Build Your Own Greenhouse

The Bitcoin Greenhouse

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The Bitcoin Greenhouse Summary

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The Bitcoin Greenhouse Review

Highly Recommended

I usually find books written on this category hard to understand and full of jargon. But the author was capable of presenting advanced techniques in an extremely easy to understand language.

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Laboratory and greenhouse

We have focused on in situ studies in this review, but some results of studies performed in laboratories and greenhouses are listed briefly below as well. Short-term UV-enhancement studies have lasted from six days to three months. The aquatic moss Fontinalis antipyretica showed a decrease in photosynthetic pigments, photosynthesis, and growth, and an increase in dark respiration rate and schlerophylly, with shade samples being more sensitive (Martinez-Abaigar et al. 2003 Numez-Olivera et al. 2004,2005). In Hylocomium splendens, phenological development was accelerated and growth increased (Johanson et al. 1995). Leucobryum glaucum, Mnium hornum, Plagiomnium undulatum, and Plagiothecium undulatum showed decreases in fluorescence (Takacs et al. 1999 Csintalan et al. 2001). In Polytrichum commune, a 15 ozone depletion decreased photosynthetic pigments and UV-absorbing compounds, and increased sucrose and glucose synthesis, but a 25 ozone depletion induced an increase in photosynthetic...

Carbon Dioxide Enrichment In Greenhouses

We are not going to consider greenhouses, because our main concern is the increasing CO2 in the open air, which is occurring due to man's activities. However, in this section we briefly cover elevated CO2 in greenhouses, where CO2 enrichment has long been used to promote growth (Northen and Northen 1973, p. 40). Enriching the greenhouse air with additional CO2 improves the growth of flowers, increases their quality and numbers, and often hastens plants into bloom. The amount that gives best result is about 1200 ppm. Many commercial growers in the United States use CO2 enrichment for such flowers as carnations (Dianthus caryophyllus L.), geraniums (Geranium sp.), roses (Rosa sp.), chrysanthemums (Chrysanthemum sp.), snapdragons (Antirrhinum majus L.), Easter lilies (Lilium longiflorum Thunb.), calla improperly called calla lily (Laurie and Ries 1950, p. 432) (Zantedeschia sp.), gloxinias (Sinningia speciosa Benth. & Hook.), African violets (Saintpaulia ionantha Wendl.), hyacinths...

Upscaling regional emissions of greenhouse gases from rice cultivation methods and sources of uncertainty

One of the important sources of greenhouse gases is the emission of methane from rice fields. Methane emission from rice fields is the result of a complex array of soil processes involving plant-microbe interactions. The cumulative effects of these processes at the level of individual plants influence the global atmospheric composition and make it necessary to expand our research focus from small plots to large landscapes and regions. However, present extrapolations ('upscaling') are tenuous at best because of methodological and practical problems. The different steps taken to calculate regional emission strengths are discussed and illustrated by calculations for a case-study in the Philippines. The applicability of high quality, process-based, models of methane emission at the level of individual plants is limited for regional analysis by their large data requirements. Simplified models can be used at the regional level but are not able to capture the complex emission situation. Data...

Colour differences between fruits grown in greenhouse and open air

Table 15.1 shows the mean extractable value (ASTA units) and tint of paprika obtained from six pepper varieties grown in greenhouse and open air (G mez et al., 1998a). Note that the greenhouse varieties show higher ASTA units and higher tint values in all cases. Table 15.2 gives the values corresponding to the CIELAB colour space co-ordinates (L*, a*, b*), chromatic quotients and chroma for the colour by reflection of the fruits for both growing systems. In the red fruits the greenhouse values for brightness (L*), red (a*) and yellow (b*) components and chroma (C*) are lower, due to the fact that the plant receives less sunlight (G mez et al., 1998a). These lower values reflect darker and duller fruit colours, as expected when taking the physical significance of these parameters into account. Figure 15.1 shows the representative points of the red greenhouse and open air fruit varieties in the colour space CIELAB, making evident the colouring difference. It is observed that the open...

Transpiration Under Greenhouse Conditions

Data Flow Diagrams Immigration

An increase in stomatal conductance causes an increase in transpiration. This is illustrated in Figure 10.1, where there is a positive sign between leaf conductance and transpiration. However, conductance and transpiration are decoupled to some extent, particularly in greenhouses, where insufficient cooling of the leaves through transpiration causes heat damage that occurs at high radiation (Nederhoff et al. 1992). This is explained in Figure 10.1, which depicts a course of events following an increase in CO2 in a greenhouse (Nederhoff 1994, p. 61). High CO2 causes partial stomatal closure (reduced leaf conductance note the negative sign between CO2 and leaf conductance in Figure 10.1). This initially reduces transpiration of leaves, which slightly increases leaf temperature. There is a negative sign between transpiration and leaf temperature in Figure 10.1 because the greater the transpiration rate, the cooler is the leaf temperature. Reduction of transpiration also decreases...

Greenhouse

Forced Ventilation Greenhouses

Increase in yearly productivity per floor area of the closed system is about 10 times that of a standard greenhouse for many kinds of transplants, as explained below and Table 14. 1) The ratio of planting area to floor area is usually 0.8 in the greenhouse, while it is 2.0 to 3.0 in the closed system with use of the multi-shelves (4 or 5 shelves). Thus, planting area per floor area of the closed system is about 2-3 times that of the greenhouse. On the other hand, use of multi-shelves is not practical in the greenhouse using solar light because of obstruction of solar light by the multi-layered shelves. Greenhouse Figure 14. Crisp head lettuce (cv. Cisco) transplants grown for 16 days after sowing in the closed system using 200- and 288-cell trays show wider leaves and shorter hypocotyls than those grown for 16 days after sowing in the greenhouse. Greenhouse Sown on Oct. 18 Figure 15. Cabbage (cv. Kinkei 201) transplants grown for 14 days after sowing under a photoperiod of 16 h d1 are...

Cases of B Phytotoxicity

In addition, in a glasshouse experiment with French beans and Rhodes grass, Aitken and Bell 10 used an Australian fly ash (untreated, leached, or adjusted to pH 6.5 and subsequently leached) as an amendment (0 to 70 w w) for a sandy loam soil. They found that, for both species, heavy applications of untreated fly ash ( 30 for beans and 70 for Rhodes grass) resulted in poor plant growth, primarily due to B toxicity. The risk of B phytotoxicity was reduced by leaching the fly ash and even more by pH adjustment and subsequent leaching, prior to soil addition. Boron concentrations in plant tissues of both species were above 100 mg kg-1 for almost all untreated ash treatments and below 100 mg kg-1 for almost all pH adjusted and leached ash treatments.

Physiological Characteristics

Measurement of photosynthesis of glasshouse-grown A. mangium seedlings showed that maximum phoiosynthetic rate was within the range 7-10 nigCCty dm-h at a temperature about 25'C and at a photon flux near 6(X) pinoles-' (Atipanumpai 1989). This phoiosynthetic rate seems low in relation to the fast growth of the spccics. The most productive provenances have not exhibited high photosynthelic rates, indicating that there may be no relationship between phoiosynthetic rate and biomass production in A mangium.

Materials and Methods

The long cell mutant of maize (Zea mays L.) was produced by Dr S. Dellaporta, as previously described (Dellaporta and Moreno, 1994). All the plant lines were maintained in the greenhouse of the Departamento de Gen tica Molecular (IBMB-CSIC, Barcelona). Allelism tests were done according to Sheridan and Clark (1987). All the mutants used in this study except the lc line were obtained from the Maize Genetics Cooperative Stock Center.

Taxonomic revision of Echinacea

We sampled wild populations of each of McGregor's (1968) Echinacea taxa and performed a numerical and cladistic analysis of variation using morphological (and some chemical) characteristics (Binns et al., 2002a). Natural populations were tentatively identified in the field according to McGregor's taxonomy (1968). Voucher specimens were deposited at the Department of Agriculture Ontario Herbarium (Ottawa, Canada) and experimental plants and seed were grown in a greenhouse (Binns et al., 2002a, 2002b, 2002c). Measurements for 81 morphometric traits (binary, quantitative, semiquantitative, and qualitative) were entered in a matrix to determine the degree of relationship and clustering between specimens, without any a priori weighting according to previous taxonomic identification. The data for seven traits were omitted due to missing values, resulting in a data matrix of 321 individuals by 74 characters (traits). An index of overall similarity was calculated for each pair of individuals...

Ozone recovery some outstanding questions

Thus, if chlorine and bromine concentrations fall, and all else remains the same, the ozone layer is expected to recover, albeit slowly. However, all else may not remain the same. For example, a downward trend in the temperatures in the lower stratosphere has been reported (see, for example, Oort & Liu, 1993 SORG, 1996). This could lead to more widespread conditions for the formation of polar stratospheric clouds and, hence, to the conditions for chemical destruction of ozone. The conditions inside the Arctic vortex during the last two winters are particularly intriguing in this context. Both 1994 95 and 1995 96 saw the establishment of record low temperatures in the lower polar stratosphere. We do not know whether these records were the result of purely natural variability or whether they represent some kind of trend (for example, caused by increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases or reduced concentrations of ozone). The next few winters will provide the answer. What is quite...

