Destruction of Anisakis larvae
(6)-Gingerol and (6)-shogaol
Goto et al. (1990)
For more details, the reader is refered to Chapters 13 and 14.
On account of the progress of biochemistry and pharmacology since the last 30 years, the noteworthy bioactivity of ginger has been recognized.
Ginger deterpenation by liquid chromatography using silica gel column was achieved by Shankaracharya and Shankaranarayana (1987). They claimed that the terpeneless or deterpenated essential oils are valued for their stability and enhanced flavor strength.
Therefore, distilled ginger and pepper oils were deterpenated by column chromatography. They were slurried with petroleum ether (60 to 80° C) and eluted with acetone and ethyl acetate. The yield of terpeneless ginger was 16.6%. The physicochemical properties and the gas chromatogram of the distilled oil, their terpenes, and terpeneless oils have been reported. The procedure can be used to obtain good-quality terpeneless ginger oil. In another study by column chromatography, Omanakutty et al. (1987) used the following parameters for the adsorbent: adsorbent-oil ratio, mode of packing, L/D ratio, activity of the adsorbent, and quantity of the eluents. Analyses have been carried out by GC and GC/MS. The parameters optimized for 75 g of ginger oil have been found to be satisfactory up to 1 kg level in the laboratory. Change of raw material has little effect on the composition and quality of the oxygenated fraction. Odor characteristics are kept.
Preservation of grated ginger was done in the presence of 0.1, 1.0 weight % ginger spicy oil at pH 3.4 to 4.5; ethanol and organic acids have been added (Yamamoto et al., 1990). The preserved grated ginger has its freshness, flavor, and taste well kept. Grated ginger (80 g), ginger oil (0.6 g), NaCl (2.8 g), and sugar (16 g) were mixed, adjusted to pH 3.5 with citric acid, and preserved for 12 months without losing the original flavor and taste.
Four ginger preparations were compared by Ding and Ding (1988):
1. Fresh ginger
2. Dried ginger under sunlight
3. Dried by heating at 220° C in a sand bath
4. Dried by heating at 300° C in a sand bath
The essential oil content decreased by approximately 57% after 300° C treatment. Heating also decreased the levels of gingerols and shogaols in ginger. The effect of the drying process on the composition of the essential oil from Australian ginger showed that the major effects are a reduction in gingerol content, an increase in terpene hydrocarbons, and the conversion of some monoterpene alcohols to their corresponding acetates, both for fresh and dried ginger samples (Bartley and Jacobs, 2000). Chemical peeling of fresh ginger by using strong acid, was optimized by Liu (1999).
Molecular encapsulation of fresh ginger flavor was studied by Sankarikutty and Narayanan (1990). Encapsulation of ginger flavor by inclusion in P-cyclodextrin was better by addition of steam-distilled ginger oil to a saturated aqueous solution of the cyclo-dextrin, followed by agitating, holding at 5° C for 2 to 3 hours, and drying at room temperature.
Trapping of the headspace of crushed ginger oil or collecting the steam distillate of the oil in aqueous cyclodextrin and then spray drying gave inferior products. Changes of microencapsulated ginger essential oil after storage were also observed (Lin et al. 1992). Spray-dried, microencapsulated ginger oils were prepared and stored at room temperature for 1 year. Significant changes of microencapsulated ginger oils were observed after storage (it is not the case with garlic). Many high boiling—point compounds are formed during storage. Sensory analyses also indicated a significant decrease of intensity and harshness of stored microencapsulated ginger oil. On the other hand, the increase of woody note was significant for stored oil. However, the acceptance as a whole did not differ between stored and fresh microencapsulated ginger oil. The oil quality of the stored microcapsules was much better than that of absorbate. It was shown that stable and soft gelatin solution capsules contain more than one component selected from the group consisting of cinnamon, fennel oil, clove oil, peppermint oil, ginger oil, cardamon oil, lemon oil, orange-peel oil, and l-menthol in the capsule and a polypeptide-gelatin mixture (15 to 70:85—30% by weight) as the capsule film. The capsules stored at 40° C and 75% humidity for 1 month were stable and showed no changes in color and in the property of the capsule film (Komata et al., 1990).
The effect of pH, particle diameter, temperature, water activity, and the amount of gelatin of the microcapsule of ginger essential oil was studied by Sheen et al. (1992b). A novel pharmaceutical, dietary supplement and a cosmetic preparation containing fatty acids and ginger extract for the treatment or prevention of inflammation, hypersensitivity, or pain was patented by Weidner (2000). The homogeneous mixture thus obtained with eicosopentaenoic acid and docosahexanoic acid and ginger was suitable for encapsulation in a soft gelatin capsule. A mixture of boswellic acid, a curcuminoid, a gingerol, a capsaicinoid, a bioflavonoid, and a vitamin C source was found to be more suitable than a botanical source to prevent or treat inflammation and pain in mammals, particularly humans. The composition may be administered as a tablet, a liquid, or a powder as an oral dose (Krumhar and Heller, 2000). Yang et al. (2001) identified (R) — ginsenolide and 20(5') — ginsenoside in ginger capsule.
Effects of ethylene dioxide and gamma irradiation on the chemical sensory and microbial quality of ground spices and their essential oils (ginger, cinnamon, fennel, and fenegreek) were studied by Toofanian and Stegeman (1988). Irradiation of ground ginger with a dose of 5 KGy resulted in a slight decrease of 14%, whereas fumigated ginger showed no significant loss in volatile oil content. No major differences in sensory properties were found when comparing the untreated irradiated or fumigated species.
Andrews et al. (1995) studied the chemical and microbial activity of irradiated fresh ground ginger using a 10 KGy ionizing radiation dose from a cobalt 60 source. Gamma irradiation decreases the amounts of most of the extractable flavor components. Those known to contribute to the typical ginger flavor; that is, a-zingiberene, P-sesquiphellan-drene, P-bisabolene, farnesene isomers, ar-curcumene, and a-cubebene, decreased 25 to 59% following irradiation. The radiation treatment reduced the aerobic microbial population from 108 to 101 colony-forming units (CFU)/g. Sensory qualities of flavor and odor of ginger powder were similar for treated and untreated ginger. Gamma irradiation of ginger rhizomes by 10 KGy and storage for 9 months reduced the decrease of the oleoresin content of ginger during the storage period by 14% in unground samples and 11% in ground samples (Onyenekwe, 2000). There was a dose-dependent decrease in the (6)-gingerol content of the ground ginger, which decreased by 65.6, 67.4, and 70.4% for the 0.5 and 10 KGy samples, respectively. The corresponding values for the unground ginger samples were 37.8, 40.0, and 44.3% at the end of the storage period. It can be concluded that the dose dependence is rather weak and that gamma irradiation has a higher effect on the decreasing the content of (6)-gingerol in the ground ginger than in the unground ginger. In the case of the essential oil, the decrease is lower (0 to 14%).
Several reviews have been devoted to various ginger formulations as a spice for food in ready-cooked dishes and fish, not only in Asian and Indian countries, but also throughout the entire world (Ho et al., 1989, 1997; Kikuzaki, 2000; Metz and Cupp, 2000; Liu et al., 2000).
A formulation of tablets given by Goku (1983) includes a mixture of egg yolk lecithin (18 g), cognac (1 g), wine flavor (1 g), ginger flavor (0.1 g), and cheese flavor (0.1 g). It was combined with sugar (500 g), lactose (275 g), and starch (200 g) granulated by a conventional method and finally mixed with sucrose and fatty acid esters and made into tablets. The 2-ethyl-3-hydroxy-4-(4H)-pyranone (63) can also be added to the mixture.
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