Info

This book contains information obtained from authentic and highly regarded sources. Reprinted material is quoted with permission, and sources are indicated. A wide variety of references are listed. Reasonable efforts have been made to publish reliable data and information, but the author and the publisher cannot assume responsibility for the validity of all materials or for the consequences of their use. Neither this book nor any part may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any...

Z vinosum J Mood and I Theilade

This species of ginger is a native of Sabah, East Malaysia, and its cultivation as an ornamental plant has spread rapidly in the United States. It is a short-statured plant with dark green upper foliage that is deep maroon on the undersides. Its leafy shoot grows to 1 to 1.25 m and is dark burgundy at the base. Its spike can be from 15 to 30 cm long, and its bracts are burgundy. Its flowers are white, with a snow-white labellum. The attractive foliage and red inflorescence make it a very...

Maturity Harvesting and Yield

Maturity In Nigeria ginger comes to harvest in 7 and 8 months, respectively, for the black and yellow ginger types. The maturity index is that leaves and shoot turn yellow and wither. The main factor is weather as ginger is essentially a rain fed crop and the rainy season does not exceed 6 months. Harvesting In Nigeria manual harvesting, predominately done by women and children, is the routine practice and is carried out using a garden fork to scoop off the topsoil bearing the rhizome. The...

In Vitro Conservation and Other Biotechnological Approaches

Synthetic seeds or artificial seeds in ginger were made by encapsulating in vitro-regen-erated shoot buds, somatic embryos, and calli in 5 percent sodium alginate gel. The beads were round, uniform in size, and also sufficiently strong for easy handling (see Figure 4.3c). The encapsulated synthetic seeds were stored up to 9 months when maintained aseptically in MS basal medium at 22 2 C. Such synthetic seeds germinated on MS medium supplemented with 1.0 mgl1 BAP and 0.5 mgl1 IBA into normal...

Floral Anatomy

Rao et al. (1954), Rao and Pai (1959, 1960), and Rao and Gupta (1961) studied the floral anatomy of the members of Scitamineae, in which a few species of Zingiber were also included. The floral anatomy of Z. ottensi, Z. macrostachyum, Z. cernuum, and other Zingiber species was reported by these workers. Because of the basic similarities in floral characters, it is presumed that the floral anatomical features will also be identical. The following discussion is based on the reports of the...

Water Management

Ginger is grown both as a rain-fed and irrigated crop. Korla and Tiwari (1999) at Solan, Himachal Pradesh, India, observed that significant effects of rain-fed and irrigated conditions were observed on pseudostem length, tillers per plant, leaf length, leaf breadth, and yield per plot. Significant genotypic differences were observed for pseudostem length, rhizome length, rhizome breadth, and yield per plant. In general, the commercial cultivar Himgiri performed well and was consistent under...

Secondary and Micronutrients

Since ginger is cultivated with high doses of organic manure and green leaf mulch, an additional supply of secondary and micronutrients is not usually required. However, Roy et al. (1992), West Bengal, India, had observed that in local cultivars of ginger, the highest yield of 48.8 t ha was obtained with a combination of 0.3 percent zinc, 0.2 percent iron, and 0.2 percent boron. Wang et al. (1993) reported that zinc affects protein synthesis and RNA metabolism leading to amino acid accumulation...

Weedicides For Ginger

Source Xianchang et al. (1996) Cultivation and Weeding Source Xianchang et al. (1996) Cultivation and Weeding The rhizome of ginger grows underground it requires loose soil with good aeration. Therefore, weeding and intercultivation are essential. Ginger plants grow slowly in the seedling stage, and this stage is in the rainy season and, hence, weeds grow vigorously. If timely weeding is not done, yield reduction results. So clean cultivation is important in good management to ensure strong...

Important Cultivars

Ginger is propagated through rhizomes. Breeding work is difficult because of sterility. So only local cultivars are in vogue, and most major ginger-growing regions have cultivars specially suited to that region. These local cultivars are all selected, domesticated, and planted for a long time under local natural conditions they generally have adaptability, higher yield, better quality, and unique use value. The local types are mainly named after place names, color of the rhizome or bud, or...

Growth Regulators

Das and Nair (1976) studied the effect of urea at 2 percent and or planofix containing NAA at 200 or 400 ppm applied to five ginger cultivars in June. The crop was harvested in the following February. The production of dry ginger was highest in the cv. Maran, followed by Sierra Leone, China, Thinladium, and Rio de Janeiro. The best treatment was urea + planofix at 200 ppm. Application of Ethrel (Ethephon 2-chloroethane phosphonic acid) three times at 200 ppm as a foliar spray starting from day...