Mixed cultivar and companion crop interactions

One management approach that has had some success in reducing the negative effects of Fe deficiency chlorosis is companion cropping of susceptible and tolerant species (Rombola et al., 2004 Zuo et al., 2000, 2003, 2004). Explanations of how companion cropping may make Fe more available to susceptible species can be inferred from several studies done in controlled conditions, but their significance is less understood in soil culture (Bar-Ness et al., 1991 Crowley, 2001 Hopkins et al., 1992a, 1992b Tagliavini et al., 2000 Tagliavini and Rombola, 2001). These studies illustrate that improvement in Fe uptake could result from a number of interacting factors such as improved root growth for more extensive root soil interface and concomitant increased reductase activity, H+ release, phyto-siderophore release, and or increase in microbial populations or change in composition to favor Fe solubility. For example, in a greenhouse experiment conducted on calcareous soil (Zuo, 2003), serious...

Us Echinacea germplasm collection

Given the above observations, a few comments should be made on Echinacea systematics. A revision of the McGregor taxonomy (Binns et al., 2002) notwithstanding, I have found McGregor's 1968 classification to clearly distinguish Echinacea species in the greenhouse, phytotron, and field with the exception of the aforementioned natural hybrids. McGregor, who spent 15 years collecting data directly from wild stands of Echinacea, many of which have disappeared (McGregor, 1997), worked in the days prior to the development of phenetics and cladistics and prior to the extensive digging that now characterizes the fragmented and attenuated American prairie. His vast and valuable observations are literally unrepeatable due to wild population loss and decline over the last 35 years. It is unfortunate that taxonomic misunderstanding has arisen (Binns et al., 2002), but this is not attributable to McGregor. Given the power of molecular systematics, the true issue here is whether a morphometric study...

Robert Tcolton And Gjohn Murtagh

High relative humidity appears to be important in achieving high oil yields, but the effect has not been fully quantified. In a glasshouse study, Murtagh and Lowe (1997) found that oil concentration was significantly greater when relative humidity was high (81 min) than when it was low (40 ). Oil concentration in the leaf is known to fluctuate seasonally as well as from day to day (Murtagh and Etherington 1990). The reasons for this are complex and are not fully understood but relative humidity levels seem to be a factor in the generally lower levels of oil in the leaf during the dry winter-spring period. (Drinnan 1997b).

Methods of Study of Plant Responses

There are two general approaches to the study of plant responses. One approach is the carefully designed greenhouse, field or pot experiments, where the observation of plant responses to soil factors are made. The alternative approach is the study of soils and plants in their natural environment. There are a number of drawbacks to the greenhouse experiments, for instance, reduction of time-scale in experiments creates uncertainty as to field relevance although reliable qualitative indications may be obtained (Folkeson et al., 1990). The responses of plants under artificial environmental conditions are usually not representative of the natural conditions (Irgolic and Martell, 1985).

The Industrial Revolution

The effects on the biosphere have been pervasive. Fuel-powered machines have allowed humans to cultivate more land, consume more resources, and sustain larger populations than was conceivable before the beginnings of this most important revolution. In addition to these effects, the use of fuel has had far-reaching consequences by itself. Wood-fired boilers soon gave way to coal, but not before deforestation of thousands of acres of virgin forests in the rapidly industrializing regions of Europe. Coal mining is a dirty business, and leaves in its wake scars on the landscape that can take generations to heal. More significantly, coal and its replacement, oil, are fossil fuels, the geologic remains of ancient plants that contain carbon removed from the carbon cycle millions of years ago. Burning fossil fuels releases carbon dioxide into the atmosphere, and records show the atmospheric level of CO2 has risen steadily since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution. Carbon dioxide is a...

Green Manures And Organic Amendments

Potential when applied as seed treatments (Akhtar and Mahmood, 1995 1997) and bare-root treatments (Akhtar and Mahmood, 1993 1994) leading some to conclude that compounds found in neem may act as inducers of resistance to some nematodes including M. incognita and Rotylenchulus reniformis (Siddiqui and Alam 1988). Other nematode-suppressive mechanisms of compounds derived from neem include antifeedent, repellent, deterrent, growth disruption, juvenile toxicant, and ovicidal properties (Akhtar, 1998). Testing of neem-based products and development of application techniques for plant-parasitic nematode control is increasing in western countries. There are currently several neem-based pesticides available in the United States for use on certain greenhouse and ornamental crops, with many more available for use in india as insecticides (Akhtar, 2000). A comprehensive review of the nematode suppressive potential of neem products is provided by Akhtar (2000).

Cultivation Systems to Achieve Optimal Growth Monitoring Situations

To enable a controlled variation of environmental parameters, growth monitoring systems have to be put in growth chambers or in controlled conditions of greenhouse facilities such as the Biosphere 2 Center (Walter and Lambrecht 2004) where the setup is protected from advert conditions like wind, rain or dew and where for example the effect of altered atmospheric CO2-conditions can be studied in detail. For root growth, image acquisitions have been performed either in agarose-filled Petri dishes (Beemster and Baskin 1998 Nagel et al. 2006) or in hydroponic cultivation systems using an inclined base plate (Walter et al. 2002b, 2003a). In both systems, roots are situated in a translucent medium allowing optical recording, are well supplied with nutrients and forced to grow in two dimensions only.

Increased Content of Atmospheric CO2

greenhouse effect and is hence the main driver for global warming. Several studies performed at the Biosphere 2 Center investigated in which way growth behavior of a large stand of the agroforestry model species Populus deltoides was affected by two- and threefold (most extreme scenario envisaged for the year 2100, IPCC 2001) increased concentration of atmospheric CO2 (Murthy et al. 2005 Barron-Gafford et al. 2005 Walter et al. 2005). Plants were cultivated for four years in completely enclosed and climate-controlled biomes of 600 m2 area, 10 m height and 1 m soil depth.

Hybridization and advancement of the generation

Hybridization is performed between superior parents selected on the basis of breeding objectives. These important steps (the selection of parents and hybridization) in breeding programmes have already been described above. In a successful cross, a small pod can be seen after a week. The success rate of hybridization varies from 10 to 75 in soybean, depending upon the experience of the breeder (Fehr, 1987). Generally, hybridization is performed during the normal soybean growing season in the field, although some private companies hybridize in greenhouses throughout the year. After hybridization, the next step is generation advancement to produce the inbred lines. Soybean is a self-pollinated plant. Simply growing different generations will result in selfing to advance the generation to produce inbred lines. Recombinant inbred lines are grown at shuttle breeding stations to minimize the time required to achieve homozygosity in the population. In a large country such as the USA, shuttle...

Manuel Nieves Cordones Fernando Alemn Mario Fon Vicente Martnezand Francisco Rubio

The increasing world population makes high yield crop production a necessity in future agriculture. However, the negative effects of the emission of greenhouse gases into Earth's atmosphere and the resulting climate change may impede reaching this goal. New stresses will appear and the existing ones will be exacerbated. Important plant processes such as the acquisition of K+, which is an essential macronutrient for plants, will be negatively affected. The development of new crop varieties with enhanced capacities in the acquisition of K+, especially under the future environmental conditions, is an important challenge. One of the first steps may be the identification of the K+ uptake systems operating in the roots, which may be later improved to enhance K+ acquisition under stress conditions. Some gene families encoding K+ transporters, that is, the HAKl-type, and channels, that is, the AKTl-type, key pieces for root K+ uptake, have been identified. Members of other families of...

Carbon vs other goods and services

The design of carbon management strategies should consider the trade-offs between these alternative options. Increasing forest ecosystem carbon stocks must be evaluated against increasing the sustainable rate of harvest and transfer of carbon to meet human needs (Nabuurs et al, 2007). The selection of mitigation strategies should minimize net greenhouse gas emissions throughout all sectors affected by these activities. For example, stopping all forest harvesting would increase forest carbon stocks, but would reduce the amount of timber and fibre available to meet societal needs. Other energy-intensive materials, such as concrete, aluminium, steel and plastics, would be required to replace wood products, resulting in higher greenhouse gas emissions (Gustavsson et al, 2006).

North and Central America 271 Notholaena standleyi Adiantaceae

Several species of weedy Chenopodium occur widely in western North America. In an effort to gain a better understanding of some of these taxa, D. J. Crawford and associates undertook an extensive biosystematic examination of the group. The study represents an excellent example of the advantages to be gained by the application of different techniques, including macro- and micromolecular methods, to a complex system. The primary focus of this discussion is C. fremontii S. Watson, which occurs over wide tracts in the southwestern states and shows wide ecological amplitude occupying habitats that range from desert to montane sites. Extensive morphological examination, including greenhouse studies, had established the highly plastic nature of the species. These workers then turned to other methods in order to estimate the level of genetic variation within the taxon. Their first analysis involved an examination of seed protein profiles of more than 210 individual plants representing 33...

General Anatomical Characteristics Of In Vitro Plants

Especially during the acclimatization period (Grout, 1975 Sutter and Langhans, 1982) as it helps the plants from desiccation (Zobayed et al., 2001b), it also reduce the damage to photosynthesis and heat load of leaves by reflecting the light (McClendon, 1984). The degree of wax formation depends on the environmental conditions to which a plant is exposed. Lack of epicuticular wax formation was noticed in the leaves of cauliflower (Figure 7) and Eucalyptus (Figure 8) when grown in well sealed and poorly aerated vessels. On the contrary the plants from well aerated vessels and greenhouse showed intense epicuticular wax development which appeared as white powdery coating under the microscope (Zobayed et al., 2001b). They also noticed the formation of cuticular wax in well aerated and greenhouse grown plants.

