Different Ways To Get Pregnant Fast

The Pregnancy Miracle Book

The author of the Pregnancy Miracle book Lisa Olson, has spent an inordinate amount of time involved in Chinese medicine research and is a successful health consultant, alternative health and nutrition specialist, as well as former infertility sufferer herself. Lisa explains that ancient Chinese cultures knew that women must not let stress overcome them, or it could tense up the abdomen and restrict the reproductive organs. This section covers some good old Chinese mountain wisdom, as she calls it, to teach you the exact acupressure techniques and Qi Gong exercises to relax your muscles and calm your body. The Pregnancy Miracle Book is amazing opportunity for you and your partner to educate yourself with everything you need to know to conceive the baby of your dreams. It is a wonderful fertility product for an affordable price and all the thousands of happy couples and families out there are proof that it works. Read more here...

Pregnancy Miracle Summary


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Author: Lisa Olson
Official Website: www.pregnancymiracle.com
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Highly Recommended

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The Getting Pregnant Plan

Here's A Sneak Peak At What You'll Discover: 1 simple yet very powerful fertility remedy. For some couples this is the key that will finally get them pregnant! The one type of specialist you must consult! This will be one of the most important things you'll ever learn to help you get pregnant. The reason why some women's fertility is four times greater than other women's .and how to be one of them so you can get pregnant faster! Amazing! Discover how to pinpoint ovulation with 100% accuracy! You'll never miss the golden window of opportunity to get pregnant again. Revealed! The hidden truth behind everyday activities & their impact on your fertility. Learn how to stop sabotaging your chances of getting pregnant! Your secret weapon for combating a daily fertility foe. Master this to increase your chances of getting pregnant and to enjoy the journey along the way. The little-known way to turn anovulatory cycles into ovulatory ones. Turning 'no-chance' cycles into cycles that give you a real chance to get pregnant. 10 proven steps to getting pregnant. Finally a step by step, cover all your bases, leave no-stone-unturned plan to get pregnant and stop wasting time! And. 2 powerful ways to find out your fertility status so you know where to begin. An easy way to improve your fertility, even in women with Pcos. 2 simple things you can do everyday to increase your chances of conceiving. A free way to understand what your body is telling you about your fertility. Read more here...

The Getting Pregnant Plan Summary

Contents: Ebook
Author: Michelle Adams
Official Website: aboutgettingpregnant.com
Price: $47.00

Enhanced Female Fertility

Once a subject that was paid relatively little regard, the study of fertility has become increasingly popular, as the wear and tear of modern living has altered fertility levels. Infertility rates are increasing in the United States. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2002 data, approximately 12 of women between 15 and 44 (roughly 7.3 million women) have impaired fertility either a physical difficulty with getting pregnant or difficulty carrying a baby to term. This is an approximate 2 increase from the levels seen in 1988 and 1995.1 According to the American Society of Reproductive Medicine, one in seven couples have difficulty conceiving.2 Infertility is generally defined as the inability to achieve pregnancy after one year of unprotected intercourse. Women in their 20s are usually advised to seek medical consultation after one year of attempting to conceive. Women in their 30s are recommended to seek advice after six months without conception. Female age is...

Causes Of Female Infertility

There are many reasons for female infertility, ranging from anatomical to hormonal to nutritional. Complementary and alternative medicines can be helpful for addressing nearly all conditions and causes a select few of these are covered in this article. There are also many confounding factors. Some of the better known causes of infertility include Ovulation problems Ovulatory dysfunction may result from the aging process, anovulatory cycles, amenorrhea, luteal-phase defects, premature ovarian failure, polycystic ovarian syndrome, and hyperprolactinemia. (See Chapter 29 on polycystic ovary syndrome.) Tubal defects Anatomical problems in the structure or function of the fallopian tubes from past abdominal or pelvic surgery causing adhesions or past infections (pelvic inflammatory disease) may prevent eggs from traveling through the tubes. Medication use Several different types of medications have been reported to affect female fertility among these are hormones, antibiotics,...

