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on the carcinogenic properties of various pesticide residues, the importing countries are tightening the tolerance limits. A number of pesticides have already been banned or restricted for use and many more are under vigilant scrutiny. Pesticide residue continues to be a serious problem in all the spices for export. The U.S. and German regulations on the pesticide residues are listed in Tables 11.4 and 11.5, respectively (Spices Board, 2002).

Aflatoxins

Another major issue in the quality of the spice is the presence of aflatoxins. Aflatoxins are a group of secondary metabolites of the fungi Aspergillus flavus and A. parasticus and

Table 11.4 Tolerance levels for pesticide residues in ginger under U.S. regulations

Pesticide

Tolerance Limit, ppm

Lindane

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