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*Adapted from Gopalam and Ratnambal (1989).

aMean of values (rounded to the first decimal) of seven areas of India. Six compounds remain unidentified.

*Adapted from Gopalam and Ratnambal (1989).

aMean of values (rounded to the first decimal) of seven areas of India. Six compounds remain unidentified.

and limonene (0.3 to 1.7%) were also found in most varieties but were absent in three others. Alcohols and aldehydes account for 7.5 to 12.9% and 12.9 to 26.6%, respectively.

Erler et al.(1988) compared the composition of oils from India and Australia. They found noticeable differences in their terpenoid components. The main constituents were the usual sesquiterpene hydrocarbons. However, the essential oils from the Australian ginger consisted mainly of monoterpene hydrocarbons (camphene, P-phellandrene) and of the oxygenated derivatives such as neral, geranial, and 1,8-cineole. The following year, Gopalam and Ratnambal (1989) analyzed by GC on packed columns (10% Car-bowax 20 M) essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation and steam distillation of seven popular cultivars of ginger. The selection of these cultivars was based on the yield of essential oils (1.4 to 2.6%) and gingerol content in the oleoresin. The levels of 13 identified and 6 unidentified compounds were reported and compared with the oils from Brazil and Jamaica (see Table 3.15).

There is a great difference in the percentages of the thirteen identified compounds in the samples grown in the seven areas of India. The amounts of a- and P-pinenes were higher in cultivars Karakkal and Ernard Chernad (4.2 and 4.5%, respectively). Typically, the lower the contents, the better the quality of the oil. The 1,8-cineole content was higher in cultivars Nadia (13.3%) followed by cvs. Wynad local (8.6%). a-Zingiberene and P-sesquiphellandrene are the most important compounds of freshly distilled oil. They can be converted into ar-curcumene during a long storage. Its percentage varied from 0.1% (Wynad local) to 32.9% (Narasapattam). The ratio of P-sesquiphellandrene and a-zingiberene is considered as indicative of the age of the oil. The percentage of zerumbone, a well-known compound of wild ginger, is the highest in cv. Wynad local (Kerala) (19.8%), followed by Brazil (8.8%), Ernad Chernad (8%), and No. 656 (Him-achal Pradesh) (7.4%). Only traces were observed in cv. Narasapatham. Indian ginger oils obtained by hydrodistillation of coarsely ground rhizomes are valued for their flavor and perfume.

Vernin and Parkanyi (1994) compared the chemical composition of commercial oils from India and China (see Table 3.16).

Table 3.16 Chemical composition of ginger essential oils of various origins*,**

India China Australia

Table 3.16 Chemical composition of ginger essential oils of various origins*,**

Compounds

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