Mechanisms Of Resistance Of Douglasfir Trees To The Western Spruce Budworm

The various mechanisms of resistance reported below were evaluated using a combination of laboratory and greenhouse experiments, plus field observations on 40 pairs of mature Douglas-fir trees that are phenotypically resistant versus susceptible to damage from the budworm (Clancy, 2001). Three-generation laboratory diet bioassays (Clancy, 1991b) were used to quantify the budworm's nutritional niche with regard to levels of nitrogen (Clancy, 1992a), sugars (Clancy, 1992b), minerals (Clancy & King, 1993 unpublished data), and monoterpenes (Clancy et al., 1992 Clancy, 1993 unpublished data) that occur in Douglas-fir foliage. The budworm's response curves from the diet bioassays were compared to levels of the nutrients and terpenes in current-year foliage from pairs of Douglas-fir trees that appeared to be resistant versus susceptible to western spruce budworm defoliation. Twelve pairs of trees on the Pike National Forest (NF) in Colorado were sampled in 1988, 1989, and 1990 the trees...

Soybeans Tepary Bean Bush Bean Barley And Cotton

Salsman et al. (1999) grew in nutrient solution two species of bean Phaseolus acutifolius Gray (common name tepary bean) and P. vulgaris L. (common names kidney bean, string bean, or bush bean) placed under three atmospheric CO2 concentrations of 385 mol mol (ambient), 550 mol mol, or 700 mol mol in a greenhouse. Elevated CO2 increased root and shoot growth of P. actuifo-lius, but not P. vulgaris. Root mass was increased by nearly 60 in P. acutifolius. They noted that same genus had responded differently to CO2 in other studies (Bazzaz 1990), and the reasons for the

Low Nutritive Quality Of Douglasfir Foliage

That were resistant versus susceptible to budworm defoliation at any of the three sites (Clancy, 1991a Clancy et al., 1993 Clancy, 2001). Chen (2001) also failed to find consistent differences in foliar terpenes between resistant and susceptible clones in greenhouse studies. In the 1998 greenhouse bioassay, there were significant differences between the resistant versus susceptible clones. However, the susceptible clones had higher concentrations of monoterpenes in their foliage, which is opposite to what one would expect if terpenes were important in determining Chen (2001) addressed the question of whether induced changes in foliar monoterpenes are likely to be involved in resistance of Douglas-fir to the western spruce budworm in the greenhouse bioassays he conducted with resistant and susceptible clones. Two years of defoliation by budworm larvae had similar effects on monoterpene concentrations of clones from resistant and susceptible trees. This result does not support induction...

Botany And Phytochemistry

French tarragon is a member of the Compositae (Asteraceae) that grows best in sunny sheltered sites, growing easily on rich, light and well drained soil (Bremners, 1997). Attempts have even been made to grow French tarragon on waste ground with only 10-15 cm layers of soil (Stepanovic et al., 1989). Propagation is by cuttings or division of roots in spring. French tarragon does not set seed, so all propagation is by these techniques (Stickland, 1986). The grey-green leaves are long, smooth and shiny and mostly entire although the lower leaves are 3-toothed at their tips while the unobtrusive yellow globose flowers are clustered in a spike, drooping on downcurved stalks, blooming from June to August. In greenhouse and phytotron studies, French tarragon was grown under various temperature and daylength regimes, with the highest yield of herbage and volatile oil being realised under long daylength and constant temperature. It was found that under these conditions, there was an elevated...

Development Of Transgenic Plants Exploitation Of Hr For Disease Control

An alternative and more general approach that circumvents the limitations caused by the need for a defined genetic background is to induce cell death by expression of so-called killer genes, encoding products that directly interfere with essential cellular functions. Candidates for such products are RNases, DNases, specific proteases, toxins, etc., several of which have been experimentally evaluated (Mittler and Rizhsky, 2000). For example, expression of the barnase gene, encoding an RNase, under the control of a PR gene promoter resulted in transgenic potato plants with enhanced resistance to Phy-tophthora infestans, supporting the hypothesis that HR cell death at infection sites plays an important role in preventing pathogen proliferation (Strittmatter et al., 1995). However, growth under greenhouse or field conditions ultimately led to self-destruction of the plants, indicative of an endogenous activation of the transgene in aging plants, which underscores the need for specific,...

Proteomics Of Model Legume Medicago Truncatula

Proteomics snapshot of organs tissues in G. max. The numbers in the figures correspond to the numbers in the bibliography of this chapter. (Photographs courtesy of Kristy Richerson, Greenhouse Associate, Noble Foundation). FIGURE 12.3. Proteomics snapshot of organs tissues in M. sativa. The numbers in the figures correspond to the numbers in the bibliography of this chapter. (Photographs courtesy of Kristy Richerson, Greenhouse Associate, Noble Foundation). FIGURE 12.3. Proteomics snapshot of organs tissues in M. sativa. The numbers in the figures correspond to the numbers in the bibliography of this chapter. (Photographs courtesy of Kristy Richerson, Greenhouse Associate, Noble Foundation).

Are There Any Differences in AM Fungal Development in Monoxenics Versus Soil

While insisting that AM monoxenic cultures are valid experimental systems to study AM fungal biology, we cannot deny that highly controlled in vitro conditions could somehow affect fungal development. This is in fact the case for all in vitro-cultured micro-organisms, as they develop in nutrient-supplied, homogeneous agar media under optimal environmental conditions. Concerning AM fungi, observations by Pawlowska et al. (1999) and Dalpe (2001) indicate that monoxenically produced spores may be smaller and less pigmented than soil-borne spores (Fortin et al. 2002). We have also observed that a differential response to Melzer's staining usually occurs in soil versus monoxenically raised spores (Fig. 4a, b, e, f). Perhaps related to this, an important reduction in spore wall thickness is noted under monoxenic conditions (Fig. 4c, d, g, h). The latter could be observed at first as a frightening result, since one may think that monoxenically produced spores are weaker than those obtained...

What Else Have Monoxenic Cultures to Offer on the Study of AM Fungal Biology

Of sporocarps in G. intraradices has never been described under either greenhouse or natural conditions, we may conclude that (1) the observed structure has a different function than sporocarps, and simply resembles them, or (2) G. intraradices has the potential to form sporocarps, but such a potential is rarely used under the experimental natural conditions studied up to now.

Identifying Effective Strains

Souvannavong and Galiana (1991) collccted, isolated, and characterized Rliizobium strains from A. mangium natural range in Australia, as well as in Cote d'I voire, Senegal, Congo, China, and French Guyana, where it had been introduced. Of the 42 strains isolated, those nodulating A. mangium were all found to belong to the Bradyrhizobium group. In vitro and greenhouse tests, as well as nursery and field trials established in Benin, Cote d' I voire, and the Cook Islands, indicated variable efficiency among the strains, with the Australian strains being the most efficient.

Under Heterotrophic Or Photomixotrophic Condition

In conventional micropropagation including heterotrophic and photomixotrophic culture methods, the amount of CO2 uptake or net photosynthetic rate of plants in vitro is lower than plants in greenhouse or field controls (Donnelly and Vidaver, 1984). The net photosynthesis rate of birch plants regenerated in vitro was only one-third of those grown in the greenhouse, indicating the lack of full development of photosynthetic competency of plants in vitro (Smith et al., 1986). The low net photosynthetic rate of plants in vitro is attributed to the low RuBPcase activity (Grout, 1988), which was probably due to a high sucrose concentration in leaves of plants in vitro (Hdider and Desjardins, 1994).

Necessity Of Photoautotrophic Micropropagation In Woody Transplant Production

This section shows results on the photoautotrophic growth of woody plants using relatively small vessels like Magenta GA-7 with an air volume of 300-400 ml. For natural ventilation, microporous gas-permeable filters are attached on the hole of the lid or sidewalls of the culture vessel. The natural ventilation rate of the culture vessel is increased by the use of these filter discs. The number of air exchanges (defined as hourly ventilation rate divided by the vessel volume) of a Magenta-type vessel is about 0.15-0.2 h-1. The number of air exchanges of Magenta-type vessels attached by one, two or three microporous gas filter discs (10 mm in diameter each) with a pore-diameter of 0.5 m is about 2, 3, or 4 h-1, respectively (Kozai et al., 1995). Thus, one filter disc attached on the lid of the vessel increases the vessel ventilation rate about 10 times compared to that of the conventional vessel without any filter disc. The method of measuring the number of air exchanges of the culture...

Chlorophyll Content and Chloroplast Ultrastructure

(Farrant et al. 1999, 2008), or a range of possibilities may be envisaged between the two extremes. The HDT Ramonda nathaliae lost 20 of its chlorophyll when desiccated in the greenhouse and 70 in its natural habitat (Drazic et al. 1999). Therefore, the extent of chlorophyll loss is not a species-specific constant, but it may be influenced by environmental factors, particularly irradiance. The activity of chlorophyllase, the key enzyme in chlorophyll catabolism, has its peak at a water content of about 50 in the HDT Ramonda serbica. After further dehydration, this enzyme activity gradually ceases and chlorophyll is retained throughout the desiccated state (Drazic et al. 1999).

Advances in Ecological Research

Scientists have published hundreds of research articles on the response of plants in greenhouses or special enclosures to increased carbon dioxide (CO2) levels, but there had been no way to test the response of real ecosystems. Scientists at the Brookhaven National Laboratories developed the Free-Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) system. FACE uses a circle of instruments that pump CO2 into the atmosphere to artificially increase the CO2 levels of a real ecosystem. The increased CO2 increased photosynthesis, supporting earlier greenhouse results showing that plants would respond to higher CO2.

Difficult Identifications

By the way, a rare natural hybrid of D. filiformis v. filiformis (typica) and D. intermed ia, which had been described in the New Jersey Pine Barrens, was recently rediscovered. Its appearance is intermediate between those of the two parents, and plants studied thus far in the greenhouse appear to be sterile. The hybrid is sometimes known as D. x hybrida. D. rotundifolia x D. anglica (D. x obovata) is not infrequently found in northern bogs where the two species are sympatric. The leaf form is intermediate between those of the two parents and may be difficult to distinguish from that of D. anglica unless the two are compared side by side. Finally, D. rotundifolia x D. intermedia has been reported in New Jersey, the usual rule of intermediacy causing the leaf blades to appear almost round.

