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65 ± 5**

Note: EC50, fifty percent effective concentration

The contraction induced by PGF2o[ (0.3 ^M to 0.3 mM) without the above compounds was used as the control and the values are expressed as the concentrations inducing 50 percent response with confidence limits. All EC50 values were significantly different from the control at P < .01; determined by unpaired /-test. bThe contraction induced by PGF2o[ (0.3 mM) without the above compounds was used as the control (100%). The values are expressed as mean percentages ± SEM.

(n = 3—5). Significant differences from the control were determined by two-tailed /-test (cpaired, dunpaired) at *P < .05 and **P < .01. Source: Pancho et al. (1989).

Note: EC50, fifty percent effective concentration

The contraction induced by PGF2o[ (0.3 ^M to 0.3 mM) without the above compounds was used as the control and the values are expressed as the concentrations inducing 50 percent response with confidence limits. All EC50 values were significantly different from the control at P < .01; determined by unpaired /-test. bThe contraction induced by PGF2o[ (0.3 mM) without the above compounds was used as the control (100%). The values are expressed as mean percentages ± SEM.

(n = 3—5). Significant differences from the control were determined by two-tailed /-test (cpaired, dunpaired) at *P < .05 and **P < .01. Source: Pancho et al. (1989).

Log concentration o) PGF2a (M)

Figure 13.2 Chemical structures of S-(+)-(6)-gingerol and shogaol and cumulative concentration curves for PGF2a before (°) and after the addition of different concentrations of S-(+)-(6)-gingerol (•) or shogaol (A).The values are the mean percentages ± SEM (n = 4 — 27). Significant differences from the control values (without gingerol or shogaol) were determined by /-test at *P < .05 and **P < .01. (From Pancho et al., 1989.)

Log concentration o) PGF2a (M)

Figure 13.2 Chemical structures of S-(+)-(6)-gingerol and shogaol and cumulative concentration curves for PGF2a before (°) and after the addition of different concentrations of S-(+)-(6)-gingerol (•) or shogaol (A).The values are the mean percentages ± SEM (n = 4 — 27). Significant differences from the control values (without gingerol or shogaol) were determined by /-test at *P < .05 and **P < .01. (From Pancho et al., 1989.)

Increasing concentrations of PGF2a (0.3 ^M to 0.3 mM) induced concentration-dependent contractions in mice mesenteric veins. The contractile response to PGF2a was significantly enhanced by S-( + )-(6)-gingerol (0.01 to 0.3 mM) and inhibited by shogaol (0.03 to 0.1 mM) in a concentration-dependent manner (Figure 13.2).

(±)-(6)-Gingerol (0.3 mM), (±)-(8)-gingerol (0.1 mM) and (±)-hexahydrocurcumine (0.3 mM) significantly potentiated the PGF2a-induced contractions in mice mesenteric veins. In contrast, shogaol (0.1 mM) and (6)-gingerdione (0.3 mM) markedly inhibited the PGF2a contractile response. Furthermore, (6)-dehydrogingerdione (0.3 mM) and ^-( + )-(6)-gingerdiacetate (0.3 mM) had no significant effect. The potentiation effect recovered completely after 30 minutes, although it took 1.5 hours to recover the inhibitory action (Figure 13.3 and Table 13.2).

Different Effects of (6)-Gingerdione in Aqueous Solution on PGF2a-lnduced Contractions

Among the gingerols tested, (6)-gingerdione showed different effects on PGF2a-induced contractions when its aqueous solution was allowed to stand for several hours at room temperature (27°C). As shown in Table 13.3, (6)-gingerdione just after preparation of the solution significantly inhibited the PGF2a-induced contraction, after 22 hours of

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Aromatherapy Ambiance

Aromatherapy Ambiance

Aromatherapy, a word often associated with calm, sweet smelling and relaxing surroundings. Made famous for its mostly relaxing indulgent  feature, using aromatherapy has also been known to be related to have medicinal qualities.

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