Ginger Mosaic Virus Symptoms

Figures in parentheses are angular values. Figures followed by same letters are statistically identical. Figures in parentheses are angular values. Figures followed by same letters are statistically identical. Storage of rhizomes under cool conditions may prolong storability by reducing weight loss and sprouting, but this practice may result in higher pathogen incidence than storage at room temperature. Packing of rhizomes in PVC film also reduces weight loss but increases the incidence of...

Z argenteum J Mood and I Theilade

This species is endemic to the Sarawak Malaysia. Z. argenteum is a small plant, the pseudostem reaching about 75 cm. Its leaves grow to 15 to 18 cm long, with an upper surface that is silvery green with a dark green cloud along the midrib, while the lower surface is green. It produces cream-colored flowers and spikes 8 to 9 cm long that are broadly elliptic. Its bracts are bright orange, with the lower ones turning red. This species is related to Z. coloratum and Z. lambi. It is a very...

Constraints

Although Indian ginger is well known for its intrinsic qualities, high productivity is not being realized in commercial cultivation due to severe constraints, which can be broadly classified as With the environment being a major factor influencing productivity in ginger, demarcating areas having ideal soil and climatic factors to achieve high productivity should be considered before undertaking large-scale cultivation. Considering the growing demand, there is a potential for area expansion in...

K S Premavalli

Spices are added to contribute flavor to the bulk foods, which are generally insipid, to increase their acceptability and intake. Flavor is usually used to mean a combination of taste and aroma, but a comprehensive definition is the total effect provided in the mouth when a prepared food is eaten. This includes besides aroma and taste, other perceptions such as pungency, astringency, warmth, and cold. It is essentially these sensations that produce the physiological reactions leading to...

Z zerumbet L Smith

This is a native of tropical Asia, occurring up to an altitude of 1200 m. It is commonly known as shampoo ginger also known as pinecone ginger in the southern United States (see Figure 17.3). The inflorescence resembles a tight pinecone and releases a thick juice when squeezed. This juice is used to make the Paul Mitchel and Freemans' Shampoo. Pseudostems grow to 0.6 to 2 m, the leaves are sessile or petiolate, and the rhizomes are light yellow inside. The inflorescence, produced at the tip of...

Ginger Identification Method

These results show a great difference in the sesquiterpene hydrocarbons percentages between steam distillation and supercritical CO2 extraction, particularly for a-zingiberene. Several cooked dishes (soup, fish, poultry) were seasoned with ginger prepared by the same three methods. Tasters commented favorably on the flavor balance and fresh characteristics of food seasoned with a supercritical CO2 extract of ginger. In a study of a Fijian ginger oil extracted with CO2, the content of gingerols...

M Sabu and Dave Skinner

The genus Zingiber, the type genus of the family Zingiberaceae, forms an important group of the order Zingiberales. The word ginger refers to the edible ginger of commerce, Zingiber officinale. Ginger is also the common term for the members of the ginger family, Zingiberaceae, which includes the many other species of Zingiber besides Z. officinale, worth growing as ornamentals, while some are valuable medicines. Many species are grown in the garden as ornamentals. They bear showy, long-lasting...

Steam Distillation

This is the most widely used industrial method for the isolation of essential oil from plant material. Here the steam is produced outside the still, usually in a steam boiler. Steam at optimum pressure is introduced into the still below the charge through a perforated coil or jets. Steam distillation is relatively rapid and is capable of greater control by the operator. The steam pressure inside the still could be progressively increased as distillation proceeds for complete recovery of...

Scientific Name Of Phee Gyin

Ginger is one of the most important and most widely used spices worldwide. Due to its universal appeal, ginger has spread to most tropical and subtropical countries from the China India region, where ginger cultivation was prevalent probably from the days of unrecorded history. In ancient times ginger was more valued for its medicinal properties and played an important role in primary health care in ancient India and China. In European medicine ginger was also among the most highly valued of...

Harvesting and Storing

There are three types of harvested ginger (1) seed ginger, (2) tender ginger, and (3) fresh ginger. Ginger is different from other crops after seed ginger sprouts and the new plant starts growing, the original seed rhizome is not influenced further by plant growth and remains in good condition when the plant is harvested its fresh and dry weights have not changed substantially. Seed ginger can be harvested together with fresh ginger before the first frost, or earlier after the plants...

Hardening and Field Establishment

A substantial number of micropropagated plants do not survive transfer from in vitro conditions to greenhouse or field environments due to the delicate nature of plants raised in vitro. Compared to in vitro conditions, the outside atmosphere, which has substantially lower relative humidity, higher light, and septic environment, causes stress to the micropropagated plants. Shoots and plants in culture are grown in conditions that provide little physiological stress since a carbon source is...

