Source: Spices Board, Cochin.

Source: Spices Board, Cochin.

the price goes up, Bangladesh turns to a cheap supply from China and Indonesia. The same is the case with the other neighboring country, Pakistan (John, 2003).

Direction of Indian Exports: Until the end of 1980s, more than 30 percent of the Indian export of ginger was to Arabian countries, then from the 1990s onward, the share of Arabian countries in Indian exports, in general, has shown a decreasing trend, and India is finding a market in its neighboring countries of Pakistan and Bangladesh. However, these countries turn to other cheaper sources whenever the price goes up for Indian ginger. During 1991 to 1992, India exported more than 49% of its total ginger export to Pakistan. However, during 1999 to 2000, Pakistan's share in Indian exports of ginger declined to 33%, and during the same period, Bangladesh took an equal share with Pakistan (33%). During 1991 to 1992, Bangladesh imported hardly 7%, and its share increased to 33% by the end of the century. A sizeable quantity of ginger exported to Bangladesh is done so through major land custom stations in Mizoram (Table 12.15). Other main markets for Indian ginger are Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, Morocco, the United States, Yemen Republic, the United Kingdom, and the Netherlands. Figure 12.6A—C presents the direction of Indian ginger export in 1981 to 1982, 1991 to 1992, and 1999 to 2000, respectively.

To analyze the concentration of ginger exports to various countries both in terms of quantity and value of export markets, the Hirschman index was estimated and is presented in Table 12.16. Generally, the index number above 40% is considered to be high concentration. Here the estimated index for quantity is more than 40 during all the three periods indicating the higher concentration. In the case of value also, the index was more than 40% in the first period, and it was nearer to the 40% mark in the remaining two periods. This indicates that the country has a set of markets, which prefers Indian ginger.

Export Promotion Programs: For export promotion of ginger, the Spices Board (Government of India) is implementing a number of programs (Spices Board, 2000). Some of them are:

• Assistance for establishing improved cleaning and processing facilities

• Support for setting up of high-technological processing

Table 12.15 Ginger export through land custom stations to Bangladesh

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