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Dithane M-45 (mancozeb), Difolatan (captafol), Ziride, Captan, and metalaxyl have also been found to reduce the infection and increase the yield (Thakore et al., 1988).

Many workers have also tested different chemicals as soil drench against rhizome rot of ginger. Treatment of soil with Bordeaux mixture (4:4:50), perenox (0.35 percent) and Dithane Z-78 (0.15 percent) (Shahare and Asthana, 1962), soil drench with 0.1 percent HgCl2 (Kothari, 1966), Thiram (0.5 percent), Ceresan wet (0.5 percent), Dithane (0.2 percent), methyl bromide (Ichitani, 1980), Dithane Z-78, Difolatan (Sharma et al., 1980), Aliette, Bordeaux mixture, Dithane M-45, and Difolatan (Anila and Mathur, 1987), and Ridomil granular application in soil have proven effective in reducing the rhizome rot (Dohroo et al., 1984a). Kim et al. (1998) reported that the soil disinfection by dazomet application showed the most prominent inhibition effects in field studies.

As the disease is both seedborne and soilborne in nature, the use of disinfected seed rhizomes and drenching the soil with a chemical simultaneously have proven more effective in comparison with either seed treatment or soil application alone. Dipping the seed rhizomes in Bordeaux mixture (BM) (2:2:50) and drenching the soil 8 days before sowing with BM satisfactorily controlled soft rot due to P. myriotylum (Bhagwat, 1960). Rosenberg (1962) found seed treatment with Aresan and soil fumigation with Trizone to be promising in the control of disease. In the Philippines, sowing of seed rhizomes after disinfecting in 0.06 percent mercury seed protectant for 90 minutes and addition of DDT or aldrin in soil against insects is recommended by Pordesimo and Raymundo (1963) for successful control of rhizome rot of ginger. The incidence of disease also has been reduced by treatment of seed with echlomezol and soil with methyl bromide. Application of echlomezol as a drench around sources of primary infection prevented further spread of the disease (Ichitani, 1980). Blitane (Zineb + copper oxy-chloride), Dithane Z-78, and Difolatan when used as drenches plus seed treatment also gave good results (Sharma et al., 1980).

Rathaiah (1987) observed that dipping or wetting of seed pieces 1 day before planting and soil drenching with a mixture of Ridomil + Captafol, 3 months after planting controlled rhizome rot and increased the yield of ginger. Fosetyl-Al, Metalaxyl, oxadixyl, propanocarb, and ethazole (epidiazole) also have been evaluated against P. aphanidermatum (Ramachandran et al., 1989). Of these fungicides, metalaxyl formulations (Ridomil 5 G and Apron 35 WS) gave best control of the disease when used as soil and seed treatments. Rhizome rot caused by F. oxysporum was controlled by soil treatment with 4 percent formaldehyde combined with treatment of rhizome planting material with Topsin-M at 0.1 percent. Rhizome treatment with 0.1 percent Bavistin or 0.3 percent Dithane M-45 and soil treatment with formaldehyde also have been found to be effective against Fusarium rot.

Srivastava (1994) managed soft rot (P aphanidermatum) in Sikkim (India) effectively by drenching the soil with zineb or mancozeb following rhizome treatment with car-bendazim and incorporating Thiodan dust into the soil to control insect invasion. Nath (1993) suggested planting of ginger under shade after treating with 1 percent formaldehyde. In Himachal Pradesh, rhizome treatment with Indofil M-45 + Bavistin (0.25 + 0.1 percent) and soil application of Phorate (12 kg/ha) managed rhizome rot and increased the yield (Table 8.5).

Soil amendments alter the soil reaction, change the spectrum of soil microflora, and thus affect the proportion of pathogens existing in soil (Dohroo, 1993; Dohroo et al., 1994; Dohroo and Pathania, 1997). In the case of ginger, Ghorpade and Ajri (1982) observed a reduction in rhizome rot incidence after addition of soil amendments like oil

Table 8.5 Effect of chemicals on the control of rhizome rot of ginger (1992—1994)

Treatment

Disease incidence (%)

Mean

Yield (kg/3 m2)

Pooled

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