Methods of Clonal Propagation and Genetic Modification

A successful method of cloning selected plants using very young umbel frames for explants was developed by Neervoort and co-workers at the Van Hall institute, Leeuwarden (Toxopeus et al. 1996). Umbels with young to very young buds were cut from robust healthy plants in a promising population, and immediately transferred to a cool box. After cutting off the buds, the umbel frames were sterilised and cultured upside down on Gamborg's B5 medium supplemented with NAA and BA. The cultures were maintained for 5-6 weeks until the carvone content of the parent plant's seed had been determined. Clones of superior parent plants were selected for multiplication. Subsequently the cultures were transferred to MS 10 medium for multiplication, and were grown into plantlets. These were eventually transplanted to potting mixture in the greenhouse and grown into full plants, such plants will be referred to as cuttings.

Description Of Plant

The bright yellow flowers which can be 1.5 in. (4 cm) in diameter are borne in panicles. In its native habitat flowering occurs during April and May. Under greenhouse conditions the plants flower during the summer or fall. The flowers, having 5 sepals and 5 petals, open during the day and close at night. The plants are self-fertile and will produce viable seed without any outside pollinating agent. (Photo 4-16)

Timing of Reproduction

To study the effect of plant productivity on the timing of flowering and reproductive output, we grew Xanthium canadense Mill. plants (cocklebur, Fig. 6.2) from seeds at high and low nutrient levels (HN and LN, respectively) in a greenhouse under natural light conditions (Sugiyama and Hirose, 1991). Xanthium is a short-day plant, requiring at least 7.5-11 h of continuous darkness for flowering (Ray and Alexander, 1966). We observed that HN and LN plants flowered at 83 and 85 days after germination when dry mass was 14.3 and 6.2 g, respectively. The optimal time, determined by simulations of the model (above) for HN and LN plants (Fig. 6.3), was found to be 85 and 75 days after germination, respectively. We expected earlier flowering in LN than HN plants, but found only a small difference in flowering time between LN and HN, indicating that their flowering is strongly controlled by the photoperiod. A small delay in flowering in LN may be attributed to size-dependence in the response to...

Cyanobacterial Partners

More definitive studies to identify the cyanobacterial symbionts in plant associations have utilized molecular genetic approaches of restriction fragment length polymorphism and sequence analysis of conserved genes and or intergenic regions (Costa et al. 2001 Rasmussen and Svenning 2001 West and Adams 1997). Due to limitations in size of the database and speciation problems in general, these studies do not lead to absolute identities, but do allow for estimates of diversity. The results of such studies indicate considerable diversity in the Nostoc symbionts of bryophytes, both geographically and in a single gametophyte thallus, in cycad coralloid roots from both greenhouse and natural field samples, and naturally grown Gunnera species (Rasmussen and Nilsson 2002).

Vetiver Grass For Phytostabilization Of Metalliferous Ecosystems

The most conspicuous characteristics of vetiver grass include its fast growth, large biomass, strong root system, and high level of metal tolerance therefore, it is an important candidate for stabilization of metal-contaminated soils. Results from glasshouse studies show that, when adequately supplied with nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers, vetiver can grow in soils with very high levels of acidity, aluminum, and manganese. Vetiver growth was not affected and no obvious symptoms were observed when soil pH was as low as 3.3 and the extractable manganese reached 578 mg kg-1, and plant manganese was as high as 890 mg kg-1. Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon), which has been recommended as a suitable species for acid mine rehabilitation, has 314 mg kg-1 of manganese in plant tops when growing in mine wastes containing 106 mg kg-1 of manganese 112 . Vetiver also produced excellent growth at a very high level of soil aluminum saturation percentage (68 ), but it did not survive an aluminum...

Roles Of Allelopathic Bacteria In Weed Management Strategies

Most of the weeds targeted for biocontrol by AB infest cereal and row crops, but a few are perennial weeds of rangeland and forest ecosystems (Kremer, 2002). Selected AB are intended for soil application, however, some cultures might be effective when applied directly to growing weeds in a postemergence control strategy. Selected AB might also be applied directly to growing weeds as a postemergence control strategy. For example, cultures and cell-free supernatants of AB strains sprayed on common chickweed (Stellaria media), common lambsquarters (Chenopodium album), and field pennycress (Thlaspi arvense) in the greenhouse and field reduced plant biomass and survival (Weissmann and Gerhardson, 2001). Preliminary results suggest AB cultures might be used for selective weed control in growing crops through a one-time foliar application or as a follow-up to soil-incorporation of the same cultures.

Selecting And Screening For Resistance

Field screening alone would not likely provide sufficient detail to select differential resistance mechanisms, unless accompanied by more detailed evaluations. These could be in the field, or in laboratory greenhouse bioassays, meant to differentiate behavioral and developmental resistance factors (by life stage), among productive and field resistant trees. An analogous approach may be feasible with disease pests, by searching for specific aspects of their disease symptomology and or response morphology which reveal differential resistance mechanisms among families or clones. The relative efficiency of field screening followed by in-vitro screening, or vice versa, has not been investigated, nor has the probability that one or the other is more likely to accurately differentiate among resistance mechanisms.

Of phytosiderophores and iron in xylem sap of irondeficient barley

In the experiment conducted in the greenhouse, 6 bunches (18 plants) of barley plants were decapitated at 3 hour intervals and xylem sap was collected for 3 hours similarly to the experiment described in section 4.3. The amount of PS and Fe was calculated based on the concentration and amount of the xylem sap.

Sap Sucking on Leaves and Shoots

Leaf and stem deformations and growth abnormalities result from sucking by various types of bugs (Heteroptera, for example, Lygus lucorum MEY. D., L. pubescens REUT., Exolygus pratensis L., Plagioganthus chrysanthemi WOLFF., Adelphocoris lineolatus GOEZE, and Calocoris norveg-icus GMEL.). If plants are cultivated in a greenhouse, the white fly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum WESTW., and its oval-shaped larvae, living on the underside of chamomile leaves, cause considerable damage.

Experimental methods

The methods used in these experiments were described in Kawai et al. (2001) and Alam et al. (2001a). Barley plants were grown hydroponically in bunches in a greenhouse (Kawai et al., 1988b). Plants were decapitated at about 2 cm above the roots with a stainless steel razor. Xylem sap extruding from the top of the stunts was collected by a capillary tube and kept in a test tube. After collection of the xylem sap, the weight and density of the liquid was measured. The volume of xylem sap was calculated based on weight and density. The xylem sap was stored under -20oC until analysis.

Mother Plant Technique

Such as Sphaerosporella brunnea (A. & S. ex Fr.) Svrcek & Kubicka (Ami-cucci et al. 2000), which are often found on plantlets grown in greenhouses, are difficult to distinguish from the desired fungus using morphological methods. It is even more difficult to distinguish among the mycorrhizas produced by different species of truffles using morphological methods, in particular the white and whitish truffles - T. magnatum, Tuber macula-tum Vittad., Tuber dryophilum Tul. & Tul. and Tuber puberulum Berk. and Broome (Zambonelli et al. 2000). While there are now highly developed molecular identification methods that allow unequivocal identification of the symbiotic fungus (Amicucci et al. 2002), these methods are still very expensive and thus impractical for large-scale quality control of mother plants.

From Lab to the Field

Most studies addressing induced plant defense are laboratory studies, studying simple systems of one plant, one herbivore and its natural enemies. This provides detailed insight into the effects of induced defenses on individual interactions. Through greenhouse and semi-field studies with more complex set-ups, for instance by introducing background odors under controlled conditions (Janssen 1999 Dicke et al. 2003), more insight will be gained in field situations. However, in order to use knowledge gained from these studies, the relative importance of these pieces of information should be assessed in the field. Also biological control in agricultural fields may benefit from such knowledge and understanding of multitrophic interactions in the field.

In Vitro Results to Date

Most of the in vitro mycorrhization techniques applied to edible mushrooms have been developed to obtain mycorrhizal plantlets, which are then planted to produce fruiting bodies. Plantlets colonized with Cantharellus have produced fruiting bodies in the greenhouse (Danell and Camacho 1997). In New Zealand, the first Pinus radiata D. Don plantlets colonized with L. deliciosus mycelia in pure culture produced commercially viable fruiting bodies less than 2 years after planting (Wang et al. 2002). Although plants colonized with porcini and T. matsutake have been obtained, these have yet to lead to commercial production (Hall et al. 2003b).

Review Of Host Plant Resistance In Populus And Srwc Systems

Haugen (1985) evaluated adult C. scripta feeding and oviposition preference on 12 Populus clones. A multiple choice greenhouse experiment confirmed that adult C. scripta did not prefer Populus section clones for oviposition. Pure species clones in the sections Aigeiros and Tacamahaca were both highly preferred for oviposition, and there was a relationship between Aigeiros parentage and oviposition preference. Clones with a greater amount of Aigeiros parentage were more preferred for C. scripta oviposition than those with greater Tacamahaca parentage. There are many implications and applications from this research. Adult C. scripta Populus clonal preference is mediated by a-TQ amounts on the leaf surface however, it is unknown if Populus clones preferred by adult C. scripta for feeding and oviposition are more suitable for larval growth and development. If this proves true, clones less preferred by adult C. scripta could be used in Populus breeding and clonal selection programs. This...

