Ginger Medicinal Plant Info

Source: IISR Annual Report (1997, 1998, 1999).

Source: IISR Annual Report (1997, 1998, 1999).

Figure 2.15 Improved selections of ginger (a) IISR Varada, (b) Acc. 117, (c) Acc. 35.
Formar Palavras Silabas Simples
Figure 2.16 Breeding strategy—the unconventional pathway.

breeding program is given in Figure 2.16. Rhizome bits were treated with chemical mutagens or irradiated with gamma rays. Ginger buds are sensitive to irradiation and the LD50 was reported to be below 2 Krad. The LD50 ( 50% lethal dose) for germination was reported to be between 1.5 and 2.0 Krad (Giridharan, 1984). Jayachandran (1989) treated the cv. Rio de Janeiro with gamma rays at 0.5 to 1.5 Krads and Ethylmethane sulfonate (EMS) at 2.0 to 10.0 mM and studied VM1-VM3 generations with a view to isolate useful mutants. This study revealed that the percentage of sprouting, survival, and the height of plants decreased as the mutagen dose increased. The LD50 in the study for sprouting and survival was between 0.5 and 1.0 Krad of gamma rays and below 8 mM of EMS.

Mutagen treatment affected tiller production; in 1.5 Krad gamma rays there was 45% reduction, whereas in 10 mM EMS there was 61% reduction in tiller production. The mutagen treatment did not affect pollen fertility or improve seed set. Rhizome yield was affected in a dose-dependent manner.

Jayachandran (1989) analyzed the VM2 generation and found a significant reduction in plant height as the dose increased. The mean tiller number indicated transgression to either side of the controls. Similarly, the mean rhizome yield in the VM2 generation indicated shifts in both the directions, with the lower doses of the mutagens giving positive shifts and the higher doses giving negative shifts. The variation in rhizome yield ranged from 1 to 1,320 g/plant. This same worker found that lower doses of gamma rays (0.5 and 0.75 Krad) and EMS (2 to 4 mM) are more effective in inducing wider variations. Screening against the soft rot pathogen, Pythium aphanidermatum, and bacterial wilt (caused by Ralstonia solanacearum) did not reveal any change in pathogenic susceptibility. Jayachandran (1989) observed that the effects of mutagen treatment in the subsequent generations vanished, indicating the operation of strong diplontic selection.

Nwachukwu et al. (1995) irradiated rhizomes of two Nigerian cultivars (Yatsun Biri and the yellow ginger Tafin Giwa) with 2.5 to 10 Gy gamma rays (Gy—Gray—is the unit of absorbed dose; 1 Gy = 100 rads). In these cultivars the GR50 (50% growth reduction) was found to be at 5 and 6 Gy in Tafin Giwa and Yatsun Biri, respectively, and LD50 was found to be 8.75 Gy for both cultivars.

Mohanty and Panda (1991) reported the isolation of a high-yielding mutant from the VM3 generation. They used EMS, sodium azide, colchicine, and gamma rays as mutagenic agents and five cultivars (cv. UP, Rio de Janeiro, Thingpui, PGS-10, and PGS-19) were treated and studied in VM1, VM2, and VM3 generations. Twenty promising individual clumps ("mutants") were selected for evaluation. One of them (V1K1 — 3) gave the highest yield of 22.08 t/ha, which was significantly higher than the top yielding variety, Suprabha. Six top yielders were further tested in comparative yield trials and multilo-cation trials—the results indicated the superiority of V1K1 —3 and have been subsequently released for cultivation under the name Suravi.

The genotype differences were consistent over the locations tested, and V1K1 —3 was out yielding the others in all locations. This line has a dry recovery of 23%. The rhizomes are plumpy with cylindrical fingers having dark glazed skin and dark yellow flesh with bulging oval tips and finger nodes that are covered with deep brown scales. This genotype has oil content of 2.1%, oleoresin content of 10.2%, and crude fiber content of 4.0%.

Tashiro et al. (1995) studied induced isozyme mutations to find out the possible use of isozyme analysis as markers for detecting mutants at an early stage or under an in vitro culture system. They used the cvs. Otafuku, Kintoki, and Shirome Wase and excised shoot tips were treated with 5 mM methyl nitrosourea (N-methyl-N-nitrosourea-MNU) for 5 to 20 minutes and cultured on MS medium supplemented with 0.05 mg NAA and 0.5 mg BA/l. Regenerated plants were analyzed for locating mutations in the following isozymes: glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT), malate dehydrogenase (MDH), 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6-PGDH), phosphoglucomutase (PGM), and shikimate dehydrogenase (SKDH). Analysis of the untreated control gave uniform isozyme profiles for all the three cultivars. Five of 21 MNU-treated plants had isozyme profiles that differed from the basic pattern of GOT, 6-PGDH, PGM and SKDH. All these isozyme mutants expressed morphological variations such as multiple shoot formation, dwarfing, and abnormal leaves. The results indicated that treating shoot tips with MNU and then culturing them in appropriate media can recover mutants and that isozyme analysis is a good technique in detecting the mutation rate, and hence is useful in mutation breeding programs.

Polyploidy Breeding

Induced polyploidy has been tried in ginger for introducing variability, for improving pollen and ovule fertility, and for improving growth and yield. Ratnambal et al. (1979) reported induction of polyploidy in the cv. Rio de Janeiro through colchicine treatment. The tetraploids showed stunted growth and had reduced length and breadth of leaves. However, in this case a stable polyploid line could not be established and all the plants reverted to diploidy in the succeeding generations.

Ramachandran et al. (1982) and Ramachandran and Nair (1992) reported successful production of stable tetraploid lines in cvs. Maran and Mananthody. The polyploids were more vigorous than the diploids and flowered during the second year of induction. The stable tetraploid lines (2n = 44) had larger, plumpy rhizomes and high yield (198.7 g/plant). However, the essential oil content was lower (2.3%) than the original diploid cultivar. There was considerable increase in pollen fertility in the tetraploids. These tetraploids are maintained in the germplasm collection at IISR, Calicut.

