Nutrient Requirements

For ginger crop, the requirement of nitrogen N is the most critical among the major nutrients. Although the nutrient is directly available to the plant in nitrate form, it is easily lost by leaching. Under tropical conditions, the loss by leaching and denitrification is very high. At the same time, the nitrate N moves upward with the capillary rise of water during drought. Ammonium ions perform better than nitrates under heavy leaching situations. Unlike N, phosphorus, P , is highly immobile in...

Control of Bacterial Wilt of Ginger

Various control measures has been tried to combat the disease with limited success. Bacterial wilt is a major problem and one of the constraints in the production of ginger and other vegetable crops because of its wide host range, the genetic variability it exhibits, and the complexity of its epidemiology and modes of transmission. The general strategies for management of bacterial wilt are selection of healthy rhizome material from a disease-free area selection of field with no previous...

Extraction Separation and Identification Methods

All these extraction methods have been reviewed by Van Beek (1991). Besides the usual hydrodistillation, steam distillation, leaching, and pressing, extraction with supercritical carbon dioxide also has been widely used in the last 20 years for essential oils. For example, solvent extraction with acetone gives the ginger oleoresin, which contains the essential oils as well as the pungent principles and other nonvolatile compounds present in ginger. When compared with other methods, it gives the...

Phyllosticta Leaf Spot

Phyllosticta Leaf Spot Buddleia

Ramakrishnan 1942 reported this leaf spot disease for the first time in Godavari and Malabar regions of India. Later on, the disease was reported from Sarawak Anonymous, 1972 . Sohi et al. 1964 have reported the disease in Himachal Pradesh, and it also occurs widely in Kerala state Anonymous, 1974 . Singh et al. 2000a reported the disease from Chhatisgarh. This disease is now widespread in most ginger-growing countries. Small, oval to elongated spots, measuring 1 to 10 mm X 0.5 to 4 mm appear...

Intercropping and Rotation

Ginger is grown as a pure crop as well as an intercrop or in rotation with other crops. In Kerala it is grown as an undercrop in coconut and arecanut gardens, in coffee estates, and in rice fallows. In irrigated areas, ginger is grown in rotation with chilies, vegetables, groundnut, ragi, and maize. In Kerala as well as in Sri Lanka ginger forms a component of the homestead farming, and is grown mixed with a variety of crops. Ginger is a very successful crop component in intercropping and...

Spacing and Method of Planting

Soil Bed For Ginger

Spacing varies with soil fertility, cultivar, climate, and management practices. Earlier reports indicated that closer spacing gave better yield (Loknath and Das, 1964 Aiyadurai, 1966 Randhawa et al., 1972 Nair, 1982). Based on trials, planting of ginger is recommended on raised beds (in order to facilitate drainage) at a spacing of 20 X 20 cm or 25 X 25 cm and a depth of 4 to 5 cm with the viable bud facing upward. Pandey (1999) reported that among different spacings (40 X 20, 30 X 20, 40 X 30...

Morphology and Anatomy

Study Part Sketching Turmeric Root

The ginger plant is a herbaceous perennial grown as an annual crop. The plant is erect, has many fibrous roots, aerial shoots pseudostem with leaves, and the underground stem rhizome . The roots of ginger are of two types, fibrous and fleshy. After planting, many roots having indefinite growth grow out of the base of the sprouts. These are the fibrous roots, and the number of such roots keeps on increasing with the growth of Figure 2.1 A ginger plant showing aerial shoots and inflorescence....

Mother And Finger Rhizome

Mother And Finger Rhizome Images

Figure 6.1 The morphological characteristics of ginger plant. 1. Leaves. 2. Overground stem. 3. Rhizome. 4. Root. 5. Seed rhizome. Stem The stem of ginger has two parts the overground leafy shoot, or pseudostem, and the underground perennial stem rhizome . The leafy shoot is erect, green, and formed by enveloping, overlapping leaf sheaths. It is 60 to 100 cm high. Under normal conditions, the aerial shoots increase in height by 1 to 1.2 cm a day later by the middle of September, the plant...

Morphological and Growing Characteristics

The ginger plant is erect and has fibrous roots, aerial shoots, leaves, flowers, and rhizomes. Its morphological characteristics are shown in Figure 6.1. Root Ginger root includes fibrous root and fleshy root. After planting, many roots having indefinite growth grow from the base of the sprouts. They are called fibrous roots. The number of the fibrous roots keep on increasing with the seedling growth, and each carries many tiny lateral roots. The fibrous roots are thin, have root hairs, and so...

Preparing the Field and Applying Base Fertilizers

High Yield Ginger Plants Images

The ginger root system is underdeveloped and its nutrient-absorbing ability is poor. So it cannot endure drought or waterlogging. The ginger field should be fertile, should have deep soil that is rich in organic substances, capable of retaining moisture and fertilizer, can be irrigated and drainedeasily, and isomewhat acidic. It is better to rotate crops for three to four years. It is not advisable to plant ginger continuously in the same plot and the land becomes unfit for ginger planting at...

Ginger in Indian System of Medicine

In the Ayurvedic system of medicine, both fresh and dry ginger are used. Ginger has been widely used as a common household remedy for various illnesses from ancient times. The properties and uses of ginger in Ayurvedic medicine are available from authentic ancient treatises like Charaka Samhitha and Susrutha Samhitha, which are the basics for this system. Descriptions of ginger are available from similar documents of Chinese and Sanskrit literature written in the subsequent centuries. Dry...

Fertilizer Application

The crop is mainly potassium (K) and nitrogen (N) exhausting magnesium (Mg) and phosphorous (P) removal being intermediary (Nagarajan and Pillai, 1979 Lee et al., 1981). Results of analyses of vegetative plant parts give a similar trend. Plant parts development and yield response to timing of fertilizer application aimed at achieving fertilizer use efficiency is presented in Table 7.1. Levels of trace elements Mg K maximum arsenic 5, lead 10, copper 20, and zinc 50 are...