Info

*Adapted from Tanabe et al. (1991).

**The amounts (in ppm) of a-zingiberene in each sample were 5227.6, 3734.3, 5968.1, 7253.5, 4350.7, 5880.6, and 7262.0, respectively.

'Kinto and Yanaka; "Sansyu; ma, Otafuku, Tosaichi and Jumbo; b, Cambo samples, respectively.

***Freeze-dried weight/fresh weight X 100.

*Adapted from Tanabe et al. (1991).

**The amounts (in ppm) of a-zingiberene in each sample were 5227.6, 3734.3, 5968.1, 7253.5, 4350.7, 5880.6, and 7262.0, respectively.

'Kinto and Yanaka; "Sansyu; ma, Otafuku, Tosaichi and Jumbo; b, Cambo samples, respectively.

***Freeze-dried weight/fresh weight X 100.

+ P-bisabolene, ar-curcumene, calamenene, caryophyllene oxide, and cuparene were identified. The two major compounds P-bisabolene and ar-curcumene, most likely arise during storage by rearrangement of a-zingiberene and P-sesquiphellandrene. Sesquiterpene, epizonarene, and zonarene also found in the oil have been previously identified in Indian essential oils by Andersen et al. (1973) and Terhune et al. (1975).

On the other hand, the oil from Fiji was found to be similar to those of the Japanese samples from Taneshoga and Oyashoga, which had a low geraniol-geranyl acetate content, and 17 to 20% neral, and 23 to 35% geranial, respectively. Nevertheless, other Japanese oils differed significantly depending on the location (Tanabe et al., 1991). A low citral (neral + geranial) content has been found in oils from India (<3%), and Africa, is higher in Australia and Japan, and the highest in Fiji.

By hydrodistillation of the fresh rhizomes of ginger from the Philippines, Anzaldo et al. (1986) obtained 0.2 to 1.0% oil yield. By using TLC, GC, and IR spectroscopic data, 10 components were identified, with citral being the major component. Geraniol and linalool were also present. Physicochemical constants of the oil were also reported.

Some important metabolites from Malaysian ginger have been reported by Hasnah and Ahmad (1993). Among several categories of identified compounds were: sequiter-penes (germacrene, humulene, zerumbone, zerumbodienone, and humulene epoxide), diterpenes including coronarin C, coronarin E, isocoronarin D, the isomer of isocoronarin D and labd-8(17),12-dien-15,16-dial, phenolics, and piperine. Some of these compounds seemed to be potent for certain biological activities.

Essential Oils from Africa (Nigeria)

Nigerian ginger essential oils were analyzed by Ekundayo et al. (1988). Samples of fresh rhizomes were purchased from a local market. Fresh and dried rhizomes after homoge-nization were hydrodistilled (yields were 1.02% and 1.84%, respectively). The two oils have been separated into oxygenated and hydrocarbon fractions and analyzed by GC/MS. The results are given in Table 3.20.

Table 3.20 GC-MS analyses of Nigerian ginger oils obtained from fresh and dried rhizomes**

Compounds Fresh Dried

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Aromatherapy Ambiance

Aromatherapy Ambiance

Aromatherapy, a word often associated with calm, sweet smelling and relaxing surroundings. Made famous for its mostly relaxing indulgent  feature, using aromatherapy has also been known to be related to have medicinal qualities.

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