Adaniya and Shirai (2001) induced tetraploids under in vitro conditions by culturing shoot tips in MS solid medium containing BA, NAA, and 0.2% w/v colchicine for 4, 8, 12, and 14 days and transferred the shoot tips to medium without colchicine for further growth. More tetraploids were recovered from buds cultured for eight days. Induced tetraploid line of the cultivars (4x Kintoki, 4x Sanshu, and 4x Philippine cebu1) were later transferred to the field where they flowered. These tetraploids produced pollen with much higher fertility and germinability than the diploid plants (0.0 to 1% in the diploid plants as against 27.4 to 74.2% in the tetraploids).

The commercial ginger company in Queensland, Australia, Buderim Ginger Co., has developed and released for cultivation a tetraploid line from the local cultivar. This line, named Buderim Gold, is much higher yielding and has plump rhizomes that are ideally suitable for processing (Buderim Ginger Co., 2003). Nirmal Babu (1996) developed a promising line of cv. Maran from somaclonal variants. This line is high yielding with bolder rhizomes and taller plants (Figure 2.17). In addition to somaclonal variation, other biotechnological approaches have been initiated for evolving disease-resistant genotypes (for details, see Chapter 4).

The breeding strategies currently in use will not be useful to solve many of the serious problems besetting the ginger crop. In spite of extensive search, no genes resistant to Pythium rot, Fusarium wilt, or bacterial wilt could be located in the germplasm. The absence of sexual reproduction and seed set imposes a severe constraint on our efforts to develop resistant cultivars. Recourse to biotechnological approaches may be useful. However, no effort is going on in this field in a concerted manner anywhere in the world. Resorting to r-DNA technology by using resistance genes to the target pathogen from other crop plants can be a viable alternative for evolving resistant ginger plants. Until such genetically modified ginger cultivars are available, one has to rely on disease avoidance through efficient phytosanitation, through crop rotation, and by the use of biocontrol organisms. However, the ginger breeders and biotechnologists around the world should put their brains together to evolve a future action plan to solve the difficult problems and constraints to which this crop is currently being subjected.

Germinabilty Crops
Figure 2.17 High-yielding somaclonal variant.

References

Adaniya, S. (2001) Optimal pollination environment of tetraploid ginger (Zingiber officinale Rose.) evaluated by in vitro pollen germination and pollen growth in styles. Sci. Hort., 90, 219—226.

Adaniya, S., and Shirai, D. (2001) In vitro induction of tetraploid ginger (Zingiber officinlae Roseoe) and pollen fertility and germinability. Sci. Hort., 83, 277—287.

Adaniya, S., Ashoda, M., and Fujieda, K. (1989) Effect of day length on flowering and rhizome swelling in ginger (Zingiber officinale Rose.). J. Jpn. Soc. Hort. Sci., 58, 649—656.

AICSCIP (1975) All India Cashew and Spiees Crops Improvement Project, Annual Report for 1974-75, Central Plantation Crops Research Institute, Kasaragod, Kerala, India.

AICSCIP (1978) All India Cashew and Spiees Crops Improvement Projeet, Annual Report for 1977-78, Central Plantation Crops Research Institute, Kasaragod, Kerala, India.

AICRPS (1999) All India Coordinated Research Project on Spices, Annual Report for 1977-78, Indian Institute of Spices Research, Calicut, Kerala India.

AICRPS (2000) All India Coordinated Research Project on Spices, Annual Report for 1999-2000. IISR, Calicut, India.

AICRPS (2001) All India Coordinated Research Project on Spices, Annual Report for 2000-01, Indian Institute of Spices Research, Calicut, Kerala India.

AICRPS (2003) All India Coordinated Research Project on Spices, Annual Report for 2002-03, Indian Institute of Spices Research, Calicut, Kerala India.

Ai Xizhen, Zhang Zhenxian, and Wang Shaohui (1998) Effect of temperature on photosynthetic characteristics of ginger leaves. China Vegetables, 3, 1-3.

Arya, P.S., and Rana, K.S. (1990) Performance of ginger varieties in Himachal Pradesh. Indian Cocoa, Arecanut Spices J., 14 (1), 16-19.

Aiyadurai, S.G. (1966) A review of research on spices and cashew nut in India. ICAR, New Delhi.

Aiyer, K.N., and Kolammal, M. (1966) Pharmacognosy of Ayurvedic drugs, Kerala. Series 1, No. 9, Dept. Pharmacognosy, Univ. Kerala.

Anonymous (2004) Conservation of spices genetic resources in in vitro gene bank. Project Report Submitted to the Department of Biotechnology, Govt. of India. Indian Institute of Spices Research, Calicut, Kerala, India.

Baker, J.G. (1882) Scitamineae. In: Hooker, J.D., The Flora of British India, Vol. VI, Bishen Singh Mahendrapal Singh, Dehra Dun, Rep. 1978; pp. 198-264.

Baranowski, J.D. (1986) Changes in solids, oleoresin, and (6)-gingerol content of ginger during growth in Hawaii. Hort. Sci., 21, 145-146.

Beltram, I.C., and Kam, Y.K. (1984) Cytotaxonomic studies in the Zingiberaceae. Notes from the Royal Bot. Garden, Edinburgh, 41, 541-557.

Bisson, S., Guillemet, S. and Hamel, J.L. (1968) Contribution a letude caryotaxonomique des Scitaminees. Mem. Mus. Nat. Hist. Naturelle, 18 B, 59-133 (cited from Sharma, 1972).

