Effect of Explant on Plant Regeneration

The various explants tried (i.e., vegetative bud, leaf, ovary, and anther) differed in callus induction, morphogenetic ability of callus, and pattern of morphogenesis through the callus phase (see Table 4.3). Anther-derived callus was quicker to turn morphogenetic followed by ovary-, vegetative bud-, and leaf-derived calli. The origin of callus determined the morphogenetic pathway it follows for development of plantlets.

Histological studies confirmed that plant regeneration in ginger callus was by organogenesis as well as embryogenesis, depending upon the origin of the explant. Calli derived from vegetative bud as well as ovary showed both organogenesis and embryogenesis, whereas those from leaf and anther followed only the organogenetic path of development. In addition, among the different explants tried, ovary was the most effective for plant regeneration through the callus phase, which gave 47.6 plantlets per tube, followed by vegetative bud (26.2), leaf (24.4), and anther (12.6). The morphoge-netic calli obtained from all the explants showed their morphogenetic ability even after repeated subcultures both on the same medium or on growth-regulator—free medium, indicating that growth regulators are needed only for induction of morphogenesis. Once the callus turns morphogenetic, it retains the morphogenic ability for a long time if cultured on the same medium. These cultures remained morphogenetic and produced plantlets even after 2 years of repeated subcultures (Nirmal Babu, 1997).

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