Preface to the Series

Today, plant selection is not only for the yield of active principle, but for the plant's ability to overcome disease, climatic stress, and the hazards caused by mankind. Such methods as in vitro fertilization, meristem cultures, and somatic embryogenesis are used. The transfer of sections of DNA is giving rise to controversy in the case of some end uses of the plant material.

Dieting for Weight Loss

Weight loss through less-drastic means that achieves a loss of 30 or more of body fat can also lead to menstrual irregularities and then amenorrhea.11 Patients who have participated in weight-loss programs aggressively may find it easier to become pregnant once some weight is gained back individuals vary widely in this respect.

Botanical Medicines And Fertility

When utilizing herbal medicine to treat medical conditions, including infertility, it is important to note that herbal medicine, when used in traditional practice, embodies the concept of natural medicines. Herbal medicines are not necessarily meant to treat specific health problems directly but rather to support the body or organ systems to regain physiologic, functional control over a body system that needs fine-tuning. Many herbal medicines can be used to help women to become pregnant, based upon patients' individual symptoms and designed to nourish each patient's body allowing it to be at its healthiest. (See Table 14-2 above.) Chasteberry (Vitex agnus-castus) appears to have prolactin-inhibiting effects, among others, and has been used for women who are sterile as a result of secondary amenorrhea and luteal insufficiency.28 The herb seems to normalize luteal-phase defects and may increase the chances of becoming pregnant for women with relative progesterone deficiency. For women...

Natural Ways To Enhance Male Fertility

Fertility, in one sense, is the barometer of a person's overall health, all things being equal. In order to conceive, a person must have a certain level of fertility that requires a sufficiently healthy body to maintain, whether a person is male or female. Fertility can be fleeting as well it has been estimated that nearly 6 million Americans are infertile at any given time. The standard definition of infertility is the inability of a couple of childbearing age to conceive a child after one year of regular intercourse without the use of contraceptives. Because the large majority of couples can conceive within this time frame, it is recommended that those who do not should be assessed for fertility problems. This chapter focuses on infertility in men and natural ways to address it.

Environmental and Lifestyle Factors

Although the conditions mentioned previously are all contributors to infertility, there are many other factors that appear in the environment and or that occur as a result of a person's lifestyle that may contribute to infertility. Among these are workplace hazards (chemical exposures), environmental toxins (endocrine disruptors), habits such as smoking or alcohol consumption, dietary factors (insufficient nutrition), oxidation, and even the type of underwear worn. Although these factors are not always indicated as causes of infertility, they must be considered to ascertain whether these factors contribute to a particular person's infertility.

Other Environmental Toxins

There are several reports detailing the occurrence of decreased sperm counts in men who have resided in developed countries over the last 50 years. It has been suggested that the reason for this trend is increased environmental exposure to estrogen-like compounds as well as other chemicals that act as antiandrogens. This evidence has been repeated in a number of investigations.4 A study investigating the effects of estrogenic substances (diethylstilbestrol, beta-estradiol E2 , daidzein, genistein, and nonylphenyl) on sperm was performed the investigators found that the effects of these estrogenic substances caused similar negative effects as known reproductive toxins (lead sulfate, nitrate, and acetate, dibromochloropropane, ethylene glycol monoethyl ether, 1,2-epoxybutene, and 1,2,3,4-diepoxybutane). However, these in vitro studies using large amounts of single compounds have not been validated in human studies.5 Additional studies have linked other environmental toxins to fertility...

Amino Acids Arginine and Carnitine

Carnitine plays several roles in the development of healthy spermatozoa. Carnitine serves as a source of energy in the epididymis, helps to boost sperm motility, and is thought to be involved with sperm maturation.42 Studies of infertile patients have shown a direct correlation between sperm motility and semen carnitine content as well as demonstrating a positive correlation between carnitine levels and sperm counts and number of motile sperm.43 Another large trial supplied patients with 3 g per day of carnitine for four months. After assessing sperm parameters before, during, and following the study, the subjects' percent of motile sperm had increased by approximately 10 and the actual number of sperm per ejaculate was increased as well.44 Grown exclusively in the central Andes at an elevation of 4,000-4,500 m, maca (Lepidium meyenii) has traditional uses in the Andean region because of this herb's aphrodisiac and fertility-enhancing properties. Maca has several interesting...

