Sg666

Rio de Janeiro and China (239 g/plant), Vingra selection, Ernad Manjeri, U.P., Thingpuri, Kuruppampadi, Wynad Kunnamangalam Thingpuri (2.20 t/ha)

V1E8-2 (25.13 t/ha) V3S1-8 (22.12 t/ha) IISR-Varada

High yield High yield

High yield

Ratoon crop

Fresh rhizome High yield

High yield

Wider adaptability High yield High yield

High yield High yield Fresh ginger

High-altitude areas

High fresh rhizome yield

High fresh rhizome yield High fresh rhizome yield High yield

High-altitude area

High-altitude area

Thomas (1966); Muralidharan and Kamalam (1973) AICSCIP (1978); Khan (1959)

Sree Kumar et al. (1980)

Rattan (1989) Muralidharan (1973)

Sreekumar et al. (1980) Muralidharan (1973) Sasikumar et al. (2003)

Pradeep Kumar et al. (2000)

Jogi et al. (1972) Rattan (1989) Arya and Rana (1990)

AICRPS (2000)

Aiyadurai (1966); Saikia and Shadeque (1992)

Rattan (1989)

Mohanty et al. (1981) Panigrahi and Patro (1985)

Karnataka Himachal Pradesh (19.97 t/ha), High fresh Gowda and Melanta

Jorhat (18.88 t/ha), Wynad local rhizome yield (2000) (18.68 t/ha)

Meghalaya Tura (26.69 t/ha), Poona (25.04 t/ha), Midhills area Chandra and Govind and Basar local (24.88 t/ha) (1999)

West Bengal Gurubathan (27.9 t/ha) Acc. No. 64 High yield AICRPS (2001)

Madhya Pradesh V3S1-8 (17.4 t/ha) High yield AICRPS (1999)

Table 2.15 Ginger varieties commonly grown in China

Sl. No. Category/Type

Varieties/Cultivars

1. Sparse seedling type

2. Dense seedling type

3. Edible medicinal type

4. Edible processed type

5. Ornamental ginger examples

6. Other cultivar examples

Gandzhou (sparse ringed, big fleshy ginger)

Shandong Laiwu (big ginger)

Guangzhow (dense-ringed fleshy ginger)

Zhejiang (red-claw ginger)

Fujian red bud

Hunan yellow heart

Chicken claw ginger

Xmggu° ginger

Guangzhou (fleshy)

Fuzhou ginger (purplish shoot)

Tongling (white ginger)

Fujian bamboo ginger

Zunyi (big white ginger)

Leifeng ginger

Laishe ginger

Flower ginger

Tea ginger

Strong ginger

Hengchum ginger

Hekou ginger

Zaoyang (Hubei Province)

Zunji big ginger (Giuzhou)

Chenggu Yellow (Shaxi)

Yulin round fleshy (Guangxi)

Bamboo root ginger (Sichuan)

Mianyang (Sichuan)

Xuanchang (Ahuii)

Yuxi yellow (Yunnan)

Laiwu slice ginger (Shandong)

Yellow claw (Zhejiang)

Taiwan fleshy (Taiwan)

and India. Recently the Buderim Ginger Co. (2002) has released the first tetraploid commercial variety, called Buderim Gold, for cultivation in Queensland. Z. mioga, the myoga ginger, introduced from Japan, is also grown commercially for its unopened flower buds, which are a vegetable delicacy.

In many cases, the major production centers are far from the areas of origin of the crop concerned (Simmonds, 1979). This is true of ginger as well: the Indo/Malayan region is very rich in Zingiberaceous flora (Holttum, 1950). Considering the present distribution of genetic variability, it is only logical to assume that the Indo/Malayan region is probably the major center of genetic diversity for Zingiber. It may be inferred that geographical spread accompanied by genetic differentiation into locally adapted populations caused by mutations could be the main factor responsible for variations encountered in cultivated ginger (Ravindran et al., 1994). In India the early movement of settlers across the length and breadth of the Kerala state and adjoining regions, where the maximum ginger cultivation is found, and the story of shifting cultivation in northeastern India (the second major ginger-growing sector in India), are well-documented sociological events. The farmers invariably carried small samples of the common crops that they grew in their original place along with them and domesticated the same in their new habitat—in most cases, virgin forestlands. Conscious selection for different needs such as high fresh ginger yield, good dry recovery, and less fiber content over the years has augmented the spread of differentiation in this crop. This would have ultimately resulted in the land races of ginger of today (Ravindran et al.,1994).

Conservation of Ginger Germplasm

Major collections of ginger germplasm are maintained at the Indian Institute of Spices Research (IISR), Calicut, India, and the Research Institute for Spices and Medicinal Crops, Bogor, Indonesia. In India serious efforts are being made for conservation of ginger germplasm. At present, the ginger germplasm conservatory at IISR consists of 645 accessions that include exotic cultivars, indigenous collections, improved cultivars, mutants, tetraploids, and related species (IISR, 2002). In addition, 443 accessions are being maintained at different centers of the All India-Coordinated Research Project on Spices and the National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources (NBPGR), Regional Station, Thrissur (AICRPS, 2001 Table 2.16). The major constraints involved in the conservation of the germplasm of ginger are the two soil-borne diseases: rhizome rot caused by Pythium spp. (such as P. aphanidermatum, P. myriotylum, and P vexans) and the bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum (Pseudomonas solanacearum). Added to this, infection by leaf fleck virus is also posing serious problems for conservation. These diseases are extremely difficult to control or prevent under field conditions. Hence, in the National Conservatory for ginger at IISR, ginger germplasm is conserved in specially made cement tubs under 50% shade, as a nucleus gene bank to safeguard the material from deadly diseases and to maintain the purity of germplasm from adulteration,which is very common in field plantings. Each year, part of the germplasm collection is planted out in the field for evaluation and characterization (Ravindran et al., 1994). The collections are harvested every year and replanted in the next season in a fresh potting mixture. On harvesting the rhizomes, each accession is cleaned and dipped in fungicide and insecticide for protection and stored in individual brick-walled cubicles lined with sawdust or sand in a well-protected building.

In Vitro Conservation

In vitro conservation of ginger germplasm is a safe and complementary strategy to protect the genetic resources from epidemic diseases and other natural disasters. This is also an excellent method to supplement the conventional conservation strategies. Conservation

Table 2.16 Germplasm collections of ginger in India.

Sl.no

Institute/University

No. of accessions

Reference

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