Roots as Sensors and Conduits of Changes in the Water Potential

In part, the lack of success seems to have been due to a lack of knowledge about stress-relevant genes and gene control circuits and also about developmental and metabolic processes. In this respect, it may be that future attempts will be honoured with more success. For example, the over-expression of a transcription factor of the NF-Y family in maize has resulted in lines that show significantly improved drought tolerance when compared to lines that were severely damaged by the stress (Nelson et al. 2007). Similarly, increased hormone biosynthesis, promoted by a drought stress-inducible promoter, in tobacco generated a stay-green phenotype that allowed the plants to recover from a severe drought stress - administered in a greenhouse - significantly better than wild type (Rivero et al. 2007).

Human Influences on the Carbon Cycle

And the oceans will become completely saturated with CO2, which would drastically alter their chemical composition. Also, the increased greenhouse effect would cause very substantial but currently unpredictable changes in climate. Because the leak of carbon out of the oceans and atmosphere into the sediments and eventually into the sedimentary rocks is very slow, the added carbon would take thousands of years to dissipate from the oceans and atmosphere. see also Biogeochemical Cycles Decomposers Global Warming Human Impacts Photosynthesis, Carbon Fixation and.

Policies need to recognize the importance of smallscale growers to the future of plantation forestry

Engaging with small-scale growers is also becoming more important for the future of the plantation forestry sector for a range of other reasons - for example, as land ownership fragments (e.g. in the US Brown, 2006), where the majority of land available for plantation establishment is that of small-scale landowners, as is now commonly the case (Mayers and Vermulen, 2002 Kanowski, 2003) or where policy objectives focus on small-scale landowners (e.g. Australia - Australian Greenhouse Office, 2003 Indonesia - Ministry of Forestry, 2005, in World Bank, 2006 South Africa - DWAF, 2006). Small-scale growers are more likely than industrial-scale growers to integrate commercial tree growing with agricultural production, in systems that are often described as 'agroforestry' or 'farm forestry', highlighting the need for a policy environment which supports such integration (e.g. Byron, 2001). Some forms of 'community forestry' may similarly be oriented towards commercial tree growing, and...

Frequently Asked Questions

CO2 concentration in the culture room can be measured and controlled using an infrared CO2 analyzer controller (IRGA) with a solenoid valve, liquid CO2 container and connecting tubes. An IRGA is widely used for CO2 enrichment in the greenhouse and it can be introduced into a tissue culture room. The cost of an infrared CO2 controller is about 1,000 US . IRGA can be used in a forced ventilated vessel for controlling CO2 concentration inside the vessel. The diurnal changes in CO2 concentration can be recorded by an analogue or digital recorder connected to the IRGA. Average CO2 concentration of the outside air is 380-400 mol mol-1 (or ppm). In the CO2 enriched greenhouse, its concentration is usually kept at about 1,000 mol mol-1. In a public place such as a theater and a department store with crowded people, it is often required by environmental regulations to keep CO2 concentration at 5,000 mol mol-1 or lower, because in such places its concentration can exceed 10,000 mol mol-1 easily...

Hardening off of seedlings

Germinated seedlings were transplanted into potting soil in pots and maintained in the greenhouse for 8 weeks, under natural light and 25 C 18 C day night temperature, and watered twice daily. They were then transferred to a shade-house, with 60 light transmittance, watered twice weekly, and fertilized with Multifeed (Plaaskem, South Africa) once every 10 days. After 6 months, by which time the seedlings had attained heights ranging from 300 to 600 mm, they were transplanted to the field.

Collaboration Between Roots and Arbuscular Mycorrhiza Fungal Mycelia in Spatial Exploitation of Soil Nutrient Resources

The net contribution of the AM symbiosis to plant element uptake may be particularly high when a large proportion of nutrients in the growth substrate is available exclusively to the AM mycelium (Janos 2007). Such a situation is often created in experiments employing compartmented planting pots where only AM hyphae have access to a compartment supplied with nutrients. When mycorrhizal plants were grown in presence of a hyphae compartment supplied with easily available mineral N, up to 80 of total N in the plant were taken up via the AM mycelium (George et al. 1992 Frey and Schuepp 1993 Johansen et al. 1994). However, when roots and AM hyphae share the same soil volume, total plant N uptake usually appears to be unaffected by AM root colonization. An increased net uptake of P, Zn and Cu by mycorrhizal compared with nonmycorrhizal plants has, nevertheless, often been observed in greenhouse experiments using non-compartmented pots (e.g. McArthur and Knowles 1993 Liu et al. 2000). Most...

Evolution of Apomixis and Population Genetics in Apomicts

A biologist who is planning a population level study of an apomictic taxon is thus faced with two problems. One must first be able to differentiate between sexual and apomictic individuals which may or may not be morphologically distinct and share similar geographic ranges. Secondly, as wild apomicts are typically facultative, assessing variations in sexual and apomictic seed production within individuals is essential for understanding population dynamics and gene flow. Assuming a difference in ploidy between apomicts and sexuals, time-consuming karyological or cell size-based analyses can be made of each collected individual. Developments in flow cytometry have facilitated analyses of ploidy on the population level and, today, literally 1,000s of individuals can be analyzed in a few days (Sharbel and Mitchell-Olds 2001). Isolating flowers which have been emasculated can be used to identify seed formation through autonomous apomixis (Richards 1997), whereas differentiating between...

Methods for nursery research A Methods of soil treatment

Soil solarization is a rather simple alternative soil treatment that might be used in ectomycorrhizal inoculation programmes. Moist soil is covered with clear plastic to create a greenhouse effect with sunlight, which can raise soil temperatures high enough (40-50 C) to reduce significantly population densities of undesirable soil organisms. Initially developed and perfected in Israel to control soil pathogens (Katan et al., 1976), this technique involves covering moist soil with clear plastic (1-2 mil thickness) for a period of 4-6 weeks during the hottest and sunniest months of the year. Adequate soil moisture, at or near field capacity, greatly enhances the effectiveness of soil solarization (Horiu-chi, 1984). Higher soil moisture often raises the soil temperature and extends the effective high thermal period. The plastic should be left in

Biotic and Abiotic Factors Modifying Efficacy

Soil microorganisms can sometimes enhance biological control of plant-parasitic nematodes. In attachment assays, the presence of some bacterial isolates originating from both soil and gall tissue increased attachment of P. penetrans endospores to J2 of Meloidogyne spp. (Duponnois and Ba 1998 Duponnois et al. 1999). In a glasshouse experiment, one of the bacterial isolates, Enterobacter cloacae, when combined with P. penetrans for control of M. incognita on tomato, reduced the number of egg masses on the roots by 36 and increased the number of endospores produced in roots compared to treatments with only P. penetrans Abiotic factors that can influence the level of biological control include temperature, soil type, moisture, and rainfall irrigation. In glasshouse pots using field soil, a commercial formulation of Paecilomyces lilacinus strain 251 suppressed galling and egg masses of M. hapla on tomato by 66-90 when daytime temperatures were 23-25 C, but was much less effective when the...

Location season and cropping system

Vegetable soybean is commonly cultivated in a rice-based cropping system or on bunds of rice fields. The cropping season varies with location, cultivar and environmental conditions. In almost all Asian countries, vegetable soybean is planted in the spring, summer and autumn in open fields planting dates differ with season and location, depending upon temperature and day length. Forcing and semi-forcing is performed in heated glasshouses, greenhouses and vinyl tunnels, mainly in China, Japan and Korea. The diversity of cropping methods ensures a continuous supply of vegetable soybean throughout the year. In northern and central China and Japan, vegetable soybean is planted in the spring and summer in the south of China and Kyushu, vegetable soybean is also cultivated in the autumn (Kokubun, 1991 Wu, 2004). For example, in Hokkaido, vegetable soybean is seeded in May and harvested in August, while in Kyushu, seeding is from March to May and harvesting is from June to August. Forcing and...

General Features Of High Quality Transplants

General features of high quality transplants are given in Table 1. However, it is often difficult to produce transplants having such features in the greenhouse under variable weather conditions and limited resources. Problems often encountered in transplant production using the greenhouse are listed in Table 2. To produce high quality transplants having features listed in Table 1 and to avoid problems listed in Table 2, we need intensive labor and a greenhouse heavily equipped with a variety of environmental control units, both of which are costly. Aims of this chapter is propose an alternative method, called the closed transplant production system, for producing high quality transplants at a low cost.

Relationship between the visual colour of fruit and its pigment content

Table 15.5 gives the coefficients of the correlation between the total content of paprika pigments (ASTA units) and the chromatic co-ordinates, chroma and the quotients (a*lb*, 2000a*IL*b*) of the fruits. It may be observed that in the greenhouse crop the correlation between ASTA and a*lb* is good enough, due to the better correlations of both co-ordinates considered separately with extractable colour, but the correlation is not good in the open air cultivated plants. In addition the ASTA values of the greenhouse paprikas show good correlation with chroma (C*) since this attribute is directly related with coordinates a* and b*. The open air paprikas show a good correlation with brightness (L*) and with the chromatic quotient (2000a*IL*b*) where this coordinate intervenes, probably due to the favourable lighting conditions. In Figure 15.2 the points corresponding to the pairs (ASTA units, a*lb*) in both cultivations are plotted, as well as the corresponding regression lines. The...

Biological Nitrogen Fixation In Rice

In many areas under rice cultivation, nitrogen is fixed by naturally-occurring diazotrophic bacteria, and can be directly or indirectly available to the crop. Biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) contributes an average of 30 kg N per crop (Roger and Ladha 1992), and can be particularly important when N applied as fertiliser is in short supply, as can be the case during the critical phases of flowering and grain set. Under greenhouse conditions, the amount of biologically fixed N taken up by rice can be as much as 80 , and is strongly dependent on the cultivar used (Ladha et al. 1998). While much of the BNF in rice paddies is accomplished by free-living cyanobacterial diazotrophs, or by the cyanobacterium Anabaena in association with the aquatic water fern Azolla (chapter 3), it has been of much recent interest that there exist diazotrophic rhizobia that endophytically associate with rice plants under natural conditions (Figure 1, Yanni et al. 2001).

