*Akhila and Tewari, (1984)

*Akhila and Tewari, (1984)

Some years later, Haq et al. (1986) studied the composition of ginger from Bangladesh. They found that the rhizomes contain:

• Essential oil (4%, on the basis of rhizomes dried at 60° C for 8 hours, and 0.8% on raw rhizome basis).

• Mixture (10 to 16%) of mainly sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, based on dried ginger.

• Proteins (12.3%) and water soluble proteins (2.3%).

• Fat (4.5%) including free fatty acids (acid number: 10.38, as oleic acid: 5.2). Achinewhu et al. (1995) reported free fatty acid (as % [dry matter] oleic acid) content and peroxide number (peroxide value) of ginger from Nigeria as 0.48 ± 0.04 and 3.2, respectively.

• Phospholipids (traces) determined from the petroleum extract.

• Cold alcoholic extract (7.3%) as oleoresin

• Reducing sugars (glucose, fructose, arabinose), traces.

• Minerals (in g/100 g): Ca (0.025), Na (0.122), K (0.035), Fe (0.007), P (0.075), Mg (0.048), Cl (1.5 ppm), F (5.0 ppm).

Content of elements in ginger was reported by Zaidi et al. (1992) and Afzal et al. (2001) (see Table 3.3)

In summary, ginger rhizomes contain two kinds of products:.

• Volatile compounds constituting the essential oil

• Nonvolatile (or heavy) products (Sku et al., 2001) including oleoresin (gin-gerols, shogaols, and related products that are the pungent principles of ginger) and the other usual organic and inorganic compounds found in foods. The high content of vitamin C, manganese, and iron should be noted.

Characteristics of two kinds of fresh Brazilian ginger rhizomes have been reported by Taveira Magalhaes et al. (1997) (see Table 3.4).

Table 3.2 Vitamins in ginger rhizome powder from Bangladesh*


Percentage in powder

Thiamine Riboflavin Niacin Pyridoxin Vitamin C Vitamin A Vitamin E


0.035 0.015 0.045 0.056 44.0 Traces Traces 44.15%


*Haq et al., (1986)

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