Molecular Aspects Of Grapevinepathogenic Fungi

INTERACTIONS 407

E. Gomes & P. Coutos-Thevenot

1. Introduction 407

2. Main grapevine fungal or oomycete-induced diseases 407

2.1. Foliage and berry diseases 407

2.1.1. Powdery mildew 407

2.1.2. Downy mildew 408

2.1.3. Grey mould 408

2.2. Wood decay diseases 409

2.2.1. Eutypa dieback 409

3. Grapevine resistance genes analogs 409

3.1. R-genes and the plant immune system 410

3.2. R-genes in grapevine 411

3.3. Cluster of R-genes map to chromosomal region of grapevine genetic disease resistance 412

4. Elicitors active on grapevine 412

4.1. Oligosaccharide elicitors 413

4.2. Lipid elicitors 413

4.3. Proteinaceous elicitors 413

5. Early cellular events in defense reactions 414

6. Grapevine PR-protein genes 415

7. Grapevine phytoalexins biosynthesis and metabolism 419

7.1. Stilbene synthase genes 419

7.2. Hormones and signalling 421

7.3. Use in transgenic plants 422

8. Conclusions 422 References 422

Chapter 16

PROGRESS IN GRAPEVINE PROTOPLAST TECHNOLOGY 429

A.K. Papadakis, N. Fontes, H. Geros & K.A. Roubelakis-Angelakis

1. Introduction 429

2. Isolation, assessment of quality and culture of grapevine protoplasts 430

3. Recalcitrance 433 3.1. Recalcitrance and protoplast integrity 434

3.2. The potential role of the oxidative stress 436

3.2.1. ROS generation and accumulation during protoplast isolation and culture 437

3.2.2. Scavenging of ROS during protoplast culture 440

3.2.3. Potential role(s) of ROS in the fate of protoplasts 441

3.3. The role of polyamines and phytoalexins 444

3.3.1. Polyamine biosynthesis during protoplast isolation and culture 444

3.3.2. Effect of exogenous polyamines on protoplast fate 446

3.3.3. Polyamine homeostasis in protoplasts 448

3.3.4. The role of phytoalexins 449

4. Applications of protoplast technology 450

4.1. Genetic transformation 450

4.2. Protoplasts as a test system 450

4.3. Use of protoplasts for subcellular fractionation 451

5. Conclusions and perspectives 454 References 456

Chapter 17

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