Iodine Deficiency And Thyroid Disease

Maternal hypothyroidism during pregnancy can result in preeclampsia, miscarriage, early rupture of membranes, abnormal fetal growth, perinatal morbidity, and neonatal death. Early fetal brain development beginning at the 15th week of gestation relies on thyroxine from the mother, and maternal hypothyroidism can produce fetal brain damage, cretinism, and a decreased intelligence quotient. Cretinism, a severe neuropathology caused by iodine deficiency, is marked by gross mental retardation along with varying degrees of shortness of stature, deaf-mutism, and spasticity. Because of decreased iodine retention, preterm infants, in whom renal function is not fully developed, require twice the daily intake of iodine for normal infants. To decrease these risks, the WHO in 2001 suggested an increased iodine intake for infants and an increased iodine content in infant formula.24

Prospects and Problems Applying Blue Fluorescence Techniques to Intact Plants

Circumvented by removing a layer of the epidermis, as in Cerovic et al. (1993), but this certainly constitutes an invasive procedure. A better solution may be to search for plant species, mutation, or growth conditions where epidermal pigmentation is minimized. If routine, unambiguous assay of the redox state of the NADPH pool were possible, it would help us to understand the restrictions to photosynthetic electron transfer (see sections IVF.2.D and E where the issue of PS I acceptor side limitation is important).

Nutrients And Herbal Interventions

Vitamin C has multiple functions including antioxidant and collagen-stimulating properties. A study performed on anovulatory women for whom clomiphene failed showed that oral supplementation with vitamin C (400 mg per day) increased ovulation both with and without clomiphene citrate.51 In addition, a study indicated that vitamin C supplementation for infertile women with luteal-phase defects may increase progesterone levels.52 Vitamin C has also been shown to improve endothelial-dependent vasodilation, which has been shown to be abnormal in women with PCOS.53 N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) is a derivative of the amino acid L-cysteine. NAC is the precursor to glutathione and is commonly used for its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and mucolytic actions. A study performed on women with PCOS whose conditions are resistant to clomiphene showed that NAC supplementation of 1.2 g per day plus clomiphene significantly increased ovulation and pregnancy rates.54

General Guidelines for Healthy Skin

Women who are or who may become pregnant must avoid therapeutic doses of vitamin A because of its teratogenicity. Large doses of vitamin A such as 50,000 international units (IU) per day have been used successfully for treating severe acne.33 Although this dose can be used safely in healthy individuals for a treatment period of a few months, it is important to monitor patients for signs and symptoms of vitamin A toxicity. Running routine liver enzyme tests and determining serum vitamin A levels are recommended. Symptoms of vitamin A toxicity include headaches, fatigue, and muscle andjoint pain. Women who are or who may become pregnant must avoid therapeutic doses of vitamin A because of its teratogenicity. It is advisable for young women who may become pregnant to avoid all vitamin A supplementation, with the exception of the amount in a prescribed prenatal vitamin. A prenatal supplement should not contain more than

Selection of test seedlings

The field, they tend to confound interpretation of results when subsequent growth differences appear. This happens because big seedlings usually grow faster than small ones. Regardless of nursery treatment, grading of seedlings to a common size eliminates the bias of size differences attributable to treatment in the nursery. However, grading may introduce a genetic bias, especially when mixed seedlots are used. Selection of the larger control seedlings and the smaller inoculated seedlings may tend to select different genotypes from the initial mixed population. If inoculation produces larger seedlings, the use of similar sized or even larger control seedlings from a higher fertility treatment have been used in field experiments (Marx et al., 1985). For interpreting field performance data, this treatment of controls eliminates any bias created by initial differences in seedling size at outplanting, but does create differences in initial seedling nutritional status.

