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Figure 12.2 Area production, and productivity of ginger in India (1970—1971 to 1999—2000).

of 31,683 kg/ha during the 1998 to 1999 crop year. The insignificant change in area in Tamil Nadu is taken care of by a significant growth in yield in the state, thereby helping it to register a healthy growth in production. Nagaland, Mizoram, Arunachal Pradesh, and Meghalaya are the other states in the order of achieving higher productivity (more than 5,500 kg/ha) during the same period. Arunal Pradesh registered 7,164 kg/ha, Meghalaya, 5,137 kg/ha, Mizoram 5,000 kg/ha; while Orissa registered the lowest figures (1,990 kg/ha) (DASD, 2002).

Productivity: Further analysis of the time series data between the period 1970 and 1971 to 1997 and 1998 indicated that the yield level of ginger in the country increased over the years from 1,371 kg/ha during 1970 to 1971 to 3,391 kg/ha during 1997 to 1998. The yield level that was approximately 1,371 kg/ha during 1970 to 1971, did not show much improvement until the end of 1980 except for occasional fluctuations toward the higher side (up to 1,991 kg/ha during 1977 to 1978), it seems that the yield increase during this period did not contribute much to the increase in production. The increase in production during that period was largely due to an increase in cropped area. However, the productivity level improved from 1980 to 1981 onward and reached an average of 3,188 kg/ha during 1990 to 1991 to 1998 to 1999. Productivity registered during 2000 to 2001 was more than two times the productivity of 1970 to 1971. The estimated growth index for the year 1998 to 1999 in production was 254 percent over the base year (1970 to 1971).

To ascertain the impact of area expansion and productivity on production during different periods, periodwise data were analyzed using a simple technique followed by Librero et al. (1988). Results presented in Table 12.6 show that there is a positive sign in all the three parameters indicating the steady improvement in production due to both area expansion and productivity increase. However, the detailed component analysis reveals that the change in productivity had a more positive role in the first two periods, whereas in the last period area expansion played a major role in production expansion.

Growth Estimates: In order to obtain the long-term trends in area, production and productivity in major ginger-producing states in India, semilogarithmic growth equations were estimated, which indicated that the overall trend in area under ginger registered an average annual growth of 4.3% for the period from 1990 to 1999. Growth

Table 12.6 Change in ginger production, area, and the relative contribution of changes in area and yield on the change in production for selected periods

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