Setomorpha Rutella India

Ginger

Zingiber officinale Rosc.

Zingiberaceae

India, Sri Lanka

Banana

Musa sp.

Musaceae

Australia

Sugarcane

Saccharum officinarum L.

Poacea

Australia

Sorghum

Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench

Poacea

Australia, India

Maize

Zea mays L.

Poacea

Australia, China

Cedar

Cryptomeria japonica (L. f.) D. Don

Taxodiaceae

1. Review of Applied Entomology—Series A/Review of Agricultural Entomology, CAB International, Wallingford.

2. Crop Protection Compendium (2002), CAB International, Wallingford.

3. CABPESTCD, CAB International, Wallingford.

Source:

1. Review of Applied Entomology—Series A/Review of Agricultural Entomology, CAB International, Wallingford.

2. Crop Protection Compendium (2002), CAB International, Wallingford.

3. CABPESTCD, CAB International, Wallingford.

Resistance

The reaction of various types of ginger to shoot borer in the field was studied by Nybe and Nair (1979), who reported that among the 25 cultivars of ginger screened, the pest infestation was minimum in Rio de Janeiro and maximum in Valluvanad, although not significant.

Natural Enemies

Various natural enemies of the shoot borer have been reported, especially from Sri Lanka, China, Japan, and India. Dolichurus sp. (Sphegidae), Xanthopimpla sp. (Ichneumonidae), and Phanerotoma hendecasisella Cam. (Braconidae) were recorded as parasitoids of shoot borer from Sri Lanka (Rodrigo, 1941). Apanteles sp. (Braconidae), Brachymeria lasus West. (Chalcidae), and Temelucha sp. (Ichneumonidae) were recorded as parasitoids of shoot borer infesting longan (Dimocarpus longan Lour.) in China (Huang et al., 2000). Trathala flavoorbitalis (Cam.) (Ichneumonidae) and B. obscurata Walk. from China, along with Apechthis scapulifera, Scambus persimilis (Ichneumonidae), and B. obscurata from Japan, have also been documented as natural enemies of the pest (CABI, 2002).

A number of natural enemies have been documented in India. The entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema glaseri (Steinernematidae) has been recorded on larvae of shoot borer (CABI, 2002). Angitia (Dioctes) trochanterata Morl. (Ichneumonidae), Theromia inareolata (Braconidae), Bracon brevicornis Wes., Apanteles sp. (Braconidae), Brachymeria euploeae West. (Chalcidae) (David et al. 1964), and Microbracon hebetor Say. (Braconidae) (Patel and Gangrade, 1971) were documented as natural enemies of the pest infesting castor. Brachymeria nosatoi Habu and B. lasus West. were recorded as parasitoids of the pest by Joseph et al. (1973). More than 20 parasitoids have been found parasitising the shoot borer infesting cardamom, and they include Palexorista parachrysops (Tachinidae), Agrypon sp., Apechthis copulifera, Eriborus trochanteratus (Morl.), Friona sp., Gotra sp., Nythobia sp., Scambus persimilis, Temecula sp., Theronia inareolata, Xanthopimpla australis Kr., X. kandi-ensis Cram. (Ichneumonidae), Bracon brevicornis Wes., Microbracon hebator, Apanteles sp., P. hendecasisella Cram. (Braconidae), Synopiensis sp., Brachymeria australis Kr., and B. obscura (Chalcidae) (CPCRI, 1985; Varadarasan, 1995).

Mermithid nematode (Mermithidae), Myosoma sp. (Braconidae), X. australis (Jacob 1981), Hexamermis sp. (Mermithidae), and Apanteles taragamme (Devasahayam, unpublished) have been documented on shoot borer infesting ginger in Kerala. In addition, general predators like dermapteran (Euborellia stali Dohrn (Carcinophoridae), asilid flies (Philodicus sp. and Heligmoneura sp.) (Asilidae), and spiders (Araneus sp., Micaria sp., and Thyene sp.) have also been recorded on the pest in Kerala (Jacob, 1981). The virus that has been recorded to infect shoot borer is Dichocrocis punctiferalis NPV (Baculoviridae) (Murphy et al. 1995).

