Tara Auxt Baugher Suman Singha Editors

Concise Encyclopedia of Temperate Tree Fruit


// /"Concise Encyclopedia of Temperate Tree Fruit is a thorough treatise of production practices balanced with basic scientific concepts that affect them. The topics are well chosen to cover the depth and breadth of the field. This book will add to the body of literature on temperate fruit production in a positive way."

Emily Hoover, PhD

Distinguished Teaching Professor of Horticulture,

Department of Horticultural Science, University of Minnesota, St. Paul

A cellent source for use in teaching tree fruit production. The authors of the chapters are among the leading po-mologists in the United States and they bring a good working knowledge to each subject. The information is not too detailed, but rather provides a good basic understanding on which to build. I was pleased to see the inclusion of information on advanced methods of breeding and genetics, which is often not included in applied textbooks. The inclusion of additional references at the end of each subject matter section provides valuable additional information."

Dr. Rob Crassweller

Professor of Tree Fruit, Department of Horticulture, Penn State University his book will function as an ex

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// foncise Encyclopedia of Temperate Tree Fruit contains a wealth of information on all aspects of temperate tree fruit science. Unlike many tree fruit publications, it is easy to read and well organized. It will be an excellent source of sound science-based information for serious students, commercial growers, scientists, and allied industry personnel. A complete list of literature citations is contained at the end of each chapter for those who wish to read more. This book will also be a good source of information for the serious gardener and backyard fruit grower. If we follow good maturity standards and harvest techniques described in the Concise Encyclopedia of Temperate Tree Fruit, we will all enjoy the very best in quality."

Jerome L. Frecon, MS

Agricultural Agent/Professor, Rutgers University his book represents a very broad coverage of many topics related to temperate tree fruit culture and production. While the bulk of the information presented deals with apple, other temperate tree fruits (pear, peach, sweet cherry, and other stone fruits) are frequently mentioned throughout the text. The book is organized alphabetically into 42 chapters, each prepared by an expert in the particular subject matter. Each chapter is well written and presents its information in a clear and easy-to-read format, along with additional illustrative figures and tables. The range of topics is truly encyclopedic, and includes fruit tree structure, physiology, growth and development, soil and weather factors, pests and diseases, and nutritional value of fruits. Readers who will benefit most from this book should have had a basic introduction to chemistry, physics, and plant science to appreciate the terminology used throughout the book. For those interested in more information on any topic, each chapter is followed by suggested references for more in-depth study. This book will be a valuable source of information for students, teachers, gardeners, growers, tree fruit industry people, and anyone else with an interest in any aspect of tree fruit production."

Don C. Elfving, PhD

Horticulturist and Professor, Washington State University, Tree Fruit Research & Extension Center, Wenatchee, WA

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Concise Encyclopedia of Temperate Tree Fruit

FOOD PRODUCTS PRESS® Crop Science Amarjit S. Basra, PhD Senior Editor

Mineral Nutrition of Crops: Fundamental Mechanisms and Implications by Zdenko Rengel

Conservation Tillage in U.S. Agriculture: Environmental, Economic, and Policy Issues by Noel D. Uri

Cotton Fibers: Developmental Biology, Quality Improvement, and Textile Processing edited by Amarjit S. Basra

Heterosis and Hybrid Seed Production in Agronomic Crops edited by Amarjit S. Basra

Intensive Cropping: Efficient Use of Water, Nutrients, and Tillage by S. S. Prihar, P. R. Gajri, D. K. Benbi, and V. K. Arora

Physiological Bases for Maize Improvement edited by María E. Otegui and Gustavo A. Slafer

Plant Growth Regulators in Agriculture and Horticulture: Their Role and Commercial Uses edited by Amarjit S. Basra

Crop Responses and Adaptations to Temperature Stress edited by Amarjit S. Basra

Plant Viruses As Molecular Pathogens by Jawaid A. Khan and Jeanne Dijkstra

In Vitro Plant Breeding by Acram Taji, Prakash P. Kumar, and Prakash Lakshmanan

Crop Improvement: Challenges in the Twenty-First Century edited by Manjit S. Kang

Barley Science: Recent Advances from Molecular Biology to Agronomy of Yield and Quality edited by Gustavo A. Slafer, José Luis Molina-Cano, Roxana Savin, José Luis Araus, and Ignacio Romagosa

Tillage for Sustainable Cropping by P. R. Gajri, V. K. Arora, and S. S. Prihar

Bacterial Disease Resistance in Plants: Molecular Biology and Biotechnological Applications by P. Vidhyasekaran

Handbook of Formulas and Software for Plant Geneticists and Breeders edited by Manjit S. Kang