Maturity and Harvest

Harvest maturity varies according to the end use. If the rhizomes are for vegetable use or for the preparation of such products as ginger preserves and candy, harvesting should be done 4 to 5 months after planting. For dry ginger production and for distillation of oil or solvent extraction of oleoresin, harvesting is done 8 to 9 months after planting. Harvesting is delayed at higher elevations, in cooler climates, and under irrigation. Maturity studies were conducted in four cultivars at seven...

Ginger Medicinal Plant Info

Source IISR Annual Report (1997, 1998, 1999). Source IISR Annual Report (1997, 1998, 1999). Figure 2.15 Improved selections of ginger (a) IISR Varada, (b) Acc. 117, (c) Acc. 35. Figure 2.15 Improved selections of ginger (a) IISR Varada, (b) Acc. 117, (c) Acc. 35. Figure 2.16 Breeding strategy the unconventional pathway. Figure 2.16 Breeding strategy the unconventional pathway. breeding program is given in Figure 2.16. Rhizome bits were treated with chemical mutagens or irradiated with gamma...

Ginger in Indian System of Medicine

In the Ayurvedic system of medicine, both fresh and dry ginger are used. Ginger has been widely used as a common household remedy for various illnesses from ancient times. The properties and uses of ginger in Ayurvedic medicine are available from authentic ancient treatises like Charaka Samhitha and Susrutha Samhitha, which are the basics for this system. Descriptions of ginger are available from similar documents of Chinese and Sanskrit literature written in the subsequent centuries. Dry...

Control of Bacterial Wilt of Ginger

Various control measures has been tried to combat the disease with limited success. Bacterial wilt is a major problem and one of the constraints in the production of ginger and other vegetable crops because of its wide host range, the genetic variability it exhibits, and the complexity of its epidemiology and modes of transmission. The general strategies for management of bacterial wilt are selection of healthy rhizome material from a disease-free area selection of field with no previous...

Medicinal Uses Zingiber Referance

Ahamed, R.S., and Sharma, S.B. (1979) Biochemical studies on combined effects of garlic (Allium sativum L.) and ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) in albino rats. Indian J. Exp. Biol., 35, 841 845. Aiyer K.N., and Kolammal, M. (1996) Pharmacognosy of Ayurvedic Drugs of Kerala. Vol. 9. Department of Pharmacognosy, University of Kerala, Trivandruam, India. Anonymous. (2003a) Systematic review of ginger trials yield promising outcome. Herb World News Online, Herb Research Foundation, Boulder, CO,...

Z niveum J Mood and I Theilade

Z. niveum is an ornamental ginger sold in the United States for several years under the name Milky Way. It produces milky white, rounded spikes that are very unusual looking, and yellow flowers. The stems and leaves are silvery gray, and this attractive ornamental plant only grows about 3 ft tall. This is a native of Southeast Asia. The stem is reddish and attractive, hence widely cultivated as an ornamental. The inflorescence is more or less similar to Z. zerumbet, but the color is red from...

Editors

Centre for Medicinal Plants Research Kerala, India pnravi2003 yahoo.co.in Biotechnology Indian Institute of Spices Research Kerala, India Biotechnology Indian Institute of Spices Research Kerala, India Synthite Industrial Chemicals Kerala, India S. Devasahayam Division of Plant Protection Indian Institute of Spices Research Kerala, India sdsahayam yahoo.com Dr. Y.S. Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry Himachal Pradesh, India dohroonp yahoo.co.in Centre for Medicinal Plants Research...

Postharvest and Industrial Processing of Ginger

Ginger is a rhizomatous plant grown throughout southeastern Asia, China, and in parts of Japan, Australia, Latin America, Jamaica, and Africa. The dried rhizome, which constitutes the ginger of commerce, is one of the most popular and oldest of spices. Many cultivars of ginger are grown in the producing countries that differ primarily in the flavor profile. Jamaican ginger is considered to be the finest grade, having the most delicate aroma and flavor (Guenther, 1952, 1958) and of a very light,...

Spacing and Method of Planting

Spacing varies with soil fertility, cultivar, climate, and management practices. Earlier reports indicated that closer spacing gave better yield (Loknath and Das, 1964 Aiyadurai, 1966 Randhawa et al., 1972 Nair, 1982). Based on trials, planting of ginger is recommended on raised beds (in order to facilitate drainage) at a spacing of 20 X 20 cm or 25 X 25 cm and a depth of 4 to 5 cm with the viable bud facing upward. Pandey (1999) reported that among different spacings (40 X 20, 30 X 20, 40 X 30...