Reversible Male Sterility

Metabolic engineering of primary metabolites has targeted glutamine, carbohydrates, and pyruvate. The amino acid glutamine is essential for pollen development (Benito Moreno et al. 1988). Transferring into tobacco plants a gene driven by the tapetum-specific promoter TA29 and encoding a dominant-negative version of glutamine synthetase (dnGS) resulted in male sterility (Ribarits et al. 2007). Spraying plants with glutamine restored male fertility. Anthers of the male-sterile lines contained viable microspores, and restoration was also achieved by isolating the microspores, maturing these in vitro in the presence of glutamine, and using the in vitro matured pollen for pollination of emasculated flowers in situ (Touraev and Heberle-Bors 1999). A similar strategy has been tried in tobacco plants. Here, knocking down an extracellular invertase gene by an anti-sense construct resulted in carbohydrate deficiency of pollen (Goetz et al. 2001), but no seeds were obtained after pollination...

Floral Morph Ratios and Reproductive Success

Reproductive success in species with stylar polymorphisms should be sensitive to plant density and the morph composition of local neighbourhoods. To investigate the spatial ecology of mating, Stehlik et al. (2006) mapped the location of floral morphs in N. assoanus populations and determined their female fertility. They found that pollen transfer and mating was context dependent, with the floral morphs responding differently to the density and morph identity of plants in local patches. Studies of Narcissus demonstrate that biased style morph ratios can be an equilibrium expectation if the strength of negative frequency-dependent selection varies among the morphs because of asymmetrical mating. However, because most heterostylous species possess heteromorphic incompatibility, biased morph ratios usually result from non-equilibrium conditions associated with the ecology of populations.

Sex hormones and thyroid hormones

Other plant substances, although chemically not identical to them, were subsequently found to be able to replace the biological functions of the hormones (Shutt, 1976). Bennets and his coworkers (1951) noted the infertility observed in sheep which grazed exclusively on clover for a certain length of time in Australia. A compound isolated from clover was found to be oestrogenic (Biggers and Curnow, 1954) and was identified as genisteine, an isoflavine. Failure of sperm transport was later found to be the cause of the infertility of the ewes (Lightfoot et al., 1967). Subsequently, other isoflavones with oestrogenic activity were found in forage and other plants (Shutt, 1976 Adams, 1977 Livingstone, 1978). Also reported to be present in plants was another group of chemical compounds, the coumestans (skeletal structure 6H benzofuran 3-2-c-benzopyran-6-one), which have a higher oestrogenic activity than the isoflavones. A striking similarity of the skeletal structures of the isoflavones...

Function of Heterostyly

Darwin's cross-promotion hypothesis has recently been examined in Narcissus species with stylar polymorphisms. This group presents a particular challenge because the floral morphs produce pollen of uniform size and it is not possible to determine directly the source of pollen deposited on stigmas. Instead, field manipulations have been employed to investigate pollen transfer. By altering the morph composition of local patches of N. assoanus, a species with stigma-height dimorphism, Cesaro and Thompson (2004) inferred higher rates of inter-than intra-morph pollination based on measurements of female fertility. However, this effect was evident only in pollen transfer from the L-morph to the S-morph, not in the reverse direction. Despite asymmetrical disassortative pollination, the levels reported were sufficient to maintain style-length dimorphism, and also satisfy theoretical conditions necessary for the evolution of the polymorphism under pollen-limited conditions (Lloyd and Webb...

Architecture and nutritional economy

More succinctly, economies of time and material inherent to the body plan of the Type Five bromeliad should promote fitness wherever drought or infertility slow carbon gain and scattered safe sites, disturbance or any other agency that kills large numbers of pre-reproductive individuals mandate compensatory (elevated) fecundity (Benzing 1978a). Dry-growing Tillandsia experience some of the most stressful (nonproductive) of all the environments colonized by land flora, and they often root on unstable media that mandate rapid plant cycling. Small, mobile seeds, a consistent characteristic of Tillandsioideae, also accord with the scattered and ephemeral nature of bark, which is the substrate these plants use more frequently than any other.

Series Preface

Today, plant selection is not only for the yield of active principle, but for the plant's ability to overcome disease, climatic stress, and the hazards caused by mankind. Such methods as in vitro fertilization, meristem cultures, and somatic embryogenesis are used. The transfer of sections of DNA is giving rise to controversy in the case of some end-uses of the plant material.