Buderim Ginger Co. (Corporate author) (2002), "Buderim Gold" Plant varieties J., 15, 85.

Burtt, B.L., and Smith, R.M. (1983) Zingiberaceae. In: Dasanayake, M.D. (ed.), A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon, Vol. IV, Amerind Pub., New Delhi, pp. 488-532.

Chakravorti, A.K. (1948) Multiplication of chromosome numbers in relation to speciation in Zingiberaceae. Sci. & Cult., 14, 137-140.

Chandra, R. and Govind, S. (1999) Genetic variability and performance of ginger genotypes under mid-hills of Meghalaya. Indian J. Hort., 56, 274-278.

Charles, J.S. and Kuriyan, K.J. (1982) Relative susceptibility of ginger cultivars to the root knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, In: Nair, M.K, Premkumar, T., Ravindran, P. N. and Sarma, Y.R. (eds) Ginger and Turmeric, Proc. National Seminar, CPCRI, Kasaragod, India, pp, 133-134.

Chen, Z.Y. (1989) Evolutionary patterns in cytology and pollen structure of Asian Zingiberaceae. In: Holm-Nielsen, L.B., Nielsen, I.C., and Balslev, H. (eds), Tropical Forests, Botanical Dynamics, Speciation and Diversity. Academic Press, pp. 185-191.

CPCRI (1973) Central Plantation Crops Research Institute, Annual Report for 1972-73, Kasa-ragod, Kerala, India.

Dahlgren, R.M.T., Clifford, H.T., and Yeo, P.F. (1985) The Families of the Monocotyledons, Springer, Berlin, pp. 350-352.

Darlington, C.D., and Janaki Ammal, E.K. (1945) Chromosome Atlas of Cultivated Plants. George Allen & Unwin, London, p. 397.

Das, A.B., Rai, S., and Das, P. (1998) Estimation of 4c DNA and karyotype analysis in ginger (Zingier officinale Rosc.) 2 Cytologia, 63, 133-139.

Das, P., Rai, S., and Das, A.B. (1999) Cytomorphology and barriers in seed set of cultivated ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.). Iranian J. Bot., 8, 119-129.

Dekkers, A.J., Rao, A., and Goh, C.J. (1991) In vitro storage of multiple shoot cultures of gingers at ambient temperature of 24 to 29°C. Sci. Hort., 47, 157-167.

Dewan, Z., Zhenxian, Z., XianCheng, Y., Kun, X., and Xizhen, A. (1995) Study on canopy photosynthetic characteristics of ginger. Acta Hort. Sinica, 22, 359-362.

Dhamayanthi, K.P., and Zachariah, T.J. (1998) Studies on karyology and essential oil constituents in two cultivars of ginger. J. Cytol. Genet., 33, 195-199.

Dhamayanthi, K.P.M., Sasikumar, B., and Remashree, A.B. (2003) Reproductive biology and incompatibility studies in ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.). Phytomorphology, 53, 123-131.

Dongyun, H., Ki Young, K., Inlok, C., SooDong, K., and Moonsoo, P. (1998) Stomatal behavior and chlorophyll fluorescence to environmental conditions in ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.). J. Korean Soc. Hort. Sci., 39, 145-148.

Esau, K. (1938) Ontogeny and structure of the phloem of tobacco. Hilgardia, 11, 342-424.

Esau, K. (1969) The phloem. In: Linsbaur, K. (ed.), Handbauch der Pflanzenanatomie, Gebrüder Borntraeger, Berlin.

Evert, R.F. (1984) Comparative structure of phloem. In: Whites, R A and Dickinson, W.C (eds.), Contemporary Problems in Plant Anatomy, Academic Books, New York, pp. 145—234.

Furutani, S.C., and Nagao, M.A. (1986) Influence of daminozide, gibberellic acid and ethepon on flowering, shoot growth and yield of ginger. Hort. Sci., 21, 428—429.

Futterer. (1988) Cited from Tomlinson, 1956.

Geetha, S.P. (2002) In vitro technology for genetic conservation of some genera of Zingiberaceae. Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, University of Calicut, India.

Geetha, S.P., Manjula, C., and Sajina, A. (1995) In vitro conservation of genetic resources of spices. In: Proc. 7th Kerala Sci. Congress, State Committee on Science, Technology and Environment, Kerala, India, pp. 12-16.

Giridharan, M.P (1984) Effect of gamma irradiation in ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.). M.Sc. (Hort.) thesis, Kerala Agricultural University, Vellanikkara, India.

Giridharan, M.P., and Balakrishnan, S. (1992) Gamma ray induced variability in vegetative and floral characters of ginger. Indian Cocoa, Arecanut & Spices J., 15, 68-72.

Gonzalez, O.N., Dimaunahan, L.B., Pilac, L.M., and Alabastro, V.Q. (1969) Effect of gamma irradiation on peanuts, onions and ginger. Philippine J. Sci., 98, 279-292.

Gowda, K.K., and Melanta, K.R. (2000) Varietal performance of ginger in Karnataka. In: Muraleedharan, N., and Rajkumar, R. (eds), Recent Advances in Plantation Crops Research, Allied Pub., New Delhi, pp. 92-93.

Graham, J.A. (1936) Methods of ginger cultivation in Jamaica. J. Jamaica Agric. Soc., 40, 231-232.

Hesse, M., and Waha, M. (1982) The fine structure of the pollen wall in Strelitzia reginae (Musaceae). Pl. Syst. Evol, 141, 285-298.

Holttum, R.E. (1950) The Zingiberaceae of the Malay peninsula. Gardens Bull., (Singapore), 13, 1-50.

Hooker, J.D. (1890-92) Flora of British India, Vol. 6, 198-264. Reeve, London (Rep.) Bishen Singh Mahendrapel Singh, Dehra Dun, India.