Biofertilizers

Ginger responds well to the application of biofertilizers. Studies conducted by Vilasini (1996) indicated that soil solarized for 30 days and incorporated with Trichoderma (125 g m2) and amended with neem cake (500 g m2) could control the disease effectively and increase the yield considerably. Sharma et al. (1997) found that inoculation with Glomus mosseae at the spore stage (10 X 102) g soil gave taller ginger plants, with higher yield (46.5 g per pot) and greater number of tillers per plant...

Chalcidomyia Atricornis Scientific Name

Psiloscaria flammulinae Family Micropezidae Calobata sp. C. indica Mimegralla coeruleifrons Macq. Family Chloropidae Chalcidomyia atricornis Mall. Formosina flavipes Mall. Merochlorops flavipes Paracamarota sp. Family Celyphidae Celyphus sp. Family Syrphidae Eumerus albifrons Wlk. E. pulcherrimus Bru. Order Lepidoptera Family Gracillaridae Acrocercops irradians Meyr. Family Tineidae Opogona sacchari (Bojer) Setomorpha rutella Zell. Family Oecophoridae Blastobasis byrsodepta Meyr. Family...

Storage Practices

Documentation on the research results of ginger storage is scanty. In the original form of storage the rhizomes were not harvested at crop maturity but maintained or left in the field in the growth environment. Ginger is a perennial crop and so survives many seasons by such an inherent biological perennation mechanism. Now that the crop has become domesticated, deliberate storing of part of the harvest either for further planting or for processing has become prevalent. Nowadays, ginger is...

Z pachysiphon BL Bum RM Sm

The plant has a beautiful purplish-colored inflorescence with white edges to the bracts. The species is rather rare and valued much by the ginger lovers as a very attractive pot plant. This species is from the Indo-Malaysian region and has been introduced to the United States' gardens as a pot plant where it has become very popular. The plant is 6 to 8 ft. tall, leaves 4 to 5 inches long that are pubescent beneath. Its spike is dense, and globose, with a...

References

Aburada, M. (1987) Pharmacological effects of Zingiberis rhizoma. J. Trad Sino-Jap Med., 8 45-50. Bensky, D., and Gamble, A. (eds.) (1986) Chinese Herbal Medicine Materia Medica, Seattle Eastland Press. Black, J.L., Armour, C.L., Vincent, K.S., and Johnson, P.R.A. (1986) A comparison of the contractile activity of PGD2 and PGF2a on human isolated bronchus. Prostaglandins, 32 25-31. Borda, E.S., Sterin-Borda, L., Gimeno, M.F., Lazarri, M.A., and Gimeno, A.L. (1983) The stimulatory effect of...

Epidemiology and Modes of Infection and Transmission of Bacterial Wilt on Ginger and Other Hosts

R. solanacearum can survive in the soil for long periods in the absence of host plants. There are conflicting reports on the longevity of R. solanacearum strains in soil, especially in the absence of protected sites (Graham and Lloyd, 1979) and on its resistance to desiccation. Soil types have been differentiated as being either conductive or suppressive to bacterial wilt (Hayward, 1991) their indirect influence on soil moisture determines the population size of antagonistic microorganisms,...

Mulching

Mulching of beds with green leaves is an important and essential operation in ginger cultivation. The effect of mulching on growth and yield of ginger has already been established from various studies. Mulching is essential for weed control, for moisture conservation and to protect the beds from the beating action of rain. Heavy mulch can change the physical and chemical environment of the soil underneath, resulting in the increased availability of P and K. Mulching increased the germination...

Conclusion

China produces more ginger than other SEA countries, and the productivity of ginger is the highest in the world. In general, the productivity is around 30 to 50 tons per hectare depending on the cultivars. However, much higher productivity has been reported. So there is a potential for increasing the average productivity of ginger and to lower the area under ginger cultivation while maintaining production levels, so that the pressure on the land can be reduced to some extent. There is also a...

Botany and Crop Improvement of Ginger

Nirmal Babu, and K. N. Shiva The genus Zingiber of the family Zingiberaceae is distributed in tropical and subtropical Asia and Far East Asia and consists of about 150 species. Zingiberaceae is of considerable importance as a spice family. Besides ginger this family includes turmeric, cardamom, large cardamom, grain of paradise, and several others having economic and medicinal importance. Zingiberaceae was earlier divided into the subfamilies Costoideae and Zin-giberoideae,...

Ginger as an Antioxidant

Ginger has a high content of antioxidants and has been grouped as one of the spices with good antioxidant activity, with 1.8 index rating (Chipault et al., 1952). This makes Table 15.7 Curry blends and masala mixes having ginger as a component Japanese seven spice blend Teriyaki blend and sauce Indian curry blends Burmese curry blend Malaysian curry blend French spice blend Mozambique (piri-piri) West African spice blend. Global spice blend (green) Ginger, red pepper, orange tangerine peel,...

