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infested soil also plays an important role in the spread of inoculum (Rana and Sharma, 2001).

Control Measures

Healthy Rhizome Selection: As the disease spreads through contaminated rhizomes, selection of healthy rhizomes has been found to be an effective control measure for the disease (Dohroo et al., 1988; Rana, 1991; Dohroo, 1993).

Intercropping: Intercropping ginger with Capsicum results in 76 percent control of yellows disease (Dohroo and Sharma, 1997).

Chemical Control: Various workers have suggested the control of yellows disease through chemicals. Simmonds (1958, 1959) suggested seed treatment with mercurial fungicides at 2 lb/40 gal of water (Teakle, 1965). Benzimidazole-type fungicides have also proven promising in the control of the disease (Anonymous, 1976). Trizone as soil fumigant and arasan as a seed treatment were also found promising (Rosenberg, 1962). Kothari (1966) observed better rhizome germination when treated with 0.1 percent HgCl2 followed by thiram (0.5 percent), ceresan wet (0.5 percent), and Dithane Z-78 (0.2 percent) when the fungicides were applied as soil drenches or rhizome dips.

Biological Control: F. oxysporum f. sp. zingiberi is inhibited by antagonists like T. har-zianum and G. virens under in vitro conditions (Sharma and Dohroo, 1991). The antagonistic effect of Bacillus subtilis on F. oxysporum f. sp. zingiberi under pot cultures has also been reported (Sharma and Jain, 1979). Mancozeb and carbendazim are found to reduce the disease when used with biocontrol agents (Table 8.10) like T. harzianum, T. hamatum, and G. virens as seed treatment and soil application (Dohroo, 1995).

Biotechnological Approach: Prachi et al. (2001) studied the effect of Fusarium toxin on ginger. Shoot buds of ginger encapsulated in 4 percent sodium alginate gel germinated

Table 8.10 Effect of fungicide seed treatment and biocontrol agents on the incidence of yellows and yield of ginger

Treatment

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