IISR (1995) Indian Institute of Spices Research, Ann. Rep. for 1994-95, IISR, Calicut.

IISR (1996) Indian Institute of Spices Research, Ann. Rep. for 1995-96, IISR, Calicut.

IISR (1997) Indian Institute of Spices Research, Ann. Rep. for 1996-97, IISR, Calicut.

IISR (1999) Indian Institute of Spices Research, Ann. Rep. for 1998-99, IISR, Calicut.

IISR (2002) Indian Institute of Spices Research, Ann. Rep. for 2001-02, IISR, Calicut.

Islam, A.K.M.S., Asher, C.J., Edwards, D.G., and Evenson, J.P. (1978) Germination and early growth of ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) 2. Effects of 2-chloroethyl phosphonic acid or elevated temperature pretreatments. Tropical Agri., 55, 127-134.

Jackson, B.P., and Snowden, D.W. (1990) Atlas of Microscopy of Medicinal Plants, Culinary Herbs and Spices. Belhaven Press, London, U.K.

Janson, P.C. (1981) Spices, Condiments and Medicinal Plants in Ethiopia. Centre for Agricultural Publishing and Documentation, Wagenurgan.

Jayachandran, B.K., and Sethumadhavan, P. (1979) Vegetative growth of ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) as influenced by cycocel, ethrel, and kinetin. Agri. Res. J. Kerala, 17, 67-70.

Jayachandran, B.K., and Vijayagopal, P. (1979) Attempts on breaking self incompatibility in ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.). Agri. Res. J. Kerala, 17, 256-258.

Jayachandran, B.K., Vijayagopal, P., and Sethumadhavan, P. (1979) Floral biology of ginger, Zingiber officinale R. Agri. Res. J. Kerala, 17, 93-94.

Jayachandran, B.K. (1989) Induced mutations in ginger. Unpublished Ph.D thesis, Kerala Agricultural University, Kerala, India.

Jayachandran, B.K., and Mohanakumaran, N. (1992) Effect of gamma ray irradiation on ginger. South Indian Hort., 40, 283-288.

Jayachandran, B.K., and Mohanakumaran, N. (1994) Effect of gamma ray irradiation on ginger. South Indian Hort., 42, 209-214.

Jogi, B.S., Singh, I.P., Dua, N.S and Sukhiya, P.S. (1978) Changes in crude fibre, fat and protein content in ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) at different stages of ripening. Indian J. Agric. Sci., 42, 1011-1015.

Kannan, K., and Nair, K.P.V. (1965) Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) in Kerala. Madras Agri. J., 52, 168-176.

Khan, K.I. (1959) Ensure two fold ginger yields. Indian farming, 8(2), 10-14.

Kihara, H., Yamamoto, Y., and Hosono, S. (1931) A list of chromosome numbers of plants cultivated in Japan (cited from Sharma, 1972).

Kress, W.J, and Stone, D.E. (1982) Nature of the sporoderm in monocotledons, with special reference to pollen grains of Canna and Heliconia. Grana, 21, 129-148.

Krishnamurthy, N., Nambudiri, E.S., Mathew, A.G., and Lewis, Y.S. (1970) Essential oil of ginger. Indian Perfumer, 14, 1-3.

Kumar, G.K.V. (1982) Problems and prospects of ginger and turmeric cultivation in Karnataka. In: Nair, M.K, Premkumar, T., Ravindran, P.N., and Sarma, Y.R. (eds), Ginger and Turmeric, Proc. National Seminar (1980), CPCRI, Kasaragod, India, pp, 218-219.

Kumar, S. (1999) A note on conservation of economically important Zingiberaceae of Sikkim Himalaya. In: Biodiversity Conservation and Utilization of Spices, Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, ISS (IISR), Calicut, India, pp. 201-207.

Lawrence, B.M. (1984) Major tropical spices: Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.). Perfumer & Flav, 9, 1-40.

Lewis, Y.S., Mathew, A.G., Nambudiri, E.S., and Krishnamurthy, N. (1972) Oleoresin ginger. Flavour Ind., 3(2): 78-81.

Liang, YH. (1988) Pollen morphology of the family Zingiberaceae in China—pollen types and their significance in the taxonomy. Acta Phytotax. Sin., 26, 265-286.

Mahanty, H.K. (1970) A cytological study of the Zingiberales with special reference to their taxonomy. Cytologia, 35, 13-49.

Mangaly, J.K., and Nayar, J. (1990) Palynology of south Indian Zingiberaceae. Bot. J. Linn. Soc., 103, 351-366.

Manmohandas, T.P., Pradeep Kumar, T., Mayadevi, P, Aipe, K.C., and Kumaran, K. (2000) Stability analysis in ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc), genotypes. J. Spices and Aromatic Crops, 9, 165-167.

Mohanty, D.C. (1984) Germplasm evaluation and genetic improvement in ginger. Unpublished. Ph.D thesis, Orissa Univ. Agri. Technology, Bhubaneswar.

Mohanty, D.C., and Panda, B.S. (1991) High yielding mutant V1K1-3 ginger. Indian Cocoa, Arecanut & Spices J., 15, 5-7.

Mohanty, D.C., and Panda, B.S. (1994) Genetic resources in ginger. In Chadha, K.L., and Rethinam, P. (eds), Advances in Horticulture, Vol. 9: Plantation Crops and Spices, Part 2, Malhotra Pub., New Delhi, pp. 151-168.

Mohanty, D.C., and Sarma, YN. (1979) Genetic variability and correlation for yield and other variables in ginger germplasm. Indian J. Agri. Sci., 49, 250-253.

Mohanty, D.C., Das, R.C., and Sarma, YN. (1981) Variability of agronomic of ginger. Orissa J. Hort., 9, 15-17.