Management

In spite of the serious damage caused by shoot borer, very few field trials have been conducted with insecticides for the control of the pest on ginger.

Chemical Control: Koya et al. (1988) evaluated six insecticides at Peruvannamuzhi (Kerala) and found that all of them were effective in controlling the pest when sprayed at monthly intervals from July to October. Among the insecticides, malathion 0.1 percent resulted in minimum pest infestation on the pseudostems and was on par with mono-crotophos 0.05 percent, quinalphos 0.05 percent, endosulfan 0.05 percent, and carbaryl + molasses 0.05 percent. Koya et al. (1986) have evolved a sequential sampling strategy for monitoring the level of pest infestation in a field of ginger as guidance for undertaking control measures.

The pesticide residues of the promising insecticides, such as malathion 0.1 percent, endosulfan 0.05 percent, and monocrotophos 0.05 percent, which were sprayed during July to October (four sprays), were determined. The residues of all the insecticides were below the detectable limits (<0.001 ppm) in dried ginger rhizomes at harvest, indicating the safety of the recommendations for the management of the pest (Devasahayam, unpublished).

Biological Control: Two commercial products of Bacillus thuringiensis, namely Bioasp and Dipel, were evaluated, along with malathion for the management of the shoot borer in the field at Peruvannamuzhi. The trials indicated that all the treatments were effective in reducing the damage caused by the pest compared to control when sprayed at 21-day intervals during July to October. Spraying Dipel 0.3 percent was the most effective treatment, resulting in a significantly lower percentage of infested pseudostems on the crop (Devasahayam, 2000).

Choo et al. (1995) evaluated the pathogenecity of entomopathogenic nematodes against the shoot borer. Steinernema sp. and Heterorhabditis sp. caused 90 and 100 percent mortality, respectively, of test insects in the laboratory when 20 nematodes per larva were inoculated. Choo et al. (2001) later reported that the LC50 for S. carpocapsae Pocheon strain and H. bacteriophora Hamyang strain were 5.6 and 5.8, whereas their moralities were 96.9 and 96.5 percent, respectively, for these strains.

Integrated Management: An integrated strategy including cultural methods, such as pruning of freshly infested shoots during July to August (at fortnightly intervals) and chemical methods such as spraying of insecticide (malathion 0.1 percent) during September to October (at monthly intervals), was effective for the management of shoot borer, resulting in a cost-benefit ratio of 1:4.6. By adopting this integrated strategy, two insecticide sprays could be avoided, thus causing less harm to the ecosystem (Devasahayam unpublished).

Sex Pheromones: Many workers have demonstrated the presence of sex pheromones in the shoot borer (Konno et al., 1980, 1982; Liu et al., 1994; Kimura and Honda, 1999). Trials on the efficacy of sex pheromones in the field have also been reported on various crops (other than ginger) from China, Japan, Korea, and India (Cai and Mu, 1993; Liu et al., 1994; Chakravarthy and Thygaraj, 1997, 1998; Jung et al., 2000)

Rhizome Scale (Aspidiella hartii Ckll.)

The rhizome scale is distributed mainly in the tropical regions of Asia, Africa, Central America, and the Caribbean Islands, but authentic records of the pest infestation on ginger in various parts of the world, including India, are limited.

Damage

The rhizome scale infests rhizomes of ginger both in the field and in storage. In the field, the pest is generally seen during the later stages of the crop, and in severe cases of infestation the plants wither and dry. In storage, the pest infestation results in the shriveling of buds and rhizomes, and severe infestation adversely affects the sprouting (see Figure 10.4). The pest infestation results in a weight loss of 14.0 and 22.5 percent when stored for 128 days and 175 days, respectively (Hargreaves, 1930).

Life History

The adult female of the rhizome scale is minute, circular, and light brown to grey, measuring about 1.5 mm in diameter (see Figure 10.5). Females are ovo-viviparous and

Figure 10.4 Ginger rhizome infested by rhizome scale (top-infested rhizome; bottom-healthy rhizome).

Figure 10.5 Rhizome scale, adults.

