Ginger Mosaic Virus Symptoms

Figures in parentheses are angular values.

Figures followed by same letters are statistically identical.

Source: Dohroo and Korla (2000).

Figures in parentheses are angular values.

Figures followed by same letters are statistically identical.

Source: Dohroo and Korla (2000).

Storage of rhizomes under cool conditions may prolong storability by reducing weight loss and sprouting, but this practice may result in higher pathogen incidence than storage at room temperature. Packing of rhizomes in PVC film also reduces weight loss but increases the incidence of fungal infection (Lana et al., 1993). Dohroo and Kohli (2001) gave a complete package for safe storage of seed ginger.

Viral Diseases

Mosaic Disease of Ginger

Ginger mosaic virus was isolated from affected ginger plants by So (1980). The symptoms appear as a yellow and dark green mosaic pattern on leaves. The affected plants show stunting.

The virus causing mosaic disease in ginger has spherical particles with a diameter of 23 to 38 nm. It shows a positive serological reaction with antiserum to cucumber mosaic virus (CMV). The virus is known to be transmitted by sap to different plants known to be hosts of CMV (So, 1980). Nambiar and Sarma (1975) did not obtain sap transmission from ginger to ginger, ginger to Nicotiana tabacum var. Harrison special, N. tabacum var. rustica, N. tabacum var. xanthii, N. glutinosa, Elettaria cardamomum, Curcuma longa, and C. aromatica.

Hot-water and hot-air treatments of rhizomes from affected plants at 45 and 50°C for

3, 6, and 12 hours did not alleviate symptoms (Nambiar and Sarma, 1975).

Chlorotic Fleck Virus

This is a viral disease first described by Thomas (1986). He detected the virus in ginger imported into Australia from a number of countries. The geographical distribution of the virus is uncertain, but is thought to include India, Malaysia, and Mauritius.

The ginger chlorotic fleck virus (GCFV) has isometric particles approximately 30 nm in diameter, with a sedimentation coefficient of 111s, and can readily be purified from infected ginger leaf tissue. The purified preparations contain a major portion of single-stranded RNA, MW 1.5 X 106 daltons, and a major coat protein, mw 29 X 103 daltons. At pH 7, the particles form a single zone in both cesium chloride and cesium sulfate gradients, with buoyant densities of 1.355 g/cm3 (fixed virus) and 1.297 g/cm3 (unfixed virus), respectively.

The virus is mechanically transmitted by Myzus persicae, Pentalonia nigronarvosa, Rhopal-osiphum maidis, or R. padi (Thomas, 1986). Possible affinities of GCFV with the sube-movirus group have also been described by Thomas (1986). The viral diseases of ginger are controlled in tissue cultures by heating to 50°C for 5 minutes (Gao et al., 1999).

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