The Nature of Soils

Per deficiency in cereals, and low soil copper contents were directly related to the presence of one soil series, the Eckford series developed in fluvioglacial sands. Similar problems are encountered on other light textured parent materials such as aeolian sands, fluvioglacial sands, cover sands and coarse glacial outwash deposits. Carbonate sediments may also present micronutrient fertility problems. Where the sediments are very pure the only significant source of trace elements in the soil may be from extraneous materials. In southern England copper deficiencies occur in cereals growing in shallow rendzinas except where the soil is influenced by Pleistocene loess or other incorporations of non-carbonate materials. Isomorphous substitution for calcium is possible by barium, strontium and lead and limestones are often solid solutions of calcium and magnesium carbonates. However many carbonate rocks are impure and their trace element contents may be boosted by iron manganese oxides and...

Unequal Redundancy

Genes may be largely accounted for by their expression patterns rather than their functions as RLKs, given that both ERL1 and ERL2 are capable of rescuing erecta mutant phenotypes when driven by the native ERECTA promoter (Shpak et al, 2004). Consistently, the ERECTA-family genes display intricate overlapping expression patterns during organ primordia growth. Successive loss of gene dosage revealed that ERL2 is haplo-insufficient for ovule development and female fertility in the absence of ERECTA and ERL1, while ERECTA and ERL1 are haplo-sufficient in the absence of other two members (Pillitteri et al., 2007). Therefore, ERL2 possesses the most minor role in promoting cell division and organ growth.


In addition I want to acknowledge the kind assistance of Professor Norman Farnsworth, Professor of the Department of Pharmacognosy and Pharmacology at Illinois University, USA, and Dr David Griffin, Manager of Research in Human Reproduction at the WHO, in providing recent documentation allowing me to select the more important information in the very extensive field of antifertility plants.


Classically, patients with endometriosis present with chronic or cyclic pelvic pain and infertility. Pain often begins 1 to 2 days prior to onset of menstruation and may last several days or throughout the menstrual period. Additional symptoms may include dyspareunia, abnormal uterine bleeding, cyclic pain with defecation or urination, blood in urine or stool, constipation, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, and fainting. However, one-third of women diagnosed with endometriosis are asymptomatic. The severity of pelvic pain does not correlate with the extent of the disease though it may correlate with the proximity of adhesions to nerve endings (see the box below entitled Symptoms of Endometriosis'').17

Natural Progesterone

Progesterone is commonly prescribed to treat menopausal symptoms, abnormal uterine bleeding, premenstrual syndrome, endometrial hyperplasia, and infertility. Progesterone causes uterine smooth-muscle relaxation.57 Low levels of progesterone can cause a relative estrogen excess excessive estrogen is implicated in endometriosis. Thus, a clinical trial of progesterone therapy in conjunction with immunologic and inflammatory modulation of the internal biochemical milieu appears to be a rational approach to treating endometriosis.


Caffeine, while not the most detrimental of dietary incursions, does apparently have a rather negative effect on fertility. In fact, there is strong evidence that avoidance of caffeine is important for women who are trying to conceive. One study indicated that consumption of more than two cups of coffee per day may lead to adverse effects on fertility, especially among women with fallopian-tube disease and endometriosis.9 Other studies have shown evidence associating caffeine consumption with delayed conception. Women who consumed greater than 300 mg of caffeine per day had a 27 lower chance of achieving conception while woman who consumed less than 300 mg per day of caffeine had a 10 lower chance of conception compared to women who consumed no caffeine.10 Studies have also shown a decreased incidence of miscarriage in women who avoid caffeine during pregnancy. Sources of caffeine other than coffee include green and black tea, soft drinks, cocoa, chocolate, and some over-the-counter...