X"

Figure 10.5 Rhizome scale, adults.

also reproduce parthenogenetically. Little information is available on the life history of the pest on ginger. A single female lays about 100 eggs, and the life cycle from egg to adult is completed in about 30 days (Jacob, 1982, 1986). The pest completes its life cycle in 11 to 20 days on yams (Dioscorea spp.) (Palaniswami, 1991).

Host Plants

In India, the rhizome scale has been reported to infest turmeric (Curcuma longa (L.) Ayyar, 1940), elephant foot yam (Amorphophallus paeoniifolius (Dennst.) Nicolson = (A.) com-panulatus) (Regupathy et al., 1976), yams (Dioscorea alata L., D. esculenta (Lour.) Burkill and D. rotundata Poir) (Palaniswami et al., 1979), taro (Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott.) (Pillai and Rajamma, 1984), and tannia (Xanthosoma sagittifolium (L.) Schott.) (Jacob, 1986).

In other countries, the rhizome scale infests yams in the West Indies (Ballou, 1916), the Panama Canal Zone in Central America (Fisher, 1920), Nigeria (Onazi, 1969), and the Ivory Coast (Sauphanor and Ratnadass, 1985). It specifically affects sweet potatoes in Africa (Sasser, 1920) and tannia in the West Indies (Catoni, 1921).

Natural Enemies

The natural enemies recorded on the rhizome scale at Kasaragod include Physcus (Cocobius) comperei Hayat (Aphelinidae), Adelencyrtus moderatus Howard (Encyrtidae), and two species of mites. Parasitization by P. comperei brought down the population of the rhizome scale by about 80 percent in three months (Jacob, 1986). At Peruvannamuzhi, apart from Cocobius sp., a predatory beetle and ant were observed to predate on the rhizome scale (Devasahayam, 1996).

Management

Dipping the seed rhizomes in quinalphos 0.1 percent for five minutes after harvest and before planting was found to be effective in controlling rhizome scale infestation on ginger (CPCRI, 1985). Soaking the rhizomes in quinalphos 0.025 percent or fenthion 0.025 percent for 30 minutes was also reported to be effective in preventing the infestation (Maicykutty et al., 1994). Dipping the seed rhizomes in quinalphos 0.075 percent and storage in dried leaves of Strychnos nux-vomica L. was also promising for the management of the rhizome scale (IISR, 2002).

Minor Insect Pests

The minor insect pests of ginger include sap feeders, leaf feeders, and rhizome feeders. Sap Feeders

The only species of thrips recorded to infest ginger is onion thrips Thrips tabaci Lind. from India (Chadha, 1976). Reports from India and China indicate that the banana aphid, Pentalonia nigronervosa Coq., infests ginger leaves. Pseudococcus sp. and unidentified mealybugs have been recorded on ginger rhizomes from Fiji and India, respectively (Ehrhorn and Whitney, 1926; Vevai, 1971). Apart from A. hartii, other species of scale insects, such as Aspidiotus destructor Sign. (Anon, 1927) and Howardia biclavis (Com.) (Chua and Wood, 1990), have also been recorded to infest ginger rhizomes.

Leaf Feeders

The grasshopper, Atractomorpha ambigua Bol., has been recorded to feed on ginger leaves in China (Ma, 1935). Chrysomelid beetles, such as Pharangispa purpureipennis Maulik, and four subspecies of P. alpinae have been recorded on ginger from the Solomon Islands (Maulik, 1929; Gressitt and Samuelson, 1990). The curculionid Hedychorus rufofasciatus M. has been recorded on ginger from India (Nair, 1975). The Chinese rose beetle (Adoretus sinicus Burm.) has been recorded to damage the foliage of Hawaiian ginger plants. Spraying of carbaryl has been suggested for the management of the pest (UH, 2001).

A few species of leaf-feeding caterpillars have been recorded on ginger, with the turmeric skipper Udaspes folus Cram. being the most serious, especially in India. The pest has also been recorded from China and Malaysia as infesting ginger (Hill 1983).

