References

Alleva K, Niemietz CM, Maurel C, Parisi M, Tyerman SD, Amodeo G (2006) Plasma membrane of Beta vulgaris storage root shows high water channel activity regulated by cytoplasmic pH and a dual range of calcium concentrations. J Exp Bot 57 609-621 Alsina MM, De Herralde F, Aranda X, Save R, Biel C (2007) Water relations and vulnerability to embolism are not related Experiments with eight grapevine cultivars. Vitis 46 1-6 Baiges I, Schaffner AR, Mas A (2001) Eight cDNA encoding putative aquaporins...

Sugars and production of phenolic compounds

Acquisition of the red blue color of grape berries in red varieties along ripening is a visual indicator of the biochemical processes occurring in grape. This reflects more precisely the accumulation of anthocyanins pigments in the vacuoles of skin cells, which does not occur in the white grape varieties. Interestingly, anthocyanins precursors and intermediates are ubiquitously synthesized within the fruit while the final pigments accumulate only in the epidermal tissue of the berries....

Grapevine sulfate uptake and sulfate transporters

Two kinds of transporters mediate the initial uptake and the distribution of sulfate throughout the plant one with low Km (10 M) assuring a high-affinity sulfate transport (HAST), and another with much higher Km responsible for the low-affinity sulfate transport (LAST). Plants have evolved mechanisms to regulate sulfate assimilation in response to sulfur availability and for coordination of sulfate assimilation with growth and nitrogen assimilation (Stulen and De Kok 1993). The primary response...

Expression of ADH in developing grape berries

Expression of VvADHl and VvADH2 was also examined in developing seedless berries from 2 to 16 weeks post-flowering (WPF), and in skin and flesh of berries at various developmental stages (Fig. 3). Transcripts of VvADHl accumulate predominantly during stage I of berry development in Cabernet Sau-vignon, with a maximum observed 4 WPF, and with a significant lower level thereafter. On the contrary, VvADH2 transcript levels were relatively high in ripening berries even if transcripts were also...

Molecular Characterization Of Adh Genes And Proteins From Grapevine

The initial molecular characterisation of the ADH genes from grapevine was performed from the screening of a grapevine genomic DNA library and obtaining of full-length cDNA by 5' and 3' RACE strategies (Sarni-Manchado et al. 1997, Tesniere and Verries 2000, Verries et al. 2000). This approach resulted in the identification of three genes VvADHl, VvADH2 and VvADH3 whose description has been previously detailed (Tesniere and Verries 2001). Very recently, the knowledge of the complete sequence of...

Soiltoroot conductance

Soil texture, moisture and root density influence soil-root conductance (Gardner 1960). The majority of grapevine roots occur in the top meter of soil, with fine lateral roots concentrated between 100-600 mm from the surface (Richards 1983). Soil physical properties, in particular soil moisture which influences aeration and mechanical resistance, can impact on the distribution of roots (Richards 1983). Grapevine root density is low (0.35-0.36 mm mL-1) compared to other plant species (Mohr 1996,...

The Importance Of Dormancy Release For Commercial Grape Production

Chemical Dormancy

Control of dormancy is very important for the commercial production of grape and other temperate crops (Saure 1985). In cold winter regions, early release from ED may contribute to low-temperature injury crop losses are common and frost-protection measures represent a major production cost (Cattivelli and Bartlet 1992, Kadir and Proebsting 1994). Therefore, varieties need to be identified or bred for these regions that resume growth only under favorable conditions, to avoid plant damage and...

Sulfur nutrition and plant defense against pathogens

Whole plants do not accumulate nor remobilize S-reserves (Mengel and Kirkby 1982). In the past, the sulfur used by crop plants resulted from sulfur-containing fertilizers and or sulfur in rainfall (Jolivet 1993). Due to environmental policies both these sources were significantly reduced in the last 25 years atmospheric sulfur deposition significantly decreased and many of the currently used mineral fertilizers lack sulfur (Blake-Kalff et al. 2000). Recent studies indicate that sulfur...

Regulation of aquaporins

One mechanism of post-translational regulation of aquaporin activity is reversible phosphorylation (Fig. 4). Phosphorylation of plant MIPs can increase water permeability (Maurel et al. 1995, Johansson et al. 1998, Guenther et al. 2003). In spinach leaves, SoPIP2 1 is de-phosphorylated under drought stress and therefore inactivated (Johansson et al. 1996). De-phosphorylation occurs at two highly conserved serine residues, Ser115 in cytosolic loop B and, Ser274, in the C terminus, by a Ca2+...

Molecular Biology Of Sugar Transporters 31 Monosaccharide transporters MSTs

In higher plants, AtSTP1 (Arabidopsis thaliana Sugar Transporter Protein 1) was the first MST cDNA identified and functionally characterized as a hexose-proton symporter, by complementation of hexose transport null-mutant yeasts (Sauer et al. 1990). Since then, many clones have been identified in various plant species where they belong to multigene families the Arabidopsis genome display 53 homologous sequences encoding putative MSTs, distributed into 7 distinct clusters (B ttner 2007). They...

Sulfur in grapevine nutrition and health

References on sulfur use are found in the Bible and in Greek and Roman literature. As early as more than 2000 years ago, Romans discovered the beneficial effects of sulfur as a potent antidote against plant pathogens and refer the application of elemental sulfur in the vineyards (Rausch 2007). To date, the reports on SO42- nutrition or supply or symptoms of sulfur deficiency in grapevine are scarce. The effect of sulfur on plant growth, productivity and product quality mostly relates sulfur...

Coo

GDH-isoenzymes strongly deaminate glutamate and only the anionic GDH-isoforms exhibit very low aminating activity under normal trophic conditions Purnell and Botella 2007, Skopelitis et al 2007, for more information see below . Whereas, under stress the aminating activity of GDH is induced Skope-litis et al 2006 . Numerous studies based on the physical, biochemical and immunological characterization of the ammonia assimilatory enzymes have been performed in a variety of plants, including model...

Physiological Basis Of Sugar Accumulation

Sugar Transport Plants

The ripening grape berry is a strong sink for dry matter transported from current photosynthesis and wood reserves Coombe 1989 . Sucrose derived from leaf photosynthesis is exported via the phloem to the berries. From verai-son and throughout ripening the berries accumulate roughly equal amounts of glucose and fructose, reaching over 1M of each hexose Coombe 1987 . This implies that phloem transported sucrose is hydrolyzed at some step during its transport from the sieve tube to the vacuole of...

Grape Berry Mineral Composition In Relation To

VINE WATER STATUS amp LEAF AREA FRUIT RATIO 53 F. Etchebarne, H. Ojeda amp A. Deloire 3. Source-sink relationships 56 4. Berry growth and development 57 5.1.1. Functions of K in plants 59 5.1.2. Pattern of berry K accumulation 59 5.1.3. Pattern of K partitioning into berry 61 5.2. Calcium 62 5.2.1. Functions of Ca in plants 62 5.2.2. Pattern of berry Ca accumulation 63 5.2.3. Pattern of Ca partitioning into berry 63 5.3.1. Functions of Mg in plants 64 5.3.2. Pattern of berry Mg accumulation 64...