Moringa, T., Fukushina, E., Kanui, T., and Tamasaki, Y (1929) Chromosome numbers of cultivated plants. Bot. Mag. (Tokyo), 43, 589-594.

Muralidharan, A. (1972) Varietal performance of ginger in Wynad, Kerala. J. Plantation Crops (Suppl.), 1973, pp. 19-20.

Muralidharan, A., and Kamalam, N. (1973) Improved ginger means foreign exchange. Indian Farming, 22, 37-39.

Muralidharan, A., and Sakunthala, B. (1974) Variability in different clones of ginger. Indian Spices, 11, 2-5.

Naidu, M.M., Padma, M., Yuvaraj, K.M., and Murty, P.S.S. (2000) Evaluation of ginger varieties for high altitude and tribal area of Andhra Pradesh. Spices and Aromatic Plants, ISSC (IISR), Calicut, pp. 50-51.

Nair, P.C.S. (1969) Ginger cultivation in Kerala. Arecanut and Spices Bull., 1(1), 22-24.

Nair, G.S., and Das, R.C. (1982) Effect of foliar application of urea and planofix (NAA) on the oleoresin and fiber contents of ginger. In: Nair, M.K., Premkumar. T., Ravindran, P.N., and Sarma, Y.R. (eds), Ginger and Turmeric, Central Plantation Crops Research Institute, Kasaragod, India, pp. 86-89.

Nair, M.K., Nambiar, M.C, and Ratnambal, M.J. (1982) Cytogenetics and crop improvement of ginger and turmeric. In: Nair, M.K., Premkumar, T., Ravindran, P.N., and Sarma, Y.R. (eds), Ginger and Turmeric, CPCRI, Kasaragod, India, pp. 15-23.

Nasution, R.E. (1980) A chemotaxonomic study of some species of Zingiber sub.sp. Zerumbet. Reinwardtia, 9, 449-459.

Natarajan, C.P., Kuppuswamy, S., Shankaracharya, N.B., Padma Bai, R., Raghavan, B., Krish-namurthy, M.N., Khan, F., Lewis, YS., and Govindrarajan, V.S. (1972) Chemical composition of ginger varieties and dehydration studies of ginger. J. Food Sci., Technol., 9(3), 120-124.

Nayar, J. (1995) On the nature of pollen of Zingiberiflorae based on pollen germination. In Second Symposium on the family Zingiberaceae, Ghuangzhan, China, May 9-12, 1995, p. 21 (Abst.).

Nirmal Babu, K., Samsudeen, K., and Ravindran, P.N. (1996) Biotechnological approaches for crop improvement in ginger, Zingiber officinale Rosc. In: Ravisankar, G.A and Venkataraman, L.V (eds.), Recent Advances in Biotechnological Applications on Plant Tissue and Cell Culture, Oxford Pub., New Delhi, pp. 321-332.

Nirmal Babu, K., Geetha, S.P., Minoo, D., Ravindran, P.N., and Peter, K.V. (1999) In vitro conservation of germplasm. In: Ghosh, S.P. (ed), Biotechnology and Its Application in Horticulture. Narosa Pub. House, New Delhi, pp. 106-129.

Nirmal Babu, K., Saji, K.V., Krishnamurthy, B., and Sarma, Y.R. (2001) Varieties of spices at IISR, IISR, Calicut, India.

NRCS (1994) National Research Center for Spices, Annual Report for 1993-1994, NRCS, Calicut, India.

Nwachukwu, E.C., Ene, L.S.O., and Mbanaso, E.N.A. (1995) Radiation sensitivity of two ginger varieties (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) to gamma irradiation. Tropenlandwirt, April, 95, 99-103.

Nybe, E.V., and Nair, P.C.S. (1979) Studies on the morphology of the ginger types. Indian Cocoa, Arecanut & Spices J., 3, 7-13.

Nybe, E.V., Nair, P.C.S., and Mohanakumaran, N. (1982) Assessment of yield and quality components in ginger. In: Nair, M.K., Premkumar, T., Ravindran, P.N., and Sarma, Y.R. (1982) (eds), Ginger and Turmeric, CPCRI, Kasaragod, India, pp. 24-29.

Omanakumari, N., and Mathew, P.M. (1985) Karyomorphological studies on four species of Zingiber Adan. Cytologia, 50, 445-451.

Panchaksharappa, M.G. (1966) Embryological studies in some members of Zingiberaceae. II. Elettaria cardamomum, Hitchenia caulina, and Zingiber microstachyum. Phytomorphogy, 16, 412-417.

Pandey, G., and Dobhal, V.K. (1993) Genetic variability, character association and path analysis for yield components in ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc). J. Spices & Aromatic Crops, 2, 16-20.

Panigrahi, U.C., and Patro, G.K. (1985) Ginger cultivation in Orissa. Indian Farming, 33(5), 3-4, 17.

Parry, J.W. (1962) Spices: Their Morphology, Histology and Chemistry. Vol. 2, Chemical Pub., New York.

Paulose, T.T. (1973) Ginger cultivation in India. In: Proc. Conference on Spices, TPI, London, pp. 117-121.

Peterson, O.G. (1889) Zingiberaceae. In: Engler & Prantl's Naturlichen Pflanzenfamilien, 2, 6, 10-30 (cited from Tomlinson, 1956).

Pillai, S.K., Pillai, A., and Sachdeva, S. (1961) Root apical organisation in monocotyledons—Zingiberaceae. Proc. Indian Acad. Sci., 53 B., 240-256.

Pillai, P.K.T., Vijayakumar, G., and Nambiar, M.C. (1978) Flowering behavior, cytology and pollen germination in ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.). J. Plantation Crops, 6, 12-13.

Pradeepkumar, T., Manmohandas, T.P., Jayarajan, M., and Aipe, K.C. (2000). Evaluation of ginger varieties in Wayanad. Spice India, 13(1), 13.

