late fall and can easily be identified by its large fruit size. Yamada, since 1997, has studied the cultivation of edible EMF. Among many species, Russula nigiricans and Russula mariae were successfully induced to...


1987), China (Tylukti 1987), Nepal (Giri and Rana 2007), and India (Adhikary et al. 1999). The mushroom's habitat consists of areas dominated by Pinus spp.(Vozzo and Hackskaylo 1961 Froidevaux and Amiet 1975), spruce (Picea spp.) (Ceruti et al. Quan and Lei 2000 Agueda et al. 2006, 2008 Fu et al. 2009). The mushroom has been noted to commonly cooccur with Amanita muscaria or Amanita rubescens, although it is unclear whether this is due to a biological association between the species or because of similarities in growing season, habitat, and ecological requirements (Hall et al. 1998b Hall et al. 2003 Peinter et al. 2007). B. edulis fruit bodies contain ergosterol and ergosterol peroxide (Mattila et al. 2002 Ey et al. 2007 Ribeiroa et al. 2008), with a wide spectrum antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activity, and cytotoxicity to various tumor cell lines grown in laboratory culture (Lucas et al. 1957 Krzyczkowskia et al. 2008). However, some investigations in the United States do not...


In spite of their importance, discussions of ectomycorrhizal mushroom conservation are not widespread. Many factors may be influencing the more prominent decline in these mushrooms compared to saprophytic and lignicolous fungi (Leake et al. 2002). Mycorrhiza formation and especially fruit body formation is sensitive to soil disturbance. The amount of organic matter available in forest stands influences the types of mycorrhizae present on tree roots (Harvey et al. 1976). Similarly, chemical weeding, which is often done in forests or agroforestry (Amakiri 1977), may have consequences on mycorrhiza fungi and hence on mushroom production (Iloba 1980). A broader appreciation for the conservation of ectomycorrhizal mushrooms is needed as these fungi are crucial to many ecosystem functions and have great ecological and economic value. For the in vitro culture, usually isolation of the mycelia is difficult. Mycelial growth on synthetic medium is poor, and fruit bodies do not form easily in...

Aminolevulinic Acid

Foliar Spraying Bad Effects

Been many reports on the microbial production of phytohormones. Photosynthetic bacteria (PB) which are widely distributed in nature especially in submerged conditions such as paddy fields, riverbeds, seashores, and sewage disposable plants (Kobayashi and Kobayashi 2000) are also able to synthesize tetraphyrroles. Some PB species such as Rhodopseudomonas palustris and Rhodobacter sphaerides can produce relatively large amounts of physiologically active substances such as vitamin B12, ubiquinone, and ALA (Sasaki et al. 2002), and they can be considered to be one of natural fertilizers (Kantha et al. 2010). For example, Koh and Song (2007) reported that two PB strains of Rhodopseudomonas sp. produced as much as 8.75 mg L-1 ALA within 48 h of inoculation which caused efficient growth enhancement of tomato seedlings under axenic conditions. The germination percentage of PB-inoculated tomato seeds, total length, and dry mass of germinated tomato seedlings increased by 30.2, 71.1, and 270.8...

New Scourge

By the following spring, Merkel knew he had a serious problem on his hands. Nearly every chestnut tree in the park was infected, from stately elders to twiggy young sprouts. Merkel sent off samples of diseased bark and a plea for help to the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) in Washington, D.C. The agency had no experts in forest diseases on staff it would be another two years before it established a formal lab to deal with such problems. So the sample was given to Flora Patterson, an expert on mushrooms and fungi. She was blas . There was nothing mysterious here, she declared the culprit was a common canker-causing fungus called Cytospora. True, Cytospora had never been known to harm chestnut trees, but she saw no cause for concern. Cut off the affected branches and burn them, she advised. Then spray the trees with Bordeaux mixture, a powerful concoction of lime, salt, and copper sulfate that the French had used to successfully combat a fungal disease afflicting their grapevines....

