Source: FAOSTAT Database
Source: FAOSTAT Database mainly from India. Currently, Nigeria is one of the largest producers and exporters of split-dried ginger. The annual production is around 90,000 metric tons from an area of 17,400 ha.
In Jamaica, ginger is grown in the hills of the South Central Parish of Manchester and in the Christiana Area Land Authority. There is also some production in the border parishes of Clarendon, Trelawny, and St. Elizabeth as well as in the hills of St. James, Hanover, and Westmoreland in the northwest. The area under ginger was about 65,000 to 70,000 acres in the past (Prentice, 1959), but now the area has dwindled considerably and the current production is below 1,000 tons.
In Fiji, the early European settlements introduced ginger as an export crop in 1890. The Indian migrants started large-scale cultivation later. The major production areas are Suva peninsula, especially in Tamarua, Colo-Suva, and Tacinua districts. Ginger has also spread to Sawani, Waibu Nabukaluka, and Viria districts. The area under cultivation is around 1,000 hectares.
In Ghana the early attempts at growing ginger were not successful, but with the launching of the Economic Recovery Programme in 1983, ginger cultivation was promoted by the government. Large-scale production was taken up in the Kadzebi district. The production touched 80,000 tons in 1990. However, production declined in subsequent years. The current production is very meager—below 1,000 tons.
Ginger became a commercial crop in Queensland (Australia) during the Second World War. In 1920 a farmer introduced ginger to Buderim, a small town north of Brisbane in Queensland, which has been the center of ginger production ever since. The growers are concentrated in Buderim, Nambour, North Arm, and Eumundi. The production was over 6,200 tons in 1974. The production figure has increased since, and the entire production is processed into preserved ginger and other ginger products. However, ginger production declined later, and currently ginger occupies very little area, and the production is processed mainly by the famous Buderim Ginger Co. into more than 100 products.
Sierra Leone remained a ginger producer for over 100 years. Ginger is grown along the railway lines around Freetown, Bola, Kennama, Pendemba, and Njala, as well as in the Mayamba district and parts of East Kano. Sierra Leone ginger was traditionally known as African ginger. It is less aromatic but is more pungent than other commercial gingers (Lawrence, 1984).
Mauritius, Trinidad, and Tobago
In Mauritius ginger is grown in all districts on the island, although most of the production comes from Pamplemousses and Flacqdisbiets. Guajana has a small-scale ginger production in the northern—western region. The current production is around 500 metric tons in Mauritius.
In Trinidad and Tobago ginger is a traditional spice that is grown mixed with other crops.
Southeast Asia is a major ginger production region. Ginger production in this region comes mainly from China, Thailand, Taiwan, Korea and Vietnam. China is the largest producer, followed by Thailand, Korea, and Vietnam. China cultivates ginger in an area ranging from 50,000 to 80,000 hectares. Ginger is cultivated in the provinces of Shandong, Guangdong, Zhejiang, Anhui, Jiagxi, and Hubai. The largest variability in ginger is seen in China, where many distinctly different morphotypes have been identified. Available figures indicate a production of 2,40,000 tons. China consumes internally the major share of ginger produced, with many ginger products being available in the markets.
Taiwan has only 3,000 to 4,000 hectares under ginger, and the produce is marketed mainly as vegetable ginger. It is grown as an intercrop with tea or as a pure crop on hill slopes.
Thailand and Korea also produce ginger for internal consumption. Thailand produces about 30,000 tons of ginger from a 12,000-hectare area. The Republic of Korea has a ginger area of around 4,200 hectares and produces about 8,000 metric tons of ginger.
Indonesia is another important producer, having a ginger area of over 10,000 hectares and production around 77,000 metric tons. Ginger cultivation here is concentrated in the Java-Sumatra islands.
In Sri Lanka ginger is grown as a mixed crop with turmeric, cocoa, coffee, jack, arecanut, coconut, or green vegetables mostly in a haphazard way. It is cultivated mostly in the central eastern provinces in Yatinurwara, Harispatta, Siambolagoda and Girijama. Ginger production is mostly used up by local consumers, mainly for the manufacture of ginger beer and ginger ale.
In the Philippines ginger is produced in Las Banos, Laguna, Tanavan, Bantagas, Silag, and Carite. The current area under cultivation is about 5,000 hectares and production is around 29,000 metric tons.
Many other countries, such as Nepal, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Cameroon, Costa Rica, Kenya, Reunion Islands, and the United States, produce small quantities of ginger for home consumption (Table 1.3 and Table 1.4).
According to the Food and Agriculture Organization, ginger production is looking bright because harvesting areas and production have increased, and are estimated to enlarge in the coming years (Anon, 2003).
Although a spice crop of global use, the research and development (R&D) efforts on ginger have not been commensurate with its importance. Research on ginger was initiated only in the second half of the last century, but only in a rudimentary manner. In India the first research project was started in 1953 at four centers: Kandaghat (in the former Punjab, now in Himachal Pradesh), Targaon (Maharashtra), Thodupuzha, and Ambalavayal (both in Kerala). However, these programs ended with the termination of the respective projects. Later, spice research was taken over by the Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) and ginger was brought under the purview of the All India Coordinated Spices and Cashew Improvement Project, which was started in 1971. However, the research programs were mainly adaptive trials. In 1975 ICAR set up the Regional Station of Central Plantation Crops Research Institute (CPCRI) at Calicut in
Table 1.4 World ginger production (Mt)
Table 1.4 World ginger production (Mt)
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