Raghavan, T.S., and Venkatasubban, K.R. (1943) Cytological studies in the family Zingiberaceae with special reference to chromosome number and cytotaxonomy. Proc. Indian Acad. Sci, 17B, 118-132.

Rai, S., Das, A.B., and Das, P. (1999) Variations in chlorophyll, carotenoids, protein and secondary metabolites amongst ginger (Zingiber officinale, Roscoe) cultivars and their association with rhizome yield. New Zealand J. Crop and Hort. Sci., 27, 79-82.

Raju, E.C., and Shah, J.J. (1975) Studies in stomata of ginger, turmeric and mango ginger. Flora, 164, 19-25.

Raju, E.C., and Shah, J.J. (1977) Root apical organization in some rhizomatous spices: ginger, turmeric and mango ginger. Flora Bd., 166, 105-110.

Raju, E.C., Patel, J.D., and Shah, J.J. (1980) Effect of gamma radiation in morphology of leaf and shoot apex of ginger, turmeric and mango ginger. Proc. Indian Acad. Sci. (Plant. Sci.), 89, 173-178.

Ramachandran, K. (1969) Chromosome numbers in Zingiberaceae. Cytologia, 34, 213, 221.

Ramachandran, K. (1982) Polyploidy induced in ginger by colchicine treatment. Curr. Sci., 51, 288-289.

Ramachandran, K., and Nair, P.N.C. (1982) Induced tetraploidy of ginger (Zingiber officinale, Rosc.). J. Spices & Aromatic Crops, 1, 39-42.

Randhawa, K.S., and Nandapuri, K.S. (1970) Ginger in India, Review. Punjab Hort. J., 10, 111-112.

Rao, V.S., and Pai, R.M. (1959) The floral anatomy of some Scitamineae, Part II. J. Univ. Bombay, 28, 82-84.

Rao, V.S., and Pai, R.M. (1960) The floral anatomy of some Scitamineae, III. J. Univ. of Bombay, 28, 1-19.

Rao, V.S., and Gupta, K. (1961) The floral anatomy of some Scitamineae, Part IV, J. Univ. of Bombay, 29, 134-150.

Rao, V.S., Karnick, H., and Gupta, K. (1954) The floral anatomy of some Scitamineae. Part I. J. Indian Bot. Soc., 33, 118-147.

Ratnambal, M.J. (1979) Cytological studies in ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.). Unpublished Ph.D thesis, University of Bombay, India.

Ratnambal, M.J. (1984) Somatic chromosomes of Zingiber officinale and related species. The Nucleus, 27, 198-202.

Ratnambal, M.J., and Nair, M.K. (1981) Microsporogensis in ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.). In: Proc. Placrosym, vi., CPCRI, Kasaragod, India, pp. 44-57.

Ratnambal, M.J., Balakrishnan, R., and Nair, M.K. (1982) Multiple regression analysis in cultivars of Zingiber officinale Rosc. In: Nair, M.K., Premkumar, T., Ravindran, P.N., and Sarma, YR. (eds), Ginger and Turmeric, Central Plantation Crops Research Institute, Kasaragod, India, pp. 30-33.

Rattan, R.S. (1988) Varietal performance of ginger. Proc. Ginger Symposium, Naban, Himachal Pradesh, Feb 1988.

Rattan, R.S. (1989) Improvement of ginger. In: Chadha, K.L., and Rethinam, P. (eds), Advances in Horticulture, Vol. 9, Plantation and Spices Crops, Part 1., Malhotra Pub., New Delhi, pp. 333-344.

Rattan, R.S., Korla, B.N. and Dohroo, N.P. (1988) Performance of ginger varieties in Solan area of Himachal Pradesh. In: Satyanarayana, G., Reddy, M.S., Rao, M.R., Azam, K.M. and Naidu, R. (eds) Proc. National Seminar on Chillies, Ginger and Turmeric, Spices Board, Cochin, pp. 71-73.

Ravindran, P.N. (1998) Genetic resources of spices and their conservation. In: Sasikumar, B., Krishnamoorthy, B., Rema, J., Ravindran, P.N., and Peter, K.V. (eds.), Biodiversity, Conservation and Utilization of Spices, Medicinal & Aromatic Plants, Indian Institute of Spices Research, Calicut, India, pp. 16-44.

Ravindran, P.N., Sasikumar, B., George, J.K., Ratnambal, M.J., Normal Babu, K., and Zachariah, T.J. (1994) Genetic resources of ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) and its conservation in India. Plant Genetic Resources Newsletter, No. 98, pp. 1-4.

Ravindran, P.N., Sasikumar, B., and Peter, K.V. (1997) Black Pepper, Ginger and Turmeric. In: Thampi, K.B., Nair, N.M., and Nair, C.S. (eds), The Natural Resources of Kerala, World Wildlife Fund, Kerala State Office, Thiruvananthapuram, p. 14.

Ravindran, P.N., Remashree, A.B., and Sherlija, K.K. (1998) Developmental morphology of rhizomes of ginger and turmeric. Final report of the ICAR ad hoc scheme, IISR, Calicut, India.

Ravindran, P.N., Nirmal Babu, K., Peter, K.V., Abraham, C.Z., and Tyagi, R.K. (2004) Genetic resources of spices—the Indian scenario. In: Dhillon, B. et al. (eds), Crop Genetic Resources: An Indian Perspective, Indian Society for Plant Genetic Resources, New Delhi (in press).

Remashree, A.B., Sherlija, K.K., Unnikrishnan, K., and Ravindran, P.N. (1997) Histological studies on ginger rhizome (Zingiber officinale Rosc.). Phytomorphology, 47, 67-75.

Remashree, A.B., Unnikrishnan, K., and Ravindran, P.N. (1998) Developmental anatomy of ginger rhizomes. II. Ontogeny of buds, roots and phloem. Phytomorphology, 48, 155-166.