Showed that animals who were given vitamins C and E experienced a decrease in age-related reduction in their ovulation rates that is, the animals were able to ovulate more frequently when given the supplements compared to other animals of similar age who were not given the supplements.21 Although direct implications for human fertility cannot be assumed on the basis of this study, it does suggest implications for age-associated infertility in humans. Natural medicine approaches further increase the opportunity to treat each woman as an individual to address her specific cause of infertility.


Abnormalities in progesterone levels are found in many women with infertility. In fact, studies show that progesterone may be two times lower in women with repeated loss of pregnancy compared to fertile women. Additionally, progesterone was 200 times higher in the endometrium of fertile women compared to the women with difficulty maintaining a pregnancy.25 Natural progesterone supplementation, either intramuscularly or vaginally, is often used to support luteal phase defects and infertility in women.26 Table 14-2. Selected Botanicals and Applications for Enhancing Female Fertilitya


The reasons for infertility in men are numerous the primary causes of male infertility entail problems with spermatozoa production or delivery that may result from certain types of hormonal dysfunction, whereas trauma or anatomical defects in the reproductive system and other illnesses can all lead to infertility. Recent research has shown that approximately one in four men over age 30 have low levels of testosterone.2 Some additional causes of male infertility include Drugs and other substances pharmaceuticals used to treat hypertension, arthritis, and digestive diseases agents for chemotherapy and recreational drugs (such as marijuana) that are associated with sperm-production problems and infertility as is alcohol use Spermatogenesis occurs in cycles composed of six stages each one takes approximately 16 days to complete, and it takes 3 months to produce mature sperm. Development of sperm is ultimately controlled by the endocrine system via the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis....

Lifestyle Factors

Lifestyle factors, such as alcohol consumption and tobacco and marijuana smoking, are well-known causes of decreased sperm counts. In drinkers, alcohol has been shown to decrease sperm count, produce morphologic abnormalities, decrease sperm motility, and increase serum luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and sex-hormone-binding globulin levels. Patients who abused alcohol were found to be in a state of primary hypogonadism as a result of lifetime alcohol consumption.7 Sperm count and motility were found to be lower in smokers compared to nonsmokers, and smokers had a higher incidence of oligospermia, higher levels of endogenous 17-beta-E2, and sperm counts below normal compared to nonsmokers.8 Marijuana smoking has contributed to male infertility.9 Other lifestyle factors, such as type of underwear worn by a man, appear to have an effect on fertility. Brief-style underwear holds the testes closely to the body and thus induces temperature elevations in the...

Nutritional Supports

Several steps can be taken to reverse infertility in some cases. Once a primary cause is treated or removed, then comes the task of enhancing the body's general health by using nutritional supports in order to assist recovery of spermatogenesis. Maintaining a state of fertility for some patients may require constant support these methods can be used for patients who have suffered some type of damage to existing mature sperm to ensure that normal, healthy sperm production continues. Among the minerals, zinc is a key factor. (See Table 15-1 below.)


Seminal plasma levels are reflective of daily dietary intake, and decreased levels of vitamin C have been shown to be related to infertility and increased oxidative damage to spermatic DNA.34 This was demonstrated in an experiment that reduced vitamin C intake in normal healthy men to a level of 5 mg per day a decrease from 250 mg.35 Seminal levels of vitamin C were reduced by 50 and were accompanied by a 91 increase in spermatic DNA damage in this study. In another study on the effects of vitamin C on sperm quality, smokers were given placebo, 200 mg, or 1,000 mg of vitamin C per day. The two vitamin C- treated groups had improvements in sperm quality related to increased vitamin C intake while the placebo group had no improvement whatsoever.36 Another important study on the use of vitamin C and its effects on male fertility demonstrated that supplementation with this vitamin could reverse some aspects of infertility.37 A group of infertile men were given placebo, 200 mg, or 1,000 mg...