Aromatic Rice Mail

Nagsuk, A., Winichphol, N. and Rungsarthong, V. (2003). Identification of 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, the principal aromatic rice flavor compound, in fungus cultures. In Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Medicinal Mushrooms & International Conference on Biodiversity and Bioactive Compounds, pp. 395-400. Pattaya Exhibition Center, Cholburi, Thailand.


Maitake (Grifola frondosa) is found mainly in temperate mountainous regions of Japan, North America, and Europe. The fruiting body of this mushroom is one of the largest of any mushroom, approaching the size of a basketball. Maitake fruiting bodies grow with a distinctive overlapping pattern, which has been described as looking like dancing butterflies. Maitake is prized for its culinary benefits its medicinal effects have only recently been emphasized although some of them have been known for many years. The mushroom was used medicinally as a general tonic to promote wellness and vitality, and is now considered to be an adaptogenic medicine. Historically, maitake was also used for lowering high blood pressure and treating cancer these uses are two foci of current research. This mushroom has been a staple in Asian diets for thousands of years. Once difficult to cultivate, maitake is now grown relatively easily in Japan, increasing the mushroom's availability as a medicine. Maitake can...


Reishi (Ganoderma lucidum) mushrooms are sometimes referred to as Ling Chih or Ling Zhi. The medicinal use of this mushroom is detailed in the Chinese pharmacopoeia of the first century BC.30 Reishi was highly valued even at this time and had the most medical applications of all medicines in the pharmacopoeia. The very slow growth of reishi, along with its scarcity in the wild, made the mushroom highly prized. Recently, however, it has been cultivated successfully and is now widely available. Reishi's native habitats include decaying logs and plant matter near coastal areas. The mushroom comes in several different colors, with the red one most frequently used in Asia and North America. Traditional Chinese medicine uses of reishi included treating fatigue, weakness, insomnia, asthma, and coughs.31 Despite a long history of medical use, research on reishi's many health benefits was not able to be conducted until the mushroom became more available recently. Some of its health benefits...


Yet another traditional medicine in the Chinese medical armamentarium, coriolus (Coriolus versicolor) was harvested and ground to make a powder and tea. Traditional medical applications included improving vitality and strength, enhancing respiratory function, promoting calmness and well-being, restoring energy following intense physical exertion, strengthening tendons and bones, enhancing liver health, and fostering longevity. Coriolus became very popular during the Ming Dynasty, when the mushroom was widely prescribed to enhance vigor and longevity. As an antioxidant, coriolus has shown great potential. In one study, the fungus demonstrated an approximately 59 inhibitory effect on the oxidative process. The mushroom's free-radical scavenging ability was near 25 when challenged in a laboratory setting.39 Free-radical scavenging ability can be applied to immune function. NK cells can be damaged easily by reactive oxygen species. Polysaccharide krestin (PSK), which is derived from...

Blackening of Pepper

Browning of raw fruits,vegetables and beverages is a major problem in food industry and is believed to be one of the main cause of quality loss during post harvest handling and processing. The pathway of browning in food is well characterised and can be enzymatic or non enzymatic in origin. The formation of pigments via enzymatic browning is initiated by the enzyme polyphenol oxidase (PPO) also known as tyrosinase, phenol oxidase or cresolase. Endogenous PPO activity is present in foods like potato, apples, mushrooms, banana, peaches, fruit juices and wines.

Poisonous Plants

A plant or mushroom is considered poisonous or toxic if the whole organism, or any part of it, contains potentially harmful substances in high enough concentrations to cause illness or irritation if touched or swallowed. From the waxen-leaved dieffenbachia in your living room to the delicate foxglove blooming in your garden to the shoots sprouting from a forgotten potato in your refrigerator, poisonous plants are a common part of our lives. Since it is neither desirable nor practical to eliminate poisonous plants from our surroundings, we need instead to educate ourselves about their potential dangers. At the same time we need to understand that, like all plants, poisonous species have important ecological roles and many of them are also useful to us as medicines or for other purposes. Some plants and mushrooms are extremely toxic and can quickly cause coma or death if consumed. Others, though slower acting, can also cause severe reactions. In the event of suspected poisoning by a...

