Table 11.15 Prevention of food adulteration (PFA) rules, 1955

Specifications for Ginger Powder

Moisture Total ash

Acid-insoluble ash in dil HCl Water-soluble ash Cold-water—soluble extract Calcium (as CaO) Alcohol (90% v/w) soluble extract Volatile oil

Not more than 13.0% by weight

Not more than 8.0% by weight

Not more than 1.0% by weight

Not less than 1.7% by weight

Not less than 10.0% by weight

Not more than 4.0% by weight on dry basis

Not less than 4.5% by weight

Distillation of the Oil

Essential oils are the volatile organic constituents of fragrant plant matter. They are generally composed of a number of compounds, including some that are solids at normal temperatures, possessing different chemical and physical properties. The aroma profile of the oil is a cumulative contribution from the individual compounds. The boiling points of most of these compounds range from 150 to 300°C at atmospheric pressure (Table 11.16) (Guenther, 1972). If heated to this temperature, labile substances would be destroyed and strong resinification would occur. Hydrodistillation permits the safe recovery of these heat-sensitive compounds from the plant matter.

Table 11.16 Boiling points of

some common

essential oil components, °C

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