The larvae of the leaf roller cut and fold the leaves, remain within, and feed on them. The egg, larval, and pupal periods last for 4 to 5, 13 to 25, and 6 to 7 days, respectively, on ginger (Abraham et al., 1975). The pest is abundant in the field from August to October. Koya et al. (1991) reviewed the natural enemies and alternate hosts of the pest. The other leaf-feeding caterpillars that affect ginger include Acrocercops irradians Meyr. from India (Meyrick, 1931) and Spodoptera litura (F.) from Malaysia (Hill, 1983). The larvae of cutworms have been known to feed on the basal portion of pseudostems and sometimes on the first leaf in Australia and Hawaii. In Hawaii, fumigation of the soil with methyl bromide prior to planting and application of diazinon have been suggested for managing the pest (DPI, 2001; UH, 2001).

Rhizome Feeders

Various species of dipteran maggots bore into rhizomes and roots, and they are generally seen in plants affected by rhizome rot disease. The maggots recorded on ginger include Calobata indica (Maxwell-Lefroy and Howlett, 1909), Chalcidomyia atricornis Mall., For-mosina flavipes Mall. (Malloch, 1927), Mimegralla coeruleifrons Macq. (Khaire et al., 1972), Celyphus sp. (Nair, 1975), Leia arsona (Hutson, 1978), Eumerus albifrons Walk. (Sathia-mma, 1979), Phytosciara zingiberis, Psilosciara flammulinae (Ogawa et al., 1985), E. pul-cherrimus Bru. (CPCRI, 1986), Gymnonerius sp. (Koya, 1988), and Bradysia sp. (Lee et al., 2001).

Ghorpade et al. (1983) conducted surveys in Maharashtra (India) and reported that M. coeruleifrons was endemic in Sangli and Satara districts and resulted in 31 percent reduction in ginger yield. Surveys conducted in Kerala indicated that M. coeruleifrons was the most common species occurring in ginger rhizomes, and 26.4 percent of the diseased rhizome samples examined contained maggots (Koya, 1988). Sonatakke (2000) reported that 40 to 42 percent of the unprotected crop in Orissa (India) was damaged due to an infestation by M. coeruleifrons. Garg (2001) conducted surveys in Sirmour district in Himachal Pradesh (India) and reported that 32.6 to 50.0 percent of the rhizome samples were infested by C. indica.

The life history of M. coeruleifrons on ginger was studied in Maharashtra, Kerala, and Orissa. The pest completed its life cycle in 32 to 35 days, 20 to 28 days, and 46 days, respectively, in these areas (Ghorpade et al., 1988; Koya, 1989; Sontakke, 2000). Tri-chopria sp. (Diapriidae), Spalangia gemina Boucek (Pteromalidae), and an unidentified spider were recorded as the natural enemies of M. coeruleifrons (CPCRI, 1977; Ghorpade et al., 1982; Koya, 1990). The life history of C. indica was studied at Himachal Pradesh, and the total life cycle was completed in 14 to 18 days (Garg, 2001).

Many workers investigated the association of dipteran maggots with diseased rhizomes. The presence or absence of maggots did not make any difference in the initial incidence of the disease (Iyer et al., 1981). Premkumar et al. (1982) reported that 42 percent of the diseased rhizomes examined had Pythium sp. alone, and 58 percent had Pythium sp. and maggots. None of the rhizomes were infested with maggots alone. Radke and Borle (1982) found that the rotting of rhizomes due to disease occurred first and later the flies preferred such rhizomes for egg laying. Surveys conducted in Kerala indicated that 33.6 percent of the diseased rhizomes contained maggots (M. coeruleifrons and E. pulcherrimus); none of the healthy rhizomes contained maggots (Koya, 1988). However, Ghorpade et al. (1988) mentioned that the feeding activity of maggots was responsible for the introduction of microorganisms such as Fusarium sp., Pythium sp., and Sclerotium sp. and nematodes of the genera Tylenchus, Helicotylenchus, Meloidogyne, and Dorylaimida in the field. However, studies conducted under controlled conditions in the greenhouse and in the field involving inoculation with M. coeruleifrons and Pythium sp. in various combinations clearly indicated that the maggots could infest only diseased ginger rhizomes and hence cannot be considered as a primary pest of the crop (Koya, 1990).