Floral Biology

Ginger flowers are produced in peducled spikes arising directly from the rhizomes. The oval or conical spike consists of overlapping bracts, from the axils of which flowers arise, each bract producing a single flower. The flowers are fragile, short-lived, and surrounded by a scariose, glabrous bracteole. Each flower has a thin tubular corolla that widens up at the top into three lobes. The colorful part of the flower is the labellum, the petalloid stamen. The labellum is tubular at the base,...

Speciation Of Gingerol

Table 2.20 Evaluation of ginger germplasm for rhizome yield and its attributes U.P, Rio de Janeiro, Thingpuri, Karakkal, Suprabha, Anamika, Jugijan SG-646 (Kerala) (159 g plant) and SG-666 (H.P) (151 g plant) Rio de Janeiro, Suprabha, Suruchi, Suravi, Jugijan, Thigpuri, Wynad local, Himachal, Karakkal, Varada, Maran Acc. Nos. 64, 117 and 35 Rio de Janeiro (Av. 21 t ha fresh, Maran (Av. 20 t ha, 4.40 t ha dry), Nadia (Av. 19 t ha fresh, 3.80 t ha dry), Narasapattam (Av. 3.80t ha-dry) Rio de...

Production Centers

Ginger is now grown in many African and Pacific Ocean Islands such as Ethiopia, Fiji, Ghana, Guyana, Jamaica, Mauritius, Nigeria, Philippines, Sierra Leone, Solomon's Islands, Trinidad, Tobago, and Uganda. New areas for ginger cultivation are springing up in Ethiopia but mainly as a backyard crop. Yield has reached 30 t ha of fresh ginger rhizomes. In Fiji, the early European settlers introduced ginger as an export crop in 1890, and the production for domestic consumption began by Indian...

Identification of Promising Lines

A few promising lines with regard to yield, disease resistance, and other quality attributes could be identified from the tissue-cultured plantlets (see Table 4.4). Somaclones MP 61-9, CR 10-1, CR 816, and CR 822 showed comparatively lower disease incidence (Pythium infection) and also high per plant fresh rhizome yield of 870, 367, 373, and 358 g, respectively. Somaclone 855 with a fresh rhizome yield of 472 g per plant showed comparatively lower disease incidence against both P....

Seeds and Seed Rate

In ginger, rhizomes are used for planting. The rate of seed rhizome varies from 900 to 1,500 kg ha. For selection and preservation of seeds, the following method is recommended in Kerala, India (KAU, 1993). Mark healthy and disease-free plants in the field when the crop is 6 to 8 months old and still green. Select the best rhizomes free from pests and diseases from the marked plants. Harvest them separately and handle seed rhizomes carefully to avoid damage to buds. Soak the selected rhizomes...

Composition Of Ginger

Essential oils, in general, contain volatile compounds of many classes of organic substances. Guenther (1972) has classified the essential oil components into four main groups Terpenes, related to isoprene or isopentene Straight-chain compounds, not containing any branches Miscellaneous (compounds other than those belonging to the first three groups, specific for a few species) The most characteristic group of compounds present in essential oils are the terpenes. Terpenes comprise of...

Ikuko Kimura Leonara R Pancho and Hiroshi Tsuneki

Chinese Medicine Plants

Ginger rhizomes have been widely used as a cooking spice and herbal remedy to treat a variety of conditions. Fresh and dried gingers are used for different clinical purposes in traditional Chinese medicine (Kampo). Fresh ginger (Zingiberis Recens Rhizoma Sheng Jiang in Chinese Shoga in Japanese) is used as antiemetic, antitussive, or expectorant, and is used to induce perspiration and dispel cold, whereas dried ginger (Zingiberis Rhizoma Gan Jiang in Chinese) is used for stomachache, vomiting,...

Preparing the Field and Applying Base Fertilizers

High Yield Ginger Plants Images

The ginger root system is underdeveloped and its nutrient-absorbing ability is poor. So it cannot endure drought or waterlogging. The ginger field should be fertile, should have deep soil that is rich in organic substances, capable of retaining moisture and fertilizer, can be irrigated and drainedeasily, and isomewhat acidic. It is better to rotate crops for three to four years. It is not advisable to plant ginger continuously in the same plot and the land becomes unfit for ginger planting at...

Organic Matter

In olden days, ginger was cultivated in freshly cleared forest soils and as such there was no need to apply fertilizers. But the situation has changed and now it has become impossible to realize a satisfactory yield without an adequate supply of fertilizers together with a heavy dose of organic matter. Sadanandan and Iyer (1986) observed that organic amendments such as neem cake and Pongamia cake reduced the incidence of rhizome rot and improved the yield in ginger. Cho et al. (1987) opined...