Phosphatase mutants

The TON2 FASS gene encodes a protein similar in its C-terminal part to B regulatory subunits of PP2As (Camilleri et al, 2002). Association of the PP2A catalytic type-C subunit with regulatory (type A and type B) subunits produces several species of holoenzymes with distinct properties and functions. B-type subunits associate with the regulatory A subunits and provide targeting and substrate specificity to the enzyme complex (Luan, 2003). In animal cells, a trimeric PP2A complex composed of A and C subunits and of a distinct form of the B subunit associated with microtubules in vivo and in vitro, but a dimeric PP2A complex composed only of A and C subunits did not (Hiraga and Tamura, 2000). The TON2 protein interacts with an Arabidopsis type-A subunit of PP2A in the yeast two-hybrid system, indicating that TON2 and its vertebrate homologs define a novel subclass of PP2A B subunits. The Arabidopsis genome contains three PP2A catalytic C subunit genes, among which RCN1 exhibits the most...


Upon infection by fungal biotroph Erysiphe orontii or bacteria such as Pseudomonas syringae pv. Maculicola, the pathway leading to salicylic acid is triggered and this phenomenon is associated with a localized or systemic acquired resistance response. For instance, a salicylic acid-regulated defense pathway is activated in callose synthase-deficient plants as a compensatory defense mechanism (Nishimura et al. 2003). Initially, a phenylpropanoid pathway of salicylic acid was suggested. However, through the isolation of Arabidopsis mutants it was shown that salicylic acid is mainly synthesized in plastids. The pathway proceeds via a monofunctional isochorismate synthase 1 (ICS1) that converts chorismate to isochorismate (Strawn et al. 2007 Wildermuth et al. 2001) (Fig. 3). Mutations of the ICSI gene reduce salicylic acid accumulation after infection to only 5-10 of wild-type levels and compromise SAR induction (Wildermuth et al. 2001).

Further work

Proper identification of ancient drug laksmana is a debatable topic. The drug has been mentioned as a cure for female infertility in ancient texts. Further, it is considered to be a type of kantkari. Disogenin has been reported from various Solanum species like S. xanthocarpum Schrad et Wendl. and Solanum khasianum C.B. Clarke. Fruits of these species are in high demand for production of progesterones of natural origin. These are prized drugs for curing conditions like infertility and habitual abortions (coherence with the ancient texts). S. khasianum has white flowers. Ancient texts have not mentoined the detailed morphology of lakshmana, but presence of white flowers have been mentoined. Work on S. khasianum as a possible representative of lakshmana is warranted.

TRNA processing

Production of a mature functional tRNA requires several posttranscriptional processes that include maturation of the 5' and 3' extremities, nucleotide modifications (including C to U editing in some cases) and addition of the 3' terminal CCA nucleotides that are not genomically encoded in plant mitochondria. Several of these processes have been investigated in detail using efficient in vitro maturation systems.


To date, in vitro studies of bacterial and mammalian cells as well as in vivo studies of mice have found no evidence of mutagenicity associated with Echinacea (Mengs et al., 1991). There are no human studies pertaining to the effect of Echinacea on female fertility at this time. Recent in vitro studies, however, suggest possible impaired male fertility associated with Echinacea use (Ondrizek et al., 1999a, 1999b). This research found that high concentrations of Echinacea added directly to semen decreased sperm movement. But it is not always possible to extrapolate results stemming from in vitro research to humans, especially in light of the high concentrations used.

Obligate apogamy

Dryopteris affinis ssp. affinis needs no prompting to generate sporophytes apogamously, but we know that their induction is stimulated by auxins and gibberellins (Menendez et al., 2006). In common with many other apogamous species, this taxon is widely distributed and very successful. Bommeria pedata, for example, has a considerably more extensive distribution than most of its sexually reproducing congeners (Gastony and Haufler, 1976). It is usually held that the reason for this success is that the apogamous process avoids the need for water in excess of the hydration needs of each plant. Apogamous taxa are certainly successful in drier habitats than their sexually reproducing relatives, but this may well reflect the rapid growth and maturation rate of their game-tophytes in at least equal measure to their lack of requirement of water for

100 Pregnancy Tips

100 Pregnancy Tips

Prior to planning pregnancy, you should learn more about the things involved in getting pregnant. It involves carrying a baby inside you for nine months, caring for a child for a number of years, and many more. Consider these things, so that you can properly assess if you are ready for pregnancy. Get all these very important tips about pregnancy that you need to know.

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