in response to sulfate depletion in grapevine cells (Fig. 8), but also in roots and leaves, showed that the relative abundance of VvATP-S1, VvSr and particularly VvAPR, is up-regulated in the three systems, confirming the crucial role of APR in sulfur metabolism pathway (Vauclare et al. 2002). As in other species, the up-regulation of VvATP-S and VvAPR is significantly amplified in the cell system when compared with the whole plant analysis. The expression of VvSr is equivalent in cells and root. SAT transcripts namely SAT6, is significantly de-repressed in cells at day 7 in roots and leaves (Fig. 8). This late up-regulation seems more related to long-term S-deficiency response (Hirai et al. 2003).

Fig. 7. Phylogenetic analysis of serine acetyl transferase amino acid sequences from Arabidopsis thaliana and hypothetical protein sequences of Vitis vinifera with homology to A. thaliana. Accession numbers from NCBI: Arabidopsis thaliana: AtSerat1;1, NP_200487.1; AtSerat2;1, NP_175988; AtSerat2;2, NP_187918; AtSerat3;1, NP_565421.1; AtSerat3;2, NP_195289.3; Vitis vinifera: Vv1-7, each sequence is indicated in the tree by the correspondent NCBI accession number. Alignments performed using the T-COFFEE web service (Notredame et al. 2000) and the resulting unrooted tree drawn using TreeView version 1.6.6 (Page 1996).

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