Ginger in India

In ancient India, ginger was not significant as a spice, but it was mahabheshaj, mahaoush-adhi, literally meaning the great cure, the great medicine. For the ancient Indian, ginger was the god-given panacea for a number of ailments. That may be the reason why ginger found a prime place in the ancient Ayurvedic texts of Charaka (Charaka samhita) and Susruth (Sushrutha samhita). In Ashtangahridyam of Vagbhatt (a very important ancient Ayurvedic text), ginger is recommended along with other herbs...

Organic Farming of Ginger

Organic farming is an approach to sustainable agriculture aiming to create an integrated, ecofriendly and economically sustainable production system. This integrated system includes the protection of soil fertility through the application of organic matter and fostering the soil biological activity. Nutrients are applied through relatively insoluble nutrient sources (organics), maintenance of the nitrogen source through the raising of leguminous crops, recycling organic residues, and disease...

Fertilizer Application

The crop is mainly potassium (K) and nitrogen (N) exhausting magnesium (Mg) and phosphorous (P) removal being intermediary (Nagarajan and Pillai, 1979 Lee et al., 1981). Results of analyses of vegetative plant parts give a similar trend. Plant parts development and yield response to timing of fertilizer application aimed at achieving fertilizer use efficiency is presented in Table 7.1. Levels of trace elements Mg K maximum arsenic 5, lead 10, copper 20, and zinc 50 are...

Mc Lafferty 1974 In Ginger

Masuda, T. (1997) Anti-inflammatory antioxidants from Tropical Zingiberaceae Plants (curcumi-noids). In Risch, S.J. and. Ho, C.T. (eds.) Spices Flavor Chemistry and Antioxidant Properties, ACS Symp. Series, 660 219-233, Amer. Chem. Soc., Washington D.C. Masuda, T., Matsumura, H., Oyama, Y., and Takeda, Y (1998) Synthesis of ( + ) cassumunins A and B, new curcuminoids antioxidants having protective activity on the living cell against oxidative damage. J. Nat. Prod., 61, 609-613. Mathew, A.G.,...

Extraction Separation and Identification Methods

All these extraction methods have been reviewed by Van Beek (1991). Besides the usual hydrodistillation, steam distillation, leaching, and pressing, extraction with supercritical carbon dioxide also has been widely used in the last 20 years for essential oils. For example, solvent extraction with acetone gives the ginger oleoresin, which contains the essential oils as well as the pungent principles and other nonvolatile compounds present in ginger. When compared with other methods, it gives the...

Diseases and Pests

Ginger Blast Known as Bacterial Wilt in Other Countries Ginger blast is a fatal disease that occurs universally in all ginger-growing areas. The yield may decrease by 10 to 20 percent on an average or over 50 percent in heavily infected plots. It is a serious threat to ginger production. Ginger blast is a bacterial disease caused by Pseudomonas solanacearum now known as Ralstonia solanacearum . Besides ginger, this bacterium also infects tomato, eggplant, hot pepper, potato, and other...

Morphology and Anatomy

Study Part Sketching Turmeric Root

The ginger plant is a herbaceous perennial grown as an annual crop. The plant is erect, has many fibrous roots, aerial shoots pseudostem with leaves, and the underground stem rhizome . The roots of ginger are of two types, fibrous and fleshy. After planting, many roots having indefinite growth grow out of the base of the sprouts. These are the fibrous roots, and the number of such roots keeps on increasing with the growth of Figure 2.1 A ginger plant showing aerial shoots and inflorescence....

Analytical and Isolation Methods

Before 1970, fractional vacuum distillation, analytical and preparative chromatographic procedures such as column chromatography CC , TLC, GC, and chemical methods were used. These procedures have been extended to HPLC, high-performance gas chromatography HPGC associated or not associated with specific detectors , direct vaporization in the GC apparatus, and dynamic headspace techniques. Liquid column chromatography is the oldest method used in organic chemistry since Tswett's discovery in...

Ethrel Effect For Ginger

Ahmed, N.U., Rahman, M.M., Hoque, M.M., and Hossain, A.K.M. 1988 Effect of seed size and spacing on the yield of ginger. Bangladesh Hort., 16 2 , 50 52. Ai, X.Z., Zhan, Cui, Z.F., Quo, J.R., Chan, L., and Zhao, D. 1998 Effect of different levels of supplying fertilizer on ginger quality. J. Shandong Agric. Univ., 29, 183 188. Aiyadurai, L. 1966 A Review of Research on Spices and Cashewnut. Directorate of Spices and Cashewnut, Ernakulam, Kerala, India, p. 209. Ajithkumar, K., Jayachandran, B.,...