Climate change mitigation

Owing to their capacity to sequester atmospheric CO2, there has recently been much interest in using plantations in climate change mitigation strategies. In Chapter 3, five strategies for the contribution of the forestry sector have been identified (1) increasing the forest area through afforestation (2) increasing the carbon stored in existing forests (3) protecting existing carbon stocks from release into the atmosphere (4) increasing the carbon stored in products (yielding also indirect greenhouse gas mitigation through material substitution) and (5) substituting fossil fuels with bioenergy derived from forest biomass and wood (see above).

Concluding Remarks

Current advanced greenhouse technology for plant propagation and transplant production has been well developed for a large-scale production. Thus, for the development of a large-scale photoautotrophic micropropagation and transplant production system, technologies of plug seedling production, hydroponic culture, greenhouse environment control, and greenhouse crop management can be applied with careful consideration of disease protection. The current photoautotrophic micropropagation system can be improved further for a larger scale production by incorporating recent technologies of computers, robotics, energy-saving, recycling, environmental conservation, ecological engineering, etc. At the same time, photoautotrophic micropropagation is suitable also for a small-scaled operation.

Endoparasitic Fungi 4221 Introduction

Hirsutella rhossiliensis is frequently seen in association with nematode populations and there are several reports on its suppression effect on populations of H. schachtti 125, 126 and potato cyst nematodes 127 . One worthy species for further investigation is H. rhossiliensis 11 with an obligate parasite lifestyle, make its population density related to population of its host nematode 115 . Contrasting with encouraging results of controlling nematodes by H. rhossiliensis in greenhouse and laboratory assays 128-131 , the fungus did not decrease the population of cyst and root-knot nematodes in a number of field trials 132 . Because of the fungus inconsistent results, a better understanding of its ecology and population dynamics after being introduced into soil is critical for fungus successful use as an inundative commercial biocontrol agent.

Approaches for Developing Salt Tolerant Crop Plants

Pepper Dihaploid 2012

2007) and in vitro screening of plant germplasm for salt tolerance (Arzani and Mirodjagh 1999 Dziadczyk et al. 2003 Lee et al. 2003b Wheatley et al. 2003 Dasgupta et al. 2008). Cereal tissue culture is of great economic importance for selection of improved cell lines under in vitro condition (Fig. 4.2). Tissue culture has been used as a breeding tool for rapid screening of genetic materials for salt tolerance in wheat (Arzani and Mirodjagh 1999). Houshmand et al. (2005) evaluated salttolerant genotypes of durum wheat derived from the in vitro culture in field experiments under both saline and non-saline field conditions as well as under greenhouse condition using salinized solution culture. In spite of the smaller range of genotypes used from the in vitro method, tolerant genotypes performed comparably with those of the field-derived tolerant genotypes for grain yield under saline field conditions. Overall, in vitro selected tolerant genotypes showed significantly better performance...

Genetic Studies In Weedy Species Of Amaranthus

Amaranthus species are generally easy to culture and manipulate under greenhouse and other experimental conditions. Seed dormancy present in some biotypes species typically can be readily overcome with stratification, alternating temperatures, and or red light treatment (see e.g., Gallagher and Cardina 1998 ) Leon et al. 2006) . As is typical of weeds, Amaranthus species exhibit environmental plasticity and thus are easily induced to flower in response to stress or day length. For example, by growing A. hybridus plants with limited rooting volume, mature seeds can be obtained within a few weeks after planting, allowing several generations to be grown per year in a greenhouse. The monoecious species readily self-pollinate but also will outcross, and F1 hybrids are easily obtained if a selectable (e.g., herbicide resistance) or scoreable (e.g., pigmentation) marker is present in one of the parents. Although selfing is precluded in the dioecious species, clonal propagation of stem...

Infections of the Genitourinary System

There are very few reports of field trials testing the efficacy of tea tree oil in the control of fungal or viral pathogens of economically important crops. A 1 aqueous solution of tea tree oil was reported to control powdery mildew of greenhouse-grown cucurbits caused by the fungus Sphaerotheca fuliginea (Olsen et al. 1988). In another study, it was reported that Nicotiana glutinosa plants sprayed with 100, 250 and 500 ppm of tea tree oil in distilled water prior to inoculation with the Tobacco Mosaic Virus showed significantly fewer lesions than control plants for 10 days following inoculation (Bishop 1995). Neither of these studies

Transgenic Plants With Combinations Of Pr Proteins

There are reports demonstrating the role of PR proteins in defense against plant pathogens outside the laboratory. These reports are, however, limited to greenhouse trials, and it would be interesting to show the feasibility and effect of these genes alone or in combination with others under field conditions. with the tlp gene accumulating the transgenic protein at high levels were tested against the scab fungus Fusarium graminearum and were found to be significantly less susceptible than control non-transgenic plants in greenhouse trials (Chen et al., 1999). The control plants showed infection in 43 percent of the spikes, whereas the transgenic plants had infection in only 16 percent of the spikes, based on observations made ten days after inoculation. However, this difference became less significant 14 days after inoculation. Although the rice tlp gene could delay the progression of scab disease, it could not offer complete resistance (Chen et al., 1999). The gene-pyramiding...

Discovery Of Photoperiodism

It is difficult to quantify the benefits of basic studies on photoperiodism, but there is little doubt that modern agricultural and horticultural practice has been profoundly influenced by the appreciation of its biological importance. The initial studies of Garner and Allard over a 10-year period were estimated to have cost approximately 10 000, but brought benefits to farmers, horticulturists and plant breeders of billions of dollars (Sage, 1992). Since the time of Garner and Allard, testing plants for their photoperiodic requirements has become standard practice in breeding programmes, and a major reason for crop failures can now be avoided. Plant breeders can manipulate daylength to obtain multiple generations of plants per year and obtain seed from plants that fail to reproduce out of doors because the days are too long, by growing them in shortened days in the greenhouse. Also, by using daylength to synchronise flowering in plants that normally flower at different times, new...

How To Write Preface Of Environmental Stress Books

Climate constrained world represents an ideal scenario of abiotic stresses in which there has been a change in the statistical distribution of weather (temperature, soil moisture, salinity, ecohydrology, soil fertility, emission of greenhouse gases, etc.) over periods of time that range from decades to centuries to millions of years. Plants do respond to these changes in the process of acclimation and acquiring tolerance - morphologically, structurally, physiologically, biochemical and molecular mechanisms.

Soil Properties Associated With Iron Deficiency

Soil moisture content relates to the expression of Fe deficiency with deficiency most likely to occur in wet, but unsaturated soils. In greenhouse trials, chlorosis expression is exacerbated for soybean and oat with increasing soil moisture in calcareous soils (Inskeep and Bloom, 1986 Ocumpaugh et al., 1992). In field production of soybean, soil moisture was greater in areas where soybeans were Fe deficient than in areas where soybeans grew normally (Hansen et al., 2003). A combination of the increase in soil bicarbonate concentration due to high soil-water content and associated poor soil aeration leading to oxygen deficit and the resulting root growth reduction is the possible cause of chlorosis. The differences in Fe chlorosis versus chlorosis from hypoxia are distinct enough to diagnose the problem. High soil moisture content also causes accumulations of volatile compounds, such as ethylene, in the root environment, which may affect root growth and induce chlorosis expression...

Klebsiella pneumoniae

Kp342 was found to produce the nitrogenase component NifH in planta when the plants were provided with sucrose. It partially relieved nitrogen-deficiency symptoms in greenhouse-grown wheat, whereas the Nif- mutant did not (Riggs et al. 2002). Nitrogen fixation could be demonstrated in wheat plants inoculated with Kp342 (Iniguez et al. 2004). Under standard agricultural conditions Kp342 inoculation enhances maize yields but could not relieve the nitrogen-deficiency symptoms in maize when fixed N was limiting (Riggs et al. 2002). This growth promotion independent of nitrogen fixation possibly involves the production of phytohormones by the endophytic bacterium (Triplett 2007), as in Azospirillum spp and other PGPR.

Abiotic Stressors Effecting Mineral Uptake

Low levels of Ca in growth media cause defects, such as deterioration of the cell membrane, loss of cellular components, and eventually cell and tissue death. Kaya et al. (2002) showed that Ca deficiency induces high concentrations of NaCl in strawberry. Calcium ions ameliorate the effect of salt stress by competing with sodium ions for membrane-binding sites. Tuna et al. (2007) studied the effects of calcium sulphate (CaSO4) on nutrient uptake in tomato plants, which were grown in pots under salt stress and concluded that CaSO+ increased concentration of Ca2+, N, and K+ and reduced the concentration of Na+ in the leaves. Patel et al. +2011) also tested the effects of supplemental Ca on the nutrient levels in Caesalpinia crista L. (Fabaceae) in salinized soil in a greenhouse. They demonstrated that salt stress reduces N, P, K, and Ca content in tissues however, the addition of Ca restored the levels of these nutrients. In general, as external Ca concentrations increase, Na uptake and...

Endophytic Behaviour and Biological Control

Once the capacity of the nematophagous fungi to behave as root endophytes is evaluated in the laboratory, it is to be evaluated under more natural conditions. The final goal would be to optimise endophytism of nematophagous fungi for control of plant parasitic nematodes in the glasshouse or under field conditions.

