Info

Source: Farrell (1985). Formula 1 is the U.S. Military specification Mil-C-35042 A. Formula 2 is considered a mild curry. Formula 3 is sweet curry. Formula 4 is a hot curry type. Formula 5 is a very hot pungent Indian-style curry.

Source: Farrell (1985). Formula 1 is the U.S. Military specification Mil-C-35042 A. Formula 2 is considered a mild curry. Formula 3 is sweet curry. Formula 4 is a hot curry type. Formula 5 is a very hot pungent Indian-style curry.

Table 15.6 Pumpkin pie spice formulation

Ingredient Typical range (%)

Ground cinnamon 40—80

Ground nutmeg 10—20

Ground ginger 10—20

Ground cloves 10—20

Ground black pepper 0—5

Ginger also forms part of a typical pickling spice combination, ranging from 0 to 5 percent in various brands. Ginger is a component of the popular pumpkin pie spice formulation (Table 15.6). A selection of curry flavor formulations in vogue in various countries is given in Table 15.7.

In many other cases, ginger may not form a complement in the formulation itself, but is added while cooking with, for example, fresh ginger, ginger paste, or ginger powder.

Flavor Properties of Ginger

The aromatic compounds present in ginger contribute to the flavor properties. The pungency and hotness are the principal sensations, which makes it more palatable. Although, generally, volatile compounds contribute to flavor, in ginger, both volatile and nonvolatile constituents are important for imparting the totality of flavor properties such as taste, odor, and pungency. The flavor quality depends on factors such as variety, geographical origin, processing methods, and storage conditions. African ginger has a harsh, strong flavor as compared to the mild, sweet flavor of Jamaican ginger. Peeling of green ginger for drying should be carried out carefully to avoid the loss of volatile oil due to damage of oil cells present below the epidermal layer. Cochin ginger has a softer, richer flavor than African ginger. Flavorant properties of ginger depend both on volatile oil and its nonvolatile fraction. Volatile oil is composed mainly of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, of which a-zingiberene, (3-bisabolene, and ar-curcumene are the major compounds. The major flavor constituents for the pungent principle of ginger have been reported to be 6-, 8-, or 10-gingerol and 6-, 8-, or 10-shogaol. The type of ginger plays a prominent role in the flavor; the method adopted for extraction influences the type of compounds and quality. Bartley and Foley (1994) have reported neral, geranial, zingib-erene, alphabisabolene and beta-sesquiphellandrene as major flavoring compounds of Australian ginger, and reported that 6-gingerol is the major contributor to the pungency (Bartley, 1995). Nishimura (1995) studied the volatile compounds responsible for the aroma of fresh rhizomes of ginger, and the compounds with high dilution factor were linalool, geraniol, geranial, neral, isoborneol, borneol, 18-cineol, 2-pinenol, geranyl acetate, 2-octenal, 2-decenal, and 2-dodecenal. Nishimura also reported that linalool, 4-terpineol, borneol and isoborneol contribute to the characteristic aromatic flavors of Japanese fresh ginger. The pungent principle of ginger, 6-gingerol, has been reported to be a potential antioxidant among 10 phenolic compounds separated by TLC.

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