References For Ginger Cultivation

Aiyadurai, S.G. 1966 A Review of Research on Spices and Cashewnuts in India. Indian Council of Agric. Research, New Delhi. Akamine, E.K. 1962 Storage of fresh ginger rhizomes. Hawaii Agric. Expt. Stn. University of Hawaii Bull. 1, July 1962, 5-22. Akamine, E.K. 1977 Ginger. Food Res. Q, 37, 13-20. Anne, P. 1959 Ginger in Jamaica. World Crops, 11, 25-26. Anonymous. 1970 Guide to production of ginger. Extension Guide No. 7, AERALS, ABU, Nigeria. Anonymous. 1982 Tips on post harvest handling of...

Zingerone

Chromatogram Ginger Oil

Figure 11.14 Transformation of gingerols. tative estimation of pungent principles of ginger Osisiogu, 1973 Kucera and Kucerova, 1974 Nambudiri et al. 1975 Govindarajan and Govindarajan, 1979 . GC and combined GC MS Masada et al., 1973, 1974 Harvey, 1981 Middleditch et al., 1989 are improvements but gingerols are susceptible to breakdown under the high temperature used in GC Connell and McLachlan, 1972 Smith, 1982 Baranowski, 1985 . HPLC has been found to be a more efficient tool in tracking the...

Mother And Finger Rhizome

Mother And Finger Rhizome Images

Figure 6.1 The morphological characteristics of ginger plant. 1. Leaves. 2. Overground stem. 3. Rhizome. 4. Root. 5. Seed rhizome. Stem The stem of ginger has two parts the overground leafy shoot, or pseudostem, and the underground perennial stem rhizome . The leafy shoot is erect, green, and formed by enveloping, overlapping leaf sheaths. It is 60 to 100 cm high. Under normal conditions, the aerial shoots increase in height by 1 to 1.2 cm a day later by the middle of September, the plant...

Phyllosticta Leaf Spot

Images Phyllosticta Spores

Ramakrishnan 1942 reported this leaf spot disease for the first time in Godavari and Malabar regions of India. Later on, the disease was reported from Sarawak Anonymous, 1972 . Sohi et al. 1964 have reported the disease in Himachal Pradesh, and it also occurs widely in Kerala state Anonymous, 1974 . Singh et al. 2000a reported the disease from Chhatisgarh. This disease is now widespread in most ginger-growing countries. Small, oval to elongated spots, measuring 1 to 10 mm X 0.5 to 4 mm appear...

Nematode Diseases

Ramana and Eapen 1995 reported several plant parasitic nematodes on ginger and among them Meloidogyne spp., Radopholus similis and Pratylenchus spp. are the major ones of economic importance in that they cause significant damage to ginger plants. Sheela et al. 1995 found Meloidogyne incognita, R. similis, Rotylenchulus reniformis, Helicotylenchus multicinctus, Pratylenchus sp., Tylenchorhynchus sp., Hoplolaimus indicus, Criconemoides sp., and Xiphinema sp. in the rhizosphere of ginger in Kerala...

In Vitro Micro Rhizome Induction

Embryoids Suspension Culture

Species that normally produce such organs as bulbs, tubers, and corms can be induced to form these miniature propagules within in vitro cultures under appropriate environmental conditions. Plants that naturally produce tubers can be induced to produce miniature versions of the storage organs in a medium containing high cytokinin levels George, 1993 . Miniature storage organs have a great advantage as they can be readily removed from a culture flask in a dormant condition and stored ex vitro...

Insect Pests of Ginger

Abdulla Koya Ginger is infested by various species of insects, among which the shoot borer Conogethes punctiferalis Guen. and rhizome scale Aspidiella hartii Sign. are major pests in the field and during storage of rhizomes, respectively. Other insects that have been reported to affect ginger belong to diverse families and can be classified into sap feeders, leaf feeders, and rhizome feeders. Dry ginger is also infested by many species of insects, most importantly the...

Nutrient Requirements

For ginger crop, the requirement of nitrogen N is the most critical among the major nutrients. Although the nutrient is directly available to the plant in nitrate form, it is easily lost by leaching. Under tropical conditions, the loss by leaching and denitrification is very high. At the same time, the nitrate N moves upward with the capillary rise of water during drought. Ammonium ions perform better than nitrates under heavy leaching situations. Unlike N, phosphorus, P , is highly immobile in...