AMF and Root Knot Nematodes

Fig. 10.1 Development of cucumber plants with (in front) and without (behind) mycorrhizal inoculation in a greenhouse plot highly infested with Meloidogne hapla (Feldmann et al. 2008) Fig. 10.1 Development of cucumber plants with (in front) and without (behind) mycorrhizal inoculation in a greenhouse plot highly infested with Meloidogne hapla (Feldmann et al. 2008)

Genomics Tools For Weeds That Are Under Development

Leafy spurge is being used as a model system to study growth and development of vegetative propagules because of its abundance of underground adventitious buds that form on the crown and roots (commonly referred to as crown and root buds) and its relatively fast growth rate under greenhouse and field conditions. Life cycle time from propagation of meristem cuttings in the greenhouse to development of visible crown and root buds can be as short as two months. An average population of 2,800 leafy spurge plants can be maintained in a 10 x 10 meter greenhouse. Leafy spurge is also easily maintained in garden plots, and portable potting systems have been designed that allow plants grown under field conditions to be transferred to controlled environments without major disturbance to the root system. Currently, specific leafy spurge genotypes with high regeneration rates have been identified and maintained using tissue culture technique (Xu et al. 2008). In addition, an...

Ecological trends and relations to life forms

Tropical Botanical Garden Greenhouse

Collenchyma-like parenchyma cells of the cortex. Stem of a 100 cm-long, hanging, 2-4-year-old shoot, tropical greenhouse, Botanical Garden Basel, Switzerland. Right Fig. 14. Vascular bundle. Phloem pa with small sieve tubes, medium-sized parenchyma cells and few larger laticifers. The bundle is laterally linked with others by an intervascular cambium and externally delimitated from the cortex by a belt of thick-walled sclerenchyma cells. The cortex contains some thick-walled, lignified fibers. Stem of an 80 cm-high, 3-year-old shrub, tropical greenhouse, Botanical Garden Basel, Switzerland. Piper nigrum, transverse section. Fig. 17. Rhaphides in parenchymatic cells of the pith. Stem of a 100 cm-long, hanging, 2-4-year-old shoot, tropical greenhouse, Botanical Garden Basel, Switzerland. Peperomia caperata, transverse section, polarized light. Fig. 15. The vascular bundle is laterally linked with others by an intervascular cambium. A belt of small cells devides the cortex....

Development and Morphology of Extraradical Arbuscular Mycorrhiza Hyphal Networks

Mycorrhizal Fungi Agar Plate

A substrate consisting of 40 m wet sieved soil and glassbeads, which allows for the complete extraction of intact AM mycelium, has been proposed as growth substrate for AM mycelia by Neumann and George (2005a). This substrate may simulate soil conditions better than previously used artificial growth substrates. However, by this technique, biomass of AM hyphae can only be completely separated from that of roots when grown in a distinct compartment. In greenhouse microcosms, fungal compartments are usually separated from the root compartment by a 30 m mesh membrane (Fig. 1). The narrow mesh width allows only fungal hyphae, but not roots to penetrate and to enter the compartment. However, since there is evidence that AM mycelium development in proximity and distance of roots may differ considerably (St-Arnaud et al. 1996 Neumann et al. 2009), it may be inappropriate to draw general conclusions on activities or morphology of the extraradical part of the AM symbiosis from data obtained for...

What Are The Medicinal Uses Of Tillandsia Usneoides Medicinal

Most Important Positions Boat

Local bromeliads and epiphytic orchids (Table 6.11). Conversely, Ficus aurea failed to nurture even one of the hundreds of seeds glued to its smooth, stable bark over the four-year survey, perhaps for the same reason that extracts of this tree inhibited germination of the orchid Encyclia tam-pensis in another study (Frei and Dodson 1972). Bursera simaruba, at best an occasional substrate for Florida Bromeliaceae, and then only in cracks and knotholes, regularly shed bark in small fragments, often with test subjects attached (Fig. 7.7F). Both Bursera and Ficus retain considerable foliage most winters in Florida, rendering their crowns darker and therefore even less suitable for heliophilic Tillandsiapaucifolia than those of fully deciduous cypress. Controls affixed to cedar lathe and maintained under a daily greenhouse mist regimen germinated at 90 during each of the four years.

Introduction Arabidopsis And Weediness

The diminutive Arabidopsis does not abide in any agro- ecosystems in which weeds are rampant it performs best under low irradiance conditions in greenhouses and growth chambers in pots. It is not competitive with crops or much else (Figure 3.1). It is a cosmopolitan, high latitude species, whose highly-specific niche is where winter deciduous species grow and there is bare soil in early spring, in forests and disturbed (ruderal) ecosystems. Its life cycle allows it to germinate, grow, and set seed in a very short period before other wild species close the canopy that would smother it if it had not finished its annual life cycle. It has limited seed production compared to many weeds, limited plasticity, and a limited ability to adapt because of an inability to compete with other species. Its ability to adapt seems to be limited to geno-typic plasticity in recognizing the ideal light regime so that germination and flowering occur at the most appropriate times for a given ecosystem...

Pollination And Dispersal

Pollination And Dispersal

Almost all aloes are self-incompatible, though oddly enough the flowers are protan-drous (anthers ripen and pollen is dispersed before the stigma is receptive) and so self-pollination would not occur anyway. The species formerly in the genus Lomatophyllum are reported as exceptions in being self-compatible (Lavranos, 1998). In an area where two or more species of Aloe flower at the same time, the main pollen vectors, sunbirds, fly indiscriminately from one species to another. Consequently hybridisation is frequent. Reynolds (1950, 1966) reported many natural hybrids, especially in South Africa, and Newton (1998) reported a number in East Africa. In gardens and greenhouse collections, where there might be only one specimen of each species, almost all seeds produced are of hybrid origin. In a tropical garden, hybrid seedlings can become established quickly, and numerous garden aloes that are difficult to identify are undoubtedly of this origin.

Morphogenic Responses

Studies carried out in greenhouses or in growth chambers using ultraviolet lamps and filters to simulate different solar UV-B enhancements have been conducted on a variety of terrestrial plants, including economically important crops (Santos et al. 2004) and wild plant species (Zu et al. 2010). Overall these studies showed that the UV-B enhancement besides physiological effects induces a range of morphological changes including (a) increase decrease of the leaf area and leaf thickness (Gonz lez et al. 2002 Hilal et al. 2004) et al. 2001 Barnes et al. 2005) (g) inhibition of the hypocotyl and stem elongation (Shinkle et al. 2004 Gerhardt et al. 2005) (h) premature leaf senescence (Pradhan et al. 2006). The effects of UV-B also include changes (increase decrease) in the number and size of flowers as well as in the size of seeds (Kakani et al. 2003 Qaderi and Reid 2005). While some of the UV-B responses constitute a stimulation of the growth (e.g., axillary branching, leaf thickening),...

Phenology Under Elevated Co2

For many vegetable crops grown in greenhouses, elevated CO2 up to about 1000 imol mol usually shortens the time taken until flowering begins (Murray 1997, p. 171). The difference in flowering time may range from a few days (e.g., begonia or Begonia sp.) to more than 15 days, as in Saintpaulia ionantha Wendl. (African violet). For some, the extent of advancement may depend on the CO2 concentration. Thus, flowering is advanced by about 1 week in Callistephus chinensis Nees (China aster) plants growing at 600 imol mol CO2, but by a shorter time at 900 imol mol. The response can also depend on population density, as in Phlox drummondii Hook (annual phlox). There might be no effect of elevated CO2 on flowering time, as in Salvia (sage). Retardation of 1 or 2 days has been observed for Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat. (florists' chrysanthemum) and Nicotiana tabacum L. (tobacco) (Murray 1997, p. 172). Earliness has been one reason that growers have been encouraged to enrich their greenhouses...

Allelochemicals As Biopesticides

Benzaldehyde occurs in seeds of bitter almond (Prunus dulcis). It is found naturally in several cyanogenic glucosides and is used in food and fragrances for its almondlike aroma and flavor (Harborne and Baxter, 1993). The value of benzaldehyde as a fungicide is well established (Flor, 1926), with the nematicidal activity more recently demonstrated. Benzaldehyde reduced populations of M. incognita in field microplots with no phytotoxicity to cotton at 0.18 -2.14 ml kg soil (Bauske et al., 1994). The combination of chitin and benzaldehyde added to peat-based potting mix improved tomato transplant growth and reduced galling by M. incognita in greenhouse trials (Kokalis-Burelle et al., 2002). When tested in vitro against M. incognita eggs, benzaldehyde was 100 effective as an ovicide for this species of root-knot nematode (Kokalis-Burelle et al., 2002). Citral, is the aldehyde of geraniol, and occurs in the volatile oils of lemon grass, lemon, orange, limetta, and pimento (Harborne and...

Reproduction and life history

Lanthus, Aechmea mertensii), a practice possibly fostered by their aggressive zoobionts (Madison 1979a). Any resulting homozygosity may pose fewer problems for obligate ant nest-garden species than for plants that must accommodate to more diverse rooting media. Additional factors apparently override myrmecophily in dictating mating capacity in some situations. A Costa Rican Tillandsia caput-medusae proved to be self-incompatible in a pollinator-free greenhouse, whereas a less colorful, equally ant-prone collection from southern Mexico fruited heavily in the same setting. Gentry and Dodson (1987b) believe that self-compatibility and autogamy are much more common in epiphytes than in moist, tropical-lowland terrestrials. Ack-erman (1986) agrees and considers these features to be complementary, if not obligatory, for epiphytes with hyperdispersed populations or specialized pollinators such as trapliners.