Koya and Banerjee (1981) reported that aldicarb, carbofuran, and methyl parathion were effective in reducing the pest infestation in trials with various insecticides against M. coeruleifrons on ginger. Garg (2001) suggested treating seed rhizomes with chlorpy-riphos before sowing, and spraying with the same chemical 1 month after germination for the management of C. indica.

The treatment of ginger seed rhizomes with 0.4 percent hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) and fields with one, two, or three applications (60, 90, and 120 days after planting) of 10 percent HCH dust in Maharashtra for the management of M. coeruleifrons resulted in residues of 0.44 ppm in rhizomes from a crop that received the seed treatment and three applications of insecticides. The residues were below 0.1 ppm in rhizomes, which received only two applications. The residues of HCH in the soil ranged from 0.60 to 1.09 ppm in plots, which received one to three applications (Dhatkhile and Dethe, 1987). The same authors subsequently reported that when the seed rhizomes were treated with 0.4 percent of HCH before planting, and when three applications of 7 kg ai/ha were carried out after planting, residues of 0.41 ppm were detected in the rhizomes at harvest. The soil residues ranged from 0.41 to 0.97 ppm (Datkhile and Dethe, 1988).

The larvae of an unidentified cerambycid were reported to tunnel into and completely destroy ginger rhizomes at Hazyview in South Africa (Willers 1990). Koya et al. (1991) reported infestation of 2- to 3-month-old ginger plants by Holotrichia fissa Brenske at Peruvannamuzhi. The grubs fed on the tender rhizomes and sometimes at the base of the pseudostems, resulting in the yellowing of shoots and the mortality of the plants. H. coracea (Hope) also bored into rhizomes in Shimla district (Himachal Pradesh), resulting in large, circular holes; the damage ranged from 5.7 to 26.5 percent at harvest (Misra, 1992). At Sikkim (India), H. seticollis Mosher causes serious damage to ginger in many areas. The egg, larval, and pupal stages lasted for 10 to 15, 170 to 220, and 30 to 40 days, respectively. Collection of beetles during adult emergence periods along with drenching the soil with quinalphos 0.05 percent or chlorpyriphos 0.08 percent was effective for managing the pest (Varadarasan, 2000). H. consanguínea Blanch. has been known to feed on rhizomes and roots, which has caused the drying of plants at Sirmour district in Himachal Pradesh. Treating the seed rhizomes and the field with chlorpyriphos before sowing has been suggested for managing the pest (Garg, 2001).

Opogona sacchari (Bojer) on ginger rhizomes from Brazil (Seymour et al., 1985) has been intercepted in the United Kingdom. Araecerus fasciculatus (DeG), Pyralis manihotalis Guen., and Setomorpha rutella Zell., which predominantly infest dry ginger, also bore into fresh ginger rhizomes (Jacob, 1986). The termite Odontotermes obesus Holm. has been reported to feed on rhizomes and roots, causing ginger plants to wither and dry, and also leading to the secondary fungal infection of rhizomes at Sirmour district in Himachal Pradesh. The pest infestation could be managed by treating seed rhizomes and the field with chlorpyriphos before sowing and avoiding the use of sugarcane straw as mulch (Garg 2001). Wireworms have also been reported to damage ginger plants in Hawaii. Fumigating the soil with methyl bromide prior to planting and applying diazinon have been suggested for managing the pest (UH, 2001).

Major Insect Pests of Stored Ginger

Various insects have been reported to infect dry ginger. They mainly belong to the orders Coleoptera and Lepidoptera, with the cigarette beetle (Lasioderma serricorne (Fab.), the drug store beetle (Stegobium paniceum L.) and the coffee bean weevil (Araecerus fasciculatus DeG) being the most serious.

Distribution

The insect pests of dry ginger are cosmopolitan in the warmer parts of the world, occurring mainly in Asia and Africa. In temperate regions, they are common in heated stores. Abraham (1975) reported that the cigarette beetle and coffee bean beetle were the most common pests of dry ginger in Kerala, and 30 to 60 percent of the samples were infested by these pests. Studies on insect pests of stored ginger in commercial stores in Kerala indicated that a significantly high population of cigarette beetle was noticed during August and October when compared to December at Kozhikode, Ernakulam and Idukki districts (Joseph et al., 2001a).