Postharvest Handling

Bhuyan et al. 1990 conducted thin-layer drying experiments on the cv. Siliguri in order to study its drying characteristics. The quality of dried ginger was also evaluated by determining its volatile oil and oleoresin contents. A small-capacity tray dryer was designed and built and its performance tested. The heat utilization factor, coefficient of performance, overall thermal efficiency, and uniformity of drying of sliced ginger on each of the trays were determined. The dryer performed...

Aracerus Fasciculatus

Abraham, C.C. 1975 Insect pests of stored spices and their control. Arecanut Spices Bull, 7, 4 6. Abraham, V.A., Pillai, G.B., and Nair, C.P.R. 1975 Biology of Udaspes folus Cram. Lepidoptera Hesperidae , the leaf roller pest of turmeric and ginger. J. Plantation Crops, 3, 83 85. Al-Badry, E.A., Rizk, G.N., and Hafez, S.M. 1980 Biological studies of the predatory mite Acaropsis docta Berlese attacking stored product pests. Mesopotamia J. Agric., 15, 179 202. Anonymous. 1927 Ginger Its...

Morphological and Growing Characteristics

The ginger plant is erect and has fibrous roots, aerial shoots, leaves, flowers, and rhizomes. Its morphological characteristics are shown in Figure 6.1. Root Ginger root includes fibrous root and fleshy root. After planting, many roots having indefinite growth grow from the base of the sprouts. They are called fibrous roots. The number of the fibrous roots keep on increasing with the seedling growth, and each carries many tiny lateral roots. The fibrous roots are thin, have root hairs, and so...

Ch

Table 11.18 Composition of ginger oil 2-methyl-but-3-en-2-ol alpha-terpineol carvotanacetone cis-p-menth-2-en-1-ol citronellol cubebol alpha-fenchyl acetate alpha-terpinyl acetate 2-heptanol cis-sabinene hydrate alpha-naginatene terpinolene epoxide caryophyllene oxide 1,4-cineole 2-nonanol isopulegol perilline 1988 van Beek, 1991 . Table 11.19 lists the other components identified by these investigators. Studies Connell and Jordan, 1971 have shown that the gas chromatographic GC pattern is...

Intercropping and Rotation

Ginger is grown as a pure crop as well as an intercrop or in rotation with other crops. In Kerala it is grown as an undercrop in coconut and arecanut gardens, in coffee estates, and in rice fallows. In irrigated areas, ginger is grown in rotation with chilies, vegetables, groundnut, ragi, and maize. In Kerala as well as in Sri Lanka ginger forms a component of the homestead farming, and is grown mixed with a variety of crops. Ginger is a very successful crop component in intercropping and...

Use Of Medicinal Plants Of Ginger Refrences

Uda, Y., Yamada, Y., Morimitsu, Y, Nakamura, Y and Osawa, T. 2002 Labdane-type diterpenoid dialdehyde, pungent principle of myoga, Zingiber mioga Roscoe. Biosci. Biotech. Biochem, 66, 2698-2700. Barghava, N. 1981 Plants in folk life and folklore in Andaman and Nicobar Islands. In Jain, S.K. ed. , Glimpses of Ethnobotany. Oxford amp IBH, New Delhi, 329-344. Bordoloi, A.K., Sperkova, J., and Leclercq, P.A. 1999 Essential oils of Zingiber cassumunar Roxb. from Northeast India....

Diseases

Serious diseases are caused by fungal, bacterial, viral, and nematode infections. The nonpathogenic maladies include sunburn, lime-induced chlorosis, and chilling injuries. They have been reported by Nnodu and Emehute 1988 to cause varying degrees of crop damage and yield reduction. Leaf spot is caused by Phyllosticta zingiberi Nnodu and Okwuowulu, 1990 . It is characterized by numerous circular or elongated yellow spots on the leaves. At a later stage, the...

Thread Blight

Sundram 1954 reported this disease on leaf blades of ginger in Malabar Kerala state . The disease is not of much significance and occurs rarely. Small water-soaked lesions appear on the leaf margins or other parts of the leaf during the initial stage of this disease. Later on, the infected leaves lose their turgidity, wilt, and may get detached from the sheath. Fine hyphal threads spread over the infected parts, and small brown sclerotia are present on the lower surface. The infected portion...

Colletotrichum Leaf Spot

Sundraraman 1922 reported this disease from the Godavari district of Andhra Pradesh India . Later Wallace and Wallace 1945 described the disease from the Tanganyika territory. Symptoms manifest as small round to oval, light yellow spots on leaves and leaf sheaths. These spots gradually increase in size and often coalesce to form large discolored areas. Such infected areas often dry up at the center, forming holes. In the case of a severe attack, the entire leaf dries up. Butler and Bisby 1931...