In homesteads garden snail (Helix aspersia) infestation occurs at the young seedling stage of plants, especially at night and in the early morning. In the glasshouse the larval stage of an unidentified moth causes economic damage by defoliating the leaves and girdling the shoot (Okwuowulu and Emehute, 1985—plates 6 and 7). The nonoccurrence of this pest in the open field crop has been attributed to the presence of numerous preferred crops there. On the other hand, the grub of the shoot-borer Dichochrosis punctiferalis largely infests the crop at crop bloom (i.e., at about 5 months of crop age in Nigeria). A similar incidence was recorded in India (Jacob, 1980). Haynes et al. (1973) has reported damage by the root knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) and tuber scales (Asperdiella hartii). Leaf damage by insects occurs in Fiji. Akamine (1977) reported that the incidence of the Mediterranean fruitfly, some melonflies, and oriental flies is common in Hawaii as pests of ginger in the field. Trujillo (1964) reported that the presence of the Chinese rose beetle (Adoretus sinensus Burm.); fullers rose beetle (Potomorous godmani Crotch); some grasshoppers; scavenger flies, especially the syrphid fly (Eumerus maginatus Grins); otitid scavenger fly (Eukesta quadrivitta Mecq); and scarid gnot fly in Hawaii. By and large, the shoot borer is known to be the most destructive pest as observed by Kannan and Nair (1965). The leaf roller (Udaspes folus), the ginger maggot (Calobata sp.), the scale insects (Aspidoetus hartii), a reddish brown thrip (Panchaetothrips indica), and lace wingbug (Stephanities typica) are the other pests. Storage pests recognized are drugstore beetle (Stegobium paniceum), cigarette beetle (Losioderma serrinocorno), and scale insects.

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