Damage

The larvae of cigarette beetle and drug store beetle tunnel into dry ginger and contaminate it with an abundant production of frass (see Figure 10.6). The larvae and adults also make extensive holes in the produce. The adults of cigarette beetle do not feed but tunnel through the produce to leave the pupal cocoon, creating extensive holes. Both adults and larvae of coffee bean weevil are injurious to dry ginger rhizomes that are completely fed, and only the outer covering is left intact.

Studies on the damage caused by storage pests to ginger in Kerala indicated that the weight loss to the stored produce by the pest infestation increased gradually from the second month onwards (Joseph et al., 2001b).

Figure 10.6 Dry ginger rhizomes damaged by cigarette beetle.

Life History

Adult cigarette beetles are small (3 to 4 mm), brown beetles with smooth elytra that have fine hairs. The head is strongly protected under the pronotum, especially when alarmed and the antennae are serrated. The eggs are creamy white, and the larvae are whitish grey with dense hairs. The larvae are very active when young but become sluggish as they age. There are 4 to 6 larval instars, and the later instars are scarabaeiform. Pupation occurs within a silken cocoon, and the pupa is brown. The incubation period lasts for 9 to 14 days, the larval period for 17 to 29 days, and the pupal period for 2 to 8 days in Kerala (Abraham, 1975). The life history of cigarette beetle infesting ginger has also been studied in Japan (Shibuya and Yamada, 1935) and Egypt (El-Halfawy, 1977). Laboratory studies on growth and food intake of cigarette beetle on various spices have indicated the order of preference as cumin > anise > ginger > turmeric powder > turmeric (Jacob 1992).

The drug store beetle resembles the cigarette beetle superficially but is smaller with striated elytra, and the distal segments of the antenna are clubbed. The larvae are pale white with the abdomen terminating in two dark horny points in fully grown specimens. The eggs are cigar-shaped and hatch in six days. The larval period lasts for 10 to 20 days, and the pupal period lasts for 8 to 12 days (Abraham, 1975).

The coffee bean weevil is a small (3 to 5 mm), grey, stout beetle with pale marks on the elytra and with long, clubbed antennae. The eggs are oval and are laid in small pits dug on the rhizomes by the female beetles. Pupation takes place within the infested rhizomes. The entire life cycle lasts for 21 to 28 days (Abraham, 1975). Studies on the development and life span of the coffee bean weevil on various food materials, including ginger, indicated that tapioca and maize were more favorable than black gram, ginger, and arecanut (Ragunath and Nair, 1970).

Studies on the olfactory responses of adults of L. serricorne and S. paniceum to various spices, including ginger, indicated that in L. serricorne, the highest attraction value of 42.6 percent was observed in turmeric when compared to 28.5 percent in ginger. However, in the case of S. paniceum, the attraction value to ginger was only 1.9 percent (Jha and Yadhav, 1991).

Hosts

All the storage pests infest a wide range of produce, including cocoa and coffee beans, cereals, spices, dried fruits, oil seeds, confectionery products, processed foodstuffs, and even animal products.

Natural Enemies

Several natural enemies, including predatory mites, hemipterans, coleopterans, and hymenopterous parasitoids, have been found on storage pests. Predatory mites such as Acaropsellina solers (Kuzin) (Cheyletidae) (Rizk et al., 1980), A. docta (Berl.) (Cheyletidae) (Al-Badry et al., 1980), Pyemotus tritici (Pyemotidae), Cheyletus spp. (Cheyletidae^, Chor-toglyphus gracilipes (Chortoglyphidae CABI, 2002), and Blattisocius tarsalis (Ascidae) (Riu-davets et al., 2002), have been recorded as natural enemies of L. serricorne.

The predatory beetles and bugs recorded as natural enemies include Tribolium castaneum (Hbst.) (Bostrychidae) (Jacob and Mohan, 1973), Peregrinator biannulipes (Montr. and Sign.) (Yao et al., 1982), Xylocorisflavipes (Reuter) (Anthocoridae), Alloeocranum biannulipes

(Reduviidae), and Termatophyllum insigne (Miridae) (Tawfik et al., 1984—1985), which prey on L. serricorne and S. panniceum. Tenebroides mauritanicus (L.) (Tenebrionidae) and Thaneroclerus buqueti (Lefevre) (Cleridae) prey on L. serricorne (CABI, 2002), and Tilloidea notata (Klug) (Cleridae) preys on S. paniceum (Iwata, 1989) and Cheyletus sp. Pyemotes sp. and Tydeus sp. (Cheyletidae) prey on A. fasciculatus (Stusak et al.,1986).

