is only imported from a few countries, such as Australia, China, and Thailand, whereas the unground ginger, which includes fresh ginger, is being imported from more than 20 countries

Indian Import of Ginger

A sizeable quantity of ginger is imported into India, mainly in the green form. The major imports in the fresh form are from Nepal, whereas dried ginger is imported from China and Nigeria. The quantity imported and their values are given in Table 12.20.

Market Opportunities

According to an ITC market development paper (1995), consumption of spices is likely to increase due to an augmented production of high-flavored food by the food industry. In addition, an increasing interest in health food and, consequently, "natural" instead of "artificially" flavored food, will also increase the consumption of spices.

Dry Ginger: There is a place for newcomers in the market. A development noted in the trade of ginger has been the increasing use of oils and oleoresins and powdered and processed ginger in major importing countries, especially in Europe and the United States. Ginger exports for the manufacture of powdered ginger must be fiber free, whereas the products exported for the manufacture of ginger oil and oleoresins should have a high oil content. Export efforts should be based on increased productivity and improved postharvest technology.

Fresh Ginger: There may be some prospects for a moderate increase in international trade in fresh ginger, mainly for the ethnic market, especially Asian communities.

Preserved Ginger: Japan will continue to be the largest market, but some growth is also expected in other countries in Western Europe as well as in the United States. In general, however, the prospects for preserved ginger remain modest.

Competitiveness of Indian Ginger Industry

In order to understand the position and competitiveness of individual exporters in the world trade of ginger, market shares and unit value ratios were calculated and are presented in Table 12.21. In the absence of time series data on prices for individual products from various countries, the unit price was worked out from the value of the export and quantity exported. While calculating the unit price, individual items of

Table 12.20 Item-wise imports of ginger into India during 1995—2000 (Qty: Metric tons, Value: Rs. lakhs)

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