Postharvest Oxidative Stress in Horticultural Crops edited by D. M. Hodges

Encyclopedic Dictionary of Plant Breeding and Related Subjects by Rolf H. G. Schlegel

Handbook of Processes and Modeling in the Soil-Plant System edited by D. K. Benbi and R. Nieder

The Lowland Maya Area: Three Millennia at the Human-Wildland Interface edited by A. Gómez-Pompa, M. F. Allen, S. Fedick, and J. J. Jiménez-Osornio

Biodiversity and Pest Management in Agroecosystems, Second Edition by Miguel A. Altieri and Clara I. Nicholls

Plant-Derived Antimycotics: Current Trends and Future Prospects edited by Mahendra Rai and Donatella Mares

Concise Encyclopedia ofTemperate Tree Fruit edited by Tara Auxt Baugher and Suman Singha

Concise Encyclopedia of Temperate Tree Fruit

Tara Auxt Baugher Suman Singha Editors

Food Products Press® The Haworth Reference Press Imprints of The Haworth Press, Inc. New York • London • Oxford

Published by

Food Products Press® and The Haworth Reference Press, imprints of The Haworth Press, Inc., 10 Alice Street, Binghamton, NY 13904-1580.

© 2003 by The Haworth Press, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, microfilm, and recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Printed in the United States of America.


Information on private enterprises or products does not imply endorsement by the writers or by The Haworth Press, Inc.

Cover design by Lora Wiggins.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Concise encyclopedia of temperate tree fruit / Tara Auxt Baugher, Suman Singha, editors. p. cm.

Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 1-56022-940-3 (alk. paper) — ISBN 1-56022-941-1 (alk. paper) 1. Fruit-culture—Encyclopedias. 2. Fruit trees—Encyclopedias. I. Baugher, Tara Auxt. II. Singha, Suman.


To Allison, Javed, Kamini, Kathy, and Phil


List of Figures xv

List of Tables xix

About the Editors xxi

Contributors xxiii

Preface xxvii

Anatomy and Taxonomy 3

Tara Auxt Baugher

Pome Fruit 3

Stone Fruit 5

Other Temperate Tree Fruit 7

Breeding and Molecular Genetics 11

Ralph Scorza

Hybridization 13

Nontraditional Breeding Techniques 14

Carbohydrate Partitioning and Plant Growth 21

Alan N.Lakso James A. Flore

Seasonal Patterns of Carbohydrate Production 21

Partitioning to Tree Organs 23

Environmental Factors Affecting Partitioning 28

Cultivar Selection 31

Duane W. Greene

Selection Criteria 31 Multidisciplinary and International Evaluation of Cultivars 35

