Endophytes

Mycorrhizae

Pathogens

Saprotrophs

Mycorrhizae

Pathogens

Saprotrophs, Mycorrhizae Mycorrhizae (Saprotrophs)

Note: Services and Fungal Groups discussed in this chapter are boldface. Fungal groups in parentheses are regarded as of lesser importance in that function.

Sweden (Palmqvist and Sundberg, 2000). These authors also report that epiphytes in the same locality only produce 0.01 to 0.02gg_1 (1 to 4gm"2). The greater biomass accumulation of ground-inhabiting species is attributed to their better water-holding capacity and greater light levels than arboreal habitats. As epiphytes, lichens are able to successfully utilize the mineral nutrients that are intercepted by or leached from tree canopies and that run down the branches and trunks as stem flow. Again, the combination of fungal sequestration of mineral nutrients and photosynthesis by the symbiotic algae provides another source of carbon fixation in the tree canopy.

Table 3.2 Range of Nutrient Retention by Mat-Forming Lichens from Rainfall

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