Variety selection and screening for tolerance

In general there are two methods of screening cultivars for resistance to Fe deficiency chlorosis. The standard is field screening, including greenhouse and environmental chamber evaluations, where chlorosis is rated among the varieties compared to a control. The second method is to quantify one or more specific physiological responses to induced Fe deficiency stress An attempt to speed up selection and to reduce soil and climatic variability has moved researchers into greenhouse and environmental chambers in either potted soils (Fairbanks et al., 1987 Ocumpaugh et al., 1992) or in nutrient solutions (Chaney et al., 1992a). Fairbanks et al. (1987) reported that potted soils under controlled conditions could promote consistent expression of chlorosis symptoms in soybean which were highly correlated to those observed in the field. This approach has been used successfully for identification of tolerance in some species (J. Goos, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND, personal...

Chemical Overview And Chemotaxonomy

A. annua oil composition has been a matter of several investigations. The essential oils from the inflorescence of A. annua of Chinese as well as Dutch origin were particularly rich in the monoterpene artemisia ketone (63 Liu et al., 1988 Woerdenbag et al., 1992, 1993), while in Mongolian chemotypes the phenols thymol and carvacrol were the main compounds (Satar 1986). The leaf oil composition of a population of A. annua grown in a greenhouse in our department showed a high content of the monoterpene hydrocarbons thujene (a+ 3), a-terpinene and limonene, followed by good percentages of the oxygenated monoterpenes camphor and a-terpineol (Table 3). A few sesquiterpenes were identified, a-guaiene being the most abundant. In the same table, the percentage of oil components is flanked by the corresponding coefficient of variation. This statistical parameter indicates the variability within the population for every single compound. As shown in Table 3, a very low variability was evident...

Edaphic Relations Biodiversity and Function

Evidence to demonstrate the differences in activity among ectomycorrhizal fungal species is plentiful within the literature. In many papers that compare the plant response to a variety of ectomycorrhizal associates, there are differences in plant response (Villeneuve et al., 1991a). Most of these studies are conducted in the laboratory or greenhouse, however, in somewhat artificial conditions. Field observation of the advantage of inoculation of tree seedlings with a variety of mycorrhizal species frequently shows that there are differences in growth rates of the host plant with different mycorrhizal fungal symbionts, that mycorrhizal plants perform better than nonmycorrhizal plants (especially in disturbed situations), and that the inoculated mycorrhizal species are frequently replaced by native mycorrhizal flora (Villeneuve et al., 1991b).

Physiology and ecophysiology

Palmarosa was also found to be associated with a vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungus, Glomus aggregatum. Glasshouse experiments showed that inoculation of palmarosa with G. aggregatum caused a twofold and threefold biomass production as compared to nonmycorrhizal A fungal endophyte, Balansia sclerotica (Pat.) Hohn., has been found to establish a perennial association with the commercially grown East Indian C. flexuosus cv. Kerala local (syn. OD-19). Endophyte-infected plants produced 195 more shoot biomass and 185 more essential oil than the endophyte-free control plants when grown experimentally under glasshouse conditions. The essential oil extracted from the endophyte-infected plants is qualitatively identical with that of endophyte-free plants and is free of toxic ergot alkaloids. Thus, B. sclerotica-infected East Indian C. flexuosus has potential for agricultural exploitation (Ahmad et al. 2001). Pythium aphanidermatum was the predominant fungus recovered from the roots...

The Influence Of Pathogens On Interference And Allelopathy

Both Rice (1984) and Einhellig (1995) hypothesised that pathogens enhance their host's allelopathic ability, but few studies have observed such a relationship (Tang et al., 1995). This is despite several investigations on the effects of pathogens on plant competition (Burdon, 1987 Ayres and Paul, 1990 Section 3.1), all of which could potentially include allelopathic interactions. However, competition may have obscured allelopathy in these experiments (Trenbath, 1974), since competition is usually the dominant process of interference (Joliffe, 1988 Tilman, 1988). This is particularly so considering that many experiments studying the effect of pathogens on competition have utilised high plant densities, where competitive effects are most intense. Evidence supporting the hypothesis that pathogens can increase allelopathy between plants occurs in at least two forms (i) pathogens can stimulate secondary metabolite production in their hosts, and (ii) field, glasshouse and bioassay...

Electrical Conductivity And pH In The Nutrient Solution

Problems whereas EC 1.5 dS m may lead to nutrient deficiencies. In greenhouse culture, the high input of <a title="Homemade Organic Fertilizer Recipe" class="intexttaglink" data-tid="10297" href="/fertilizers.html">fertilizers is the main cause of the salinity problems (Li, 2000). In addition, a high EC may also be caused by the presence of specific ions such as Na+ and Cl in the solution. In order to avoid salinity problems, growers add fresh water to reduce EC. However, in some regions there is the added problem of having irrigation water of bad quality, that is with high content of Na+ and or Cl. In that case, the addition of fresh water to the nutrient solution would not alleviate the problem of salinity and the use of cultivars with salinity tolerance may be the solution. Nevertheless, the amount and the frequency of fertigation may be managed in order to avoid salinity problems (Sonneveld and Voogt, 2009). High irrigation frequency and long irrigation events resulting in high leaching fractions may delay the rate of salt accumulation in the root zone, thereby mitigating the deleterious...

Plastid Stay GreenProtein SGR Ensures Adequate Plastid Reconversion

Fig. 5 Induction of senescence and chloroplast to chromoplast differentiation. Analysis through the pepper chlorophyll retainer mutant (cl). (A, B ) Phenotype of the pepper chlorophyll retainer (cl) mutant compared to a red-fruited wild-type CL. Color phenotype of basal leaves. (A) cl mutant (B) wild-type (CL) plant homozygous for the CL allele. The two 124-day-old plants were grown concomitantly under the same greenhouse conditions. Square brackets indicate the senescing zone which is more pronounced in the wild-type (CL) compared to the cl mutant. (C, D) Color phenotype of ripe fruits from cl (C) and CL (D) plants. (E, F) Electron microscope images of chromoplasts from pepper cl mutant (E) and wild-type (CL) (F) fruits. The retention of thylakoid membranes in the chromoplast is indicated by asterisks. (A.S. Mialoundama, B. Camara and F. Bouvier, unpublished) Fig. 5 Induction of senescence and chloroplast to chromoplast differentiation. Analysis through the pepper chlorophyll...

Genetic structure of populations

Soluble proteins (allozymes) provide markers to determine the genetic structures of populations and patterns of gene ow. Findings for Bromeliaceae accord with those described for other ora relative to oral biology and certain additional aspects of life history. For example, Soltis et al. (1987) chose two bromeliads to characterize the effects of different breeding systems on the genetics of arboreal vs. terrestrial types. Specimens representing Central American Tillandsia ionantha (subgenus Tillandsia, Group One) came from Mexico where brightly colored foliage during anthesis, a stiff, tubular corolla, and uneven seed crops indicate ornitho-phily (Fig. 2.10M,N). Plants often failed to set fruit in closed greenhouses.

In Agriculture An Environment Perspective

Increased use of nitrogenous (N) fertilizer has significantly altered the global N-cycle and produced nitrogenous gases of environmental consequence. While nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions contribute to global greenhouse gas accumulation and the stratospheric ozone depletion, degradation of groundwater quality by N use in agriculture is fundamentally a nitrate leaching problem. Despite these evident negative environmental impacts, consumption of N fertilizer cannot be reduced in view of the food security for teeming population in the developing countries. Various strategies, from agronomic to genetic engineering, have been tried to tackle this problem. Split application of N, use of slow-release fertilizers, nitrification inhibitors, and the use of organic manures are some agronomic techniques adopted. One of the important goals to reduce N-fertilizer application can be effectively achieved by choosing N-efficient (i.e., which can grow under low N conditions), ensuring their optimum...

Percent Survival During Acclimatization Ex Vitro

Percent survival of calla lily plantlets during the ex vitro acclimatization was 95 in the PAM and 60 in the PMM, and that of China fir was 95 in the PAM-0, 97 in the PAM-1, and 16 in the PMM. The percent survival was about 6 times higher in the PAM 0 and the PAM 1 than in the PMM. The lower percent survival in the PMM was probably due to the malfunction of stomata in leaves (Aitken-Christie et al., 1995) and callus formation at the base of the nodal cuttings. Callus formation has been considered a cause of poor root initiation and limited uptake of nutrient and water (Nguyen, et al., 1999). The higher percent survival in the PAM was probably because the plantlets were already acclimatized and functionally photoautotrophic in vitro (Kozai and Zobayed, 2000). The percent survival of calla lily plantlets transplanted in the farmer's greenhouse without shading (i.e., no acclimatization procedure) was 80 , compared with 95 in the greenhouse with a shading screen. Thus, by further...

Criteria for Early Selection of Resistant Grape Cultivars to Downy and Powdery Mildew

Grapevine breeding is one of the most promising methods to preserve genetic diversity, but it also allows the selection of specific genetic traits, such as resistance to pathogens. Each cross produces a large number of germplasms (collection of genetic resources), and a rapid way to estimate the downy mildew resistance level is absolutely necessary to avoid long and tedious field observations. For this purpose, artificial inoculations of seedlings with P. viticola sporangia or the conidia of E. necator and estimation of the development of the disease after 1 week of incubation is a very useful method 54, 55 . The production and the density of sporangia issued from these artificial inoculations are widely accepted as good criteria for the estimation of grapevine resistance to pathogens 36, 75-77 . Tests of resistance of grape cuttings in climate chambers or greenhouses are not always representative of the real resistance level in the vineyards, even if a good correlation has been...

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