Remashree, A.B., Unnikrishnan, K., and Ravindran, P.N. (1999) Development of oil cells, and ducts in ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.). J. Spices and Aromatic Crops, 8, 163-170.

Ridley, H.N. (1912) Spices, Mc Millian & Co. Ltd, London.

Rosales, P.B. (1938). An agronomic study of the native and Hawaiian gingers. Philipp. Agric., 26, 807-822.

Roxburgh, W. (1832) Flora Indica or Description of Indian Plants, W. Carey, ed. Serampore.

Saikia, L., and Shadeque, A. (1992) Yield and quality of ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) varieties grown in Assam. J. Spices & Aromatic Crops, 1, 131-135.

Sasikumar, B., Ravindran, P.N., and George, J. K. (1992a) Breeding ginger and turmeric. Indian Cocoa, Arecanut & Spices J., 19(1), 10-12.

Sasikumar, B., Nirmal Babu, K., Abraham, J., and Ravindran, P.N. (1992b) Variability, correlation and path analysis in ginger germplasm. Indian J. Genet., 52, 428-431.

Sasikumar, B., Ravindran, P.N., and George, K.J. (1994) Breeding ginger and turmeric. Indian Cocoa, Arecanut and Spices J., 18, 10-12.

Sasikumar, B., Ravindran, P.N., George, J.K., and Peter, K.V. (1996) Ginger and turmeric breeding in Kerala. In Kuriachan, P.I. (ed), Proc.of the Seminar on Crop Breeding in Kerala, Dept. of Botany, Univ. Kerala, Kariavattom, Trivandrum, India, pp. 65-72.

Sasikumar, B., George, J.K., and Ravindran, P.N. (1996) IISR Varada—a high yielding ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) variety. J. Spices & Aromatic Crops, 5, 34-40.

Sasikumar, B., Saji, K.V., Ravindran, P.N., and Peter, K.V. (1999) Genetic resources of ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) and its conservation in India. In: Sasikumar, B., Krishnamurthy, B., Rema, J., Ravindran, P.N., and Peter, K.V. (eds), Biodiversity, Conservation and Utilization of Spice, Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, IISR, Calicut, India, pp. 96-100.

Sasikumar, B., Saji, K.V., Antony, A., George, J.K., Zachariah, T.J., and Eapen, S.J. (2003) IISR Mahima and IISR Rejatha—two high yielding and high quality ginger (Zingiber officinale) varieties. J. Spices & Aromatic Crops, 12, 34-37.

Sato, D. (1948) The karyotype and phylogeny of Zingiberaceae. Jpn. J. Genet. 23, 44 (cited from Sharma, 1972).

Sato, D. (1960) The karyotype analysis in Zingiberales with special reference to the protokaryotype and stable karyotype. Sci. Papers of the College of Education, Uni., Tokyo, 10(2), 225-243.

Schumann, K. (1904) Zingiberaceae. In: Engler's Pflanazenreich, 4, 1-428.

Shamina, A., Zachariah, T.J., Sasikumar, B., and George, J.K. (1997) Biochemical variability in selected ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) germplasm accessions. J. Spices & Aromatic Crops, 6, 119-127.

Sharma, A. (1972) Chromosome census of the plant kingdom, 1. Monocotyledons. The Nucleus, 15, 1-20.

Sharma, A.K., and Bhattacharya, N.K. (1959) Cytology of several members of Zingiberaceae and a study of the inconsistency of their chromosome complement. La Cellule, 59, 279-349.

Shah, J.J., and Raju, E.C. (1975a) General morphology, growth and branching behavior of the rhizomes of ginger, turmeric and mango ginger. New Botanist, 11, 59-69.

Shah, J.J., and Raju, E.C (1975b) Ontogeny of the shoot apex of Zingiber officinale. Norw. J. Bot., 22, 227-236.

Shi-jie, Z., Xizhen, A., Shaohui, W., Zhenxian, Z., and Qi, Z. (1999) Role of xanthophyll cycle and photorespiration in protecting the photosynthetic apparatus of ginger leaves from photo-inhibitory damage. Acta Agri. Boreali-Occidentalis Sinica, 8(3), 81-85.

Shiva, K.N., Suryanarayana, M.A., and Medhi, R.P. (2004). Genetic resources of spices and their conservation in Bay Islands. Indian J. Plant Genet. Resources, New Delhi (In Press).

Shu, E.J. (2003) Zingiber Miller, In: Ke, E.J., Delin, D., and Larson, K. (2003). Zingiberaceae. Accessed from the Web. http//www.servicedirect.com/ service? Ob=article URI-udi=B6VSC-4876 DKY-9:- 8/1/2003.

Simmonds, N.W. (1979) Principles of crop improvement. Longman Group Ltd., New York.

Singh, A.K. (2001) Correlation and path analysis for certain metric traits in ginger. Ann. Agri. Res., 22, 285-286.

Singh, H.P., and Tamil Selvan, M. (eds). (2003) Indian ginger: Production and Utilisation, Directorate of Arecanut and Spices Development, Calicut, Kerala.

Singh, J., Sharma, A., and Khanuja, S.P.S. (2003) Medicinal and therapeutic values of ginger. In Singh, H.P and Tamil Selvan (eds), Indian ginger: Production and Utilization, Directorate of Arecanut and Spices Development, Calicut, Kerala, pp. 95-109.

Singh, P.P., Singh, V.B., Singh, A., and Singh, H.B. (1999) Evaluation of different ginger cultivars for growth, yield and quality character under Nagaland condition. J. Medicinal and Aromatic Plant Sci, 21, 716-718.

Skvaria, J.J., and Rowley, J.R. (1988) Adaptability of scanning electron microscopy to studies of pollen morphology. Aliso, 12, 119-175.

