oh h3co

oh h3co

22 (Shogaols)

19 (Gingerdiones)

Scheme 3.4 Biosynthesis of gingerols from dihydroferulic acid 13 and mevalonic acid (adapted from Harvey [1981]).

Essential Oils from India

In a ginger oil from India, Nigam and Levi (1963) found: a-pinene, myrcene, ^-cymene, 2-heptanol, 2-nonanol, bornyl acetate, and other compounds. According to them, these data are important for establishing the authenticity of the essential oil. One year later, Nigam et al. (1964) identified several sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (68.5%), (—)-a-zingiberene (38.6%), P-zingiberene, ( + )-ar-curcumene (17.7%), a-farnesene (9.8%), 7-selinene (1.4%), P-elemene (1.0%), P-bisabolene in mixture with a-zingiberene, P-sesquiphellandrene, and sesquiterpene alcohols (e.g., zingiberenol, elemol), accounting for 16.7% of the oil.

Twenty-six varieties of essential oils from Kerala were studied by Natarajan et al. (1972). The cultivation of ginger roots, the physical characteristics, and the physical oh oh

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