aFrom dried rhizomes (according to Taveira Magalhaes et al., 1997a)

aFrom dried rhizomes (according to Taveira Magalhaes et al., 1997a)

and chemical properties of the essential oils have been described by Mitra (1975). The major components of the essential oil of ginger root are a-zingiberene and P-bisabolene, and those of the oily resin are zingerone, gingerols, and shogaols. The same year, Terhune et al. (1975) reported the presence of epizonarene, zonarene, and sesquithujene. In 1983, Lawrence reviewed the studies devoted to ginger oils and reported his own results on an essential oil from India (Table 3.15). Of the 115 constituents isolated and identified, 43 of them were previously identified, whereas 72 had been identified for the first time as components of the ginger oil.

In a review on the chemistry of ginger, Akhila and Tewari (1984) reported about 30 volatile constituents. Among sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, the most important are: a-zingiberene, ar-curcumene, and P-farnesene, previously reported by Nigam et al. (1964). The percentages of neral, geranial, linalool, and borneol were 0.8, 1.4, 1.3, and 2.2%, respectively.

Fifteen cultivated varieties of ginger were investigated by Narayanan and Mathew (1985). They contain 1.4 to 2.6% of oil. Major constituents were: a-zingiberene (16.6 to 28.7%), neral (6.6 to 15.1%), and geraniol (5.8 to 11.5%). Zerumbone (t. to 5.6%),

Table 3.15 GC analyses of ginger oils from India, Brazil, and Jamaica*

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