Solereder and Meyar. (1930) Cited from Tomlinson P.B. (1956).

Sreekumar, V., Indrasenan, G., and Mammen, M.K. (1982) Studies on the quantitative and qualitative attributes of ginger cultivars. In: Nair, M.K., Premkumar, T., Ravindran, P.N., and Sarma, YR. (eds), Ginger and Turmeric. Proc. of the National Seminar, CPCRI, Kasaragod, India, pp. 47-49.

Stebbins, G.L. (1958) Longevity, habitat and release of genetic variability in higher plants. Cold Spring Harbour Symp. Quant. Biol., 23, 365-378.

Sterling, K.J., Clark, R.J., Brown, P.H., and Wilson, S.J. (2002) Effect of photoperiod on flower bud initiation and development in myoga (Zingiber mioga Rosc.). Sci. Hort., 95, 261-268.

Stone, D.E., Sellers, S.C., and Kress, W.J. (1979) Ontogeny of exineless pollen in Heliconia, a banana relative. Ann. Mo. Bot. Gard., 66, 701-730.

Sugiura, T. (1936) Studies on the chromosome numbers in higher plants, Cytologia, 7, 544-595.

Suzuka, O., and Mitsuoka, S. (1968) Zingiber mioga Roscoe, a sterile plant. Rep. Kihara Inst. Biol., 20, 103-107.

Takahashi. (1930) Cited from Darlington and Janaki Ammal (1945).

Tashiro, V., Onimaru, H., Shigyo, M., Isshiki, S., and Miyazaki, S. (1995) Isozyme mutations induced by treatment of cultured shoot tips with alkylating agents in ginger cultivars (Zingiber officinale Rosc.). Bull. Fac. Agri., Saga Uni., No. 79, 29-35.

Theilede, J., Maersk-Moller, M.G. Theilade, J., and Larsen, K. (1993) Pollen morphology and structure of Zingiber (Zingiberaceae). Grana, 32, 338-342.

Thomas, K.M. (1966) Rio-de-Janeiro will double your ginger yield. Indian farming 15(10), 15-18.

Thomas, T.A. (1982) Genetic resources of ginger in India. In: Nair, M.K., Premkumar, T., Ravindran, P.N., and Sarma, Y.R. (eds), Ginger and Turmeric, Proc. of the National Seminar, CPCRI, Kasaragod, India, pp. 50-54.

Thomas, K.M., and Kannan, K. (1969) Comparative yield performance of different types of ginger. Agric. Research J. Kerala, 1(1): 58-59

Tindall, H.D. (1968) Commercially grown vegetables. In: Commercial Vegetable Growing, Oxford Univ. Press, London.

Tomlinson, P.B. (1956) Studies in the systematic anatomy of the Zingiberaceae. J. Linn. Soc. (Bot.), 55, 547-592.

Usha, K. (1984) Effect of growth regulators on flowering, pollination and seed set in ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.). Unpublished M.Sc. (Ag.) thesis, Kerala Agricultural University, Vellanikkara, Trichur, India.

Valsala, P.A., Nair, G.S., and Nazeem, P.A. (1996) Seed set in ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.), through in vitro pollination. J. Tropical Agri., 34, 81-84.

Xianchang, Y., Kun, X., Xizheng, A., Liping, C., and Zhenxian, Z. (1996) Study on the relationship between canopy, canopy photosynthesis and yield formation in ginger. J. Shandong Agri. Univ., 27(1), 83-86.

Xizhen, A., Zhenxian, Z., and Shaohui, W. (1998a) Effect of temperature on photosynthetic characters of ginger leaf. China Vegetables, 3, 1-3.

Xizhen, A., Zhenxian, Z., Shaohui, W. and Zhifeng, C. (1998b) Study on photosynthetic characteristics of different leaf position in ginger. Acta Agri. Boreali-Occidentalis Sinica, 7(2), 101-103.

Xizhen, A., Zhenxian, Z., Zhifeng, C., and Liping, C. (1998c) Changes of photosynthetic rate, MDA content and the activities of protective enzymes during development of ginger leaves. Acta Hort. Sinica, 25, 294-296.

Xizhen, A., Zhenxian, Z., Shaohui, W., and Zhifeng, C. (2000) The role of SOD in protecting ginger leaves from photoinhibition damage under high light stress. Acta Hort. Sinica, 27(3), 198-201.

Yadav, R.K. (1999) Genetic variability in ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.). J. Spices & Aromatic Crops, 8, 81-83.

Zachariah, T.J., Sasikumar, B., and Ravindran, P.N. (1993) Variation in ginger and shogaol contents in ginger accessions. Indian perfumer, 37, 87-90.

Zachariah, T.J., Sasikumar, B. and Nirmal Babu, K. (1999) Variations for quality components in ginger and turmeric and their interaction with environment. In: Sakummar, B., Kinshnan-worthy, B., Rema, J., Ravindran, P.N., and Peter, K.V. (eds), Biodiversity Conservation and Utilization of Spices, Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, ISS, IISR, Calicut, India, pp. 116-120.

Zavada, M.S. (1983) Comparative morphology of monocot pollen and evolutionary trends of apertures and wall structure. Bot. Rev., 49, 331-379.

Zhenxian, Z., Xizhen, A., Qi, Z., and Shi-jie, Z. (2000) Studies on the diurnal changes of photosynthetic efficiency of ginger. Acta Hort. Sinica, 27(2), 107-111.

Was this article helpful?

0 0
Essential Aromatherapy

Essential Aromatherapy

Have you always wanted to know what is aromatherapy? Here are some invaluable information on aromatherapy. I leave absolutely nothing out! Everything that I learned in order to improve my life with aromatherapy I share with you.

Get My Free Ebook


Post a comment