Major Cultivars of the World 35

Diseases 41

David A. Rosenberger

Background on Tree Fruit Diseases and Their Control 41

Common Pome Fruit Diseases 43

Common Stone Fruit Diseases 51

Dormancy and Acclimation 57

Curt R. Rom

Forms of Dormancy 57

Specific Cases of Dormancy 59

Physiological Basis for Dormancy 61

Acclimation 62

Dwarfing 65

Stephen S. Miller

Genetic Dwarfing 66

Horticultural Practices to Induce Dwarfing 66

Flower Bud Formation, Pollination, and Fruit Set 75

Peter M. Hirst

Flower Formation 75

Pollination 78

Fertilization 79

Fruit Color Development 83

Color Measurement 83

Pigments 84

Physiology of Color Formation in Tree Fruit 87

Fruit Growth Patterns 91

Alan N. Lakso Martin C. Goffinet

What Is a Stone or Pome Fruit? 91

What Is Fruit Growth? 93

Growth by Cell Division and Cell Expansion 94

Growth Patterns of Different Fruit 95

Importance of Maintaining Fruit Growth Fruit Shape

Fruit Maturity 103

Christopher B. Watkins

The Compromise Between Quality and Storability 104

Development of Maturity Indices 105

Maturity or Harvest Indices for Specific Fruit 108

Maturity Programs 111

Geographic Considerations 115

Suman Singha

Latitude 115

Elevation 116

Water Bodies 116

Aspect 116

Rainfall 117

Harvest 121

Stephen S. Miller

Hand Harvesting 121

Harvest Aids 124

Mechanical Harvesting 125

High-Density Orchards 131

Suman Singha

Light Environment 132

Production Efficiency and Packout 132

Management 133

Insects and Mites 137

Tracy C. Leskey

Direct Pests 137

Indirect Pests 142

Beneficial Insects 146


D. Michael Glenn

Irrigation Scheduling 149

Irrigation Systems 151

Light Interception and Photosynthesis 157

David C. Ferree

Photosynthesis 157

Factors Affecting Photosynthesis 159

Light Interception 160

Responses of Fruit Trees to Light 161

Orchard Practices to Improve Light 163

Marketing 169

Desmond O'Rourke

Key Agents 169

Key Functions 170

Nematodes 177

John M. Halbrendt

Beneficial Free-Living Nematodes 177

Plant-Parasitic Nematodes and Associated Problems 177

Major Nematodes That Affect Fruit Trees 179

Nepovirus Diseases 180

Diagnosis of Nematode Problems 181

Nematode Control 182

Nutritional Value of Fruit 185

Andrea T. Borchers Dianne A. Hyson

Health Benefits of Fruit Consumption 185

Phenolic Compounds in Pome and Stone Fruit 190

Orchard Floor Management 195

Ian A. Merwin

Orchard Groundcover Advantages 195

Orchard Groundcover Disadvantages 198

Orchard Planning and Site Preparation 203

Tara Auxt Baugher

Site Assessment 203

Orchard Design and Tree Quality 204

Orchard Preparation 205

Tree Planting 205

Packing 209

A. Nathan Reed

Presizing and Presorting 209

Weight Sizing, Color Sorting, and Packaging 210

Defect Sorting 213

Modified-Atmosphere Packing 213

Bruise Prevention 214

Nondestructive Quality Assessment 215

Physiological Disorders 219

Christopher B. Watkins

Types of Physiological Disorders 220

Major Physiological Disorders of Temperate Tree Fruit 223

Plant Growth Regulation 235

Christopher S. Walsh

Regulation of Tree Vigor and Enhancement of Flowering 236

Chemical Thinning 237

Control of Preharvest Drop of Fruit 238

Specialty Applications in Targeted Situations 240

Plant Hormones 245

Christopher S. Walsh

Auxin 246

Gibberellin 246

Cytokinin 248

Abscisic Acid 248

Ethylene 249

Mode of Action 249

Plant Nutrition 251

Dariusz Swietlik

Soil As a Reservoir of Plant Nutrients 251

Nutrient Absorption and Transport 252 Physiological and Biochemical Functions of Plant Nutrients 255

Modern Trends in Fruit Tree Nutrition 257

Plant-Pest Relationships and the Orchard Ecosystem 259

Tracy C. Leskey


Disease-Causing Pathogens




Postharvest Fruit Physiology

Christopher B. Watkins

Respiration and Ethylene Production





Mervyn C. D'Souza

Apple Cultivars and Quality Characteristics 273

Apple Sorting 273

Applesauce Production 274

Apple Slice Production 275

Apple Juice Production 275

Quality Assessments 276

Other Temperate Fruit 277

Propagation 279

Suman Singha

Sexual Propagation 279

Vegetative Propagation 280

260 261 262 262

266 267

Rootstock Selection

Curt R. Rom

Effects of Rootstocks and Reasons for Selection 287

Rootstock-Scion Compatibility 288

Types of Rootstocks 289

Multicomponent Plants 290

Soil Management and Plant Fertilization 295

Dariusz Swietlik

Methods of Estimating Fertilizer Needs 296

Fertilizer Application Practices 298

Managing Extreme Soil Environments 300

Spring Frost Control 303

Katharine B. Perry

Frost Control Principles 303

Frost Control Techniques 304

Storing and Handling Fruit 309

A. Nathan Reed

Precooling 309

Cold Storage 311

Controlled Atmosphere Storage 313

Relative Humidity 314

Monitoring Storages 315

Sustainable Orcharding 319

Tracy C. Leskey

Integrated Pest Management 319

Integrated Fruit Production 321

Organic Production 322

Temperature Relations 327

Rajeev Arora

Freezing Tolerance versus Freezing Avoidance 327

Overwintering 332 Systems and Strategies to Distinguish Cold Hardiness and Dormancy Transitions 333

Training and Pruning Principles 339

Stephen C. Myers

Apical Dominance and Growth 339

Shoot Orientation Effect on Apical Dominance 340

General Responses to Pruning 341

Types of Pruning Cuts 341

Training and Pruning Objectives 343

Training Systems 347

Tara Auxt Baugher

Central Leader Systems 347

Open Center Systems 350

Vertical and Horizontal Trellis Systems 351

Tree Canopy Temperature Management 355

D. Michael Glenn

Temperature Assessment 356

Cooling Strategies 357

Water Relations 361

D. Michael Glenn

Pathway of Water from the Soil to the Leaf 361

Ascent of Water in Plants 363

Transpiration Stream of Water 363

Components of Plant Water Relations 364

Wildlife 367

Tara Auxt Baugher

Integrated Approach to Wildlife Management 367

General Control Strategies 368

Index 371

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