Types of Pathogens

Like all eukaryotic organisms, fungal cells have nuclei, a well-defined endoplasmic reticulum with ribosomes, and cell organelles such as mitochondria. The fungal body consists of filamentous strands called hyphae that collectively make up a mycelium. Sometimes the hyphae become compressed, forming a tissue such as that found in a mushroom fruiting body. The Basidiomycetes are extremely common in nature, but only the rusts and smuts are notable plant pathogens. While most basidiomycetes produce basidiospores in a fruiting body such as a mushroom, in rusts and smuts the basidiospores are produced from a specialized, overwintering spore called a teliospore. The rust fungi are especially common and usually have a complex sexual cycle with four spore stages and two different hosts required for completion of the sexual cycle. Rusts also produce an asexual spore called a ure-dospore that is responsible for spread of disease during the growing season.


C. cibarius, commonly known as the golden chanterelle, is probably the best known species of the genus Cantharellus. It is orange or yellow, meaty and funnel-shaped with smooth cap, and gill-like ridges that run almost all the way down its stipe, which tapers down seamlessly from the cap. It has a fruity smell, reminiscent of apricots, and a mildly peppery taste and is considered an excellent food mushroom. Chanterelles are common in northern parts of Europe and North America, Asia, and in Africa (Boa 2004). Chanterelles are associated with conifers and oaks (Arora 1979 Metzler 1992). In Scotland, chanterelles grow in mixed forest (silver birch and scots pine), especially when the forest has plenty of moist, mossy undergrowth. Chanterelles are versatile and can be added as an ingredient to most dishes. They can also be pickled in brine and can last from 6 to 12 months. In most places, they are dry stored. Fresh chanterelles can generally be stored up to 10 days in a refrigerator. Nils...


Here, a special case of in vitro effect of some fungicides and herbicides on various species of Lactarius and strains of Lactarius deliciosus is shown. The basidiomy-cete L. deliciosus is an ectomycorrhizal fungus principally on Pinus spp. roots in the Mediterranean forests (Sanchez et al. 1994). This species is socioeconomically important in Spain and others countries of the world, because it is a popular edible wild mushroom that gives a new value to our forest ecosystems (Singer 1986). L. deliciosus has been used in mycorrhization of pine seedlings in nursery (Guerin-Laguette et al. 2000).

Fungal Diseases

The shelves of every supermarket have the meadow mushroom (Agari-cus bisporus) and specialty mushrooms like Shiitake (Lentinus edodes), oyster shell (Pleurotus ostreatus), and the Portabello (Agaricus sp.) for sale. In fact, the leading agricultural crop in Pennsylvania is mushrooms. see also Chestnut Blight Dutch Elm Disease Interactions, Plant-Fungal Lichen Mycorrhizae Pathogens Plant Systematics Potato Blight Taxonomy Taxonomy, History of.

Challenges Ahead

One possible reason behind the failure in cultivating ectomycorrhizal mushrooms is simply the assumption that they are mycorrhizal when their relationship with their hosts is more complicated. Out of about 2,500 recorded species of edible mushrooms, the most expensive and sought after mushrooms belong to the mycorrhizal group and include T. melanosporum, T. magnatum, T. matsutake, B. edulis, C. cibarius, Russula emetica, and A. caesarea. Over the past century, harvests of many mycorrhizal mushrooms have declined dramatically, which has prompted interest in the development of methods for their cultivation. So far, only a few species of truffles have been produced in commercial quantities, although methods have been developed that may see the cultivation of species such as C. cibarius, L. shimeji, and L. deliciosus. Despite this, many of the most expensive mycorrhizal mushrooms, including T. magnatum Pico & Vitt. and T. matsutake, have defied cultivation (Yun and Hall 2004). The links...

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