The hymenopterous parasitoids that are natural enemies of L. serricorne include Ceph-alonomica gallicola (Ashmead) (Bethylidae; Kohno et al., 1987), Anisopteromalus calandrae (Howard), Israelius carthami, Perisierola gestroi (Bethylidae), and Lariophagus distinguendus (Forst) (Pteromalidae) (CABI, 2002) Pteromalus cerealellae (Pteromalidae) parasitizes both L. serricorne and S. paniceum (Brower, 1991).

Management

Various strategies have been suggested for the management of storage pests, including storage in suitable containers, fumigation, radiation, and the application of insecticides. Thirumalarao and Nagarajarao (1954) reported that fumigating bags of dry ginger using methyl bromide or calcium cyanide for 24 h or using ethylene dichloride or carbon tetrachloride for 48 h, with an initial external dusting with lindane 0.65 percent once a month, prevented the pest infestation up to an year. Abraham (1975) suggested impregnation of jute bags lined with alkathene (500 guage) with malathion 0.2 percent or fumigation with methyl bromide for 6 h to prevent the pest infestation. Jacob (1986) suggested fumigation with aluminium phosphide tablets in an airtight store for 2 to 3 days to control the pest infestation. Muthu and Majumdar (1974) have furnished the concentration, time of exposure, and residual effects of various fumigants recommended for controlling insect infestations in various spices, including ginger and turmeric. Padwal-Desai (1987) has also studied the lethal dose of gamma radiation required for stored pests of various spices.

Emehute (1997, 1998) evaluated three storage containers (130 ^m thick polythene bag, 20 ^m thick polythene bag, and brown paper sampling bag) for their effectiveness in protecting dried ginger rhizomes against S. paniceum. After seven months, rhizomes stored in 130 ^m thick polythene bags and brown paper sampling bags closed by rubber bands remained uninfested by the pest.

Evaluation of dried leaf powders for protecting dry ginger rhizomes from infestation by cigarette beetle has indicated that the storage of dry ginger in PET containers with Glycosmis cochinsinensis (Lour.) Pierre ex Engl. or Azadirachta indica A. Juss leaf powder was promising in checking the pest infestation (IISR, 2002).

Sex pheromones have been identified in L. serricorne and S. paniceum (Barratt, 1974, 1977; Kuwahara et al., 1975; Chuman, 1984; Chuman et al., 1985) and have been used for monitoring the population of these species in stores. Aggregation pheromones have also been identified in A. fasciculatus (Singh, 1993; Novo, 1998).

Minor Insect Pests of Stored Ginger

The other coleopterans infesting stored, dry ginger rhizomes include Oryzaephilus suri-namensis L. (Hargreaves, 1927), Necrobia rufipes DeG (Whitney, 1927), Caulophilus latinasus Say. (Munro and Thomson, 1929), Lyctus africanus Lesne. (Zacher, 1934), Sitodrepa panicea (L.), Sitophilus granaria (L.), Tribolium castaneum (Hbst.) (Larter, 1937), Tenebriodes mauritanicus (L.) (Abraham, 1975), C. oryzae (Gyllen) (Whitehead, 1982), Rhizopertha dominica (F.) (Rezaur et al., 1982), and Ahasverus advena Waltl. (LPPC, 1985).

The lepidopterans infesting stored dry ginger include Blastobasis byrsodepta Meyr. (Har-greaves, 1929), Ephestia sp. (Abraham, 1975), E. kuehniella Zell., Plodia interpunctella Hbn. (El-Halfawy et al., 1978), Pyralis manihotalis Guen. and Setomorpha rutella Zell. (Jacob, 1986). Usually, measures are not recommended for the control of the previously discussed minor pests. A clean environment in the storing room can keep most of them away.

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