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a and b, Yield obtained by sowing the fresh tuber in 1985;c and d, additional yield obtained by resowing the parent setts recovered in 1985. Source: Okwuowulu (1986).

a and b, Yield obtained by sowing the fresh tuber in 1985;c and d, additional yield obtained by resowing the parent setts recovered in 1985. Source: Okwuowulu (1986).

seed ginger from small setts and 86 percent from large setts can be recovered like this (Table 7.6). Recycling the setts has been suggested as a method of increasing the aggregate yield of a given sett (Table 7.7) and as a method of conserving scarce material (Okwuowulu et al., 1988).

The time of planting is important. Whiley (1981), Furntani et al. (1985), and Okwuowulu et al. (1990) have related yield with time of plating to age at harvests and found a highly significant interaction between them. Early planting enables plants to enjoy maximum bulking duration leading to increased yield even in contrasting weather. However, premature harvesting may be done deliberately for various end uses.

The optimum age to harvest ginger depends on the requirement of the consumer. Therefore, culinary- and confectionery-grade ginger (i.e., ginger marketed as a vegetable and as a preserve) is harvested at 4 to 5 months (Leverington, 1975; Sivan, 1979). The ginger of commerce is harvested much later. For pickling and salting, at 5 to 7 months, for dehydration, at 6 to 8 months; and for split-dried for export, at 7 to 10 months.

Between and within row spacing also determine yield. The yield of fresh ginger decreases at increasing intrarow spacing. As both factors also similarly lead to lower harvest—multiplication rates, the need now is to ascertain the limits of sett weights and corresponding intrarow spacing at which both yield and seed harvest multiplication are high and, therefore, minimize yield losses. Numerous reports available (see later) on ginger diseases have scarcely quantified yield losses, which may be up to 30 percent due to one disease or pest or the other. Sharma and Jain (1977) had, however, expressed doubt about the exact effect of causal organisms on the yield reduction. This occurs more in the black ginger type (Nnodu and Okwuowulu, 1990).

Another point here is the ultimate dry-matter yield. Prentice (1959) estimated that green ginger gives about 30 percent dry ginger. The mean yield ranges from 14 to 37 t/ha (fresh weight basis) for sett weights of 5 to 40 g grown at 20 cm within rows, 20 cm apart. The corollary, however, has been that the greater physical yield of top-growth (the haulm) and roots is obtained in the black ginger, suggesting that it is less efficient to translate photosynthetic products into edible form.

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