Pome Fruit

Apple (Malus Mill.)

Family Rosaceae, Subfamily Pomoideae; approximately 30 species; domestic apples derived mainly from M. pumila Mill.; domestic crab apples, hybrids of M. pumila and M. baccata (L.) Borkh. or other primitive species; hybrids numerous and complex.

Deciduous, infrequently evergreen, branching tree or shrub; leaves folded or twisted in buds, ovate or elliptic or lanceolate or oblong, lobed or serrate or serrulate; buds ovoid, a few overlapping scales.

Flowers white to pink or crimson, epigynous, in cymes; stamens 15 to 50; styles 2 to 5; ovary 3 to 5 cells.

Fruit a pome, oblong or oblate or conic or oblique, diameter 2 to 13 centimeters, various hues of green to yellow to red, varying russet and lenticel characteristics; flesh lacking stone cells.

Obovate Leaf Shapes

Oblong Ovate

Entire

Solitary

Solitary

Pome

Obovate Leaf Shapes

Lanceolate

Lobed Crenate Dentate Leaf Margins

Raceme Cyme Corymb

Inflorescence Types

Raceme Cyme Corymb

Inflorescence Types

Pome

Berry

Drupe Fruit types n\

Syconium

Berry

Drupe Fruit types

Syconium

Elliptic

Serrate Serrulate

Serrate Serrulate

Axillary

Syncaip

Syncaip

FIGURE A1.1. Illustrations of terminology used to describe temperate tree fruit (Source: Modified from Harris and Harris, 1997, Plant Identification Terminology; and Bailey et al., 1976.)

Family Rosaceae, Subfamily Pomoideae; approximately 20 species; European (P. communis L.) possibly derived from P. caucasica Fed. and P. nivalis Jacq.; Asian mostly from P. pyrifolia (Burm. f.) Nakai and P. ussuriensis Maxim. selections; hybrids numerous and complex.

Deciduous or semievergreen tree; leaves rolled in buds, ovate or oblong or elliptic or lanceolate or obovate, crenate or serrate or entire, infrequently lobed; buds ovoid, overlapping scales.

Flowers, white, sometimes with pink tinge, epigynous, in corymbs, open with or before leaves; stamens 20 to 30; styles 2 to 5; ovules 2 per cell.

Fruit a pome, pyriform or globose or ovoid, diameter 2 to 12 centimeters, various hues of green/yellow or red/brown, varying russet and lenticel characteristics; flesh usually containing grit or stone cells.

Quince, Common (Cydonia oblonga Mill.)

Family Rosaceae, Subfamily Pomoideae.

Deciduous small tree or shrub; leaves ovate or oblong, entire, tomen-tose on underside; buds pubescent, small.

Flowers pink or white, epigynous, solitary, terminal on leafy shoots; stamens 20 or more; styles 5; ovary 5 cells.

Fruit a pome, pyriform or globose, hard, diameter 4 to 8 centimeters, yellow, many-seeded.

STONE FRUIT

Peach/Nectarine (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch.)

Family Rosaceae, Subfamily Prunoideae, Subgenus Amygdalus (L.) Focke.

Deciduous, small tree; branches glabrous; leaves alternate, folded in buds, long-lanceolate, serrulate; buds 3 per axil, the 2 laterals being flower buds.

Flowers pink to red, perigynous, sessile or on short stalk, open before leaves.

Fruit a drupe, peach tomentose, nectarine glabrous, globose or oval or oblate, sometimes compressed, diameter 4 to 10 centimeters, yellow to red; stone sculptured or pitted.

Almond (Prunus amygdalus Batsch.)

Family Rosaceae, Subfamily Prunoideae, Subgenus Amygdalus (L.) Focke.

Deciduous, spreading tree; branches glabrous; leaves alternate, folded in buds, lanceolate, serrulate; buds 3 per axil, the 2 laterals being flower buds.

Flowers white to pink, perigynous, sessile or on short stalk, open before leaves.

Fruit a drupe, tomentose, oblong, compressed, length 2 to 6 centimeters, green, dry; stone pitted; kernel sweet.

Apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.)

Family Rosaceae, Subfamily Prunoideae, Subgenus Prunophora Focke.

Deciduous, small tree; bark reddish; branches glabrous; leaves alternate, usually ovate, serrate, pubescent veins on underside.

Flowers white or pink, perigynous, solitary, open before leaves.

Fruit a drupe, pubescent when immature, almost smooth when mature, oblong or globose, sometimes compressed, diameter 2 to 6 centimeters, yellow, sometimes red cheek; stone smooth, flattened, ridged suture.

Plum, Common or European (Prunus domestica;

also P. cerasifera, P. spinosa, and P. insititia);

Japanese or Oriental (P. salicina); Native American

(many species, including P. americana or wild plum)

Family Rosaceae, Subfamily Prunoideae, Subgenus Prunophora Focke.; numerous species and hybrids.

Deciduous, small tree; leaves alternate, usually ovate/obovate or oblong/elliptic, often serrate or crenate.

Flowers usually white, perigynous, solitary or clustered, open before or sometimes with leaves.

Fruit a drupe, glabrous, usually with bloom on skin, length 2 to 8 centimeters, globose or oblong or cordate or elliptical, sometimes compressed, variable colors, including blue/purple or red/pink or yellow/green; stone smooth, flattened.

Cherry, Sour (Prunus cerasus L.); Sweet (P. avium L.);

Duke (hybrid, P. avium x P. cerasus); Native American

(P. besseyi L. H. Bailey or sand cherry, and others)

Family Rosaceae, Subfamily Prunoideae, Subgenus Cerasus Pers.; various species and hybrids.

Deciduous, small to large tree; leaves alternate, folded in buds, ovate or obovate or obovate/elliptic, serrate or crenate/serrate.

Flowers white to pink, perigynous, solitary or in inflorescences ranging from few-flowered umbels to racemes.

Fruit a drupe, globose or oblate or cordate, diameter 1 to 3 centimeters, dark or light red or yellow; stone sculptured or smooth.

OTHER TEMPERATE TREE FRUIT

Fig, Common (Ficus carica L.)

Family Moraceae.

Deciduous, small, irregular tree; leaves thick, deeply lobed (3 to 5), pubescent on underside, scabrous on top.

Flowers small, solitary and axillary.

Fruit a syconium, pyriform, diameter 2 to 6 centimeters, greenish purple/brown, many-seeded.

Mulberry (Morus L.)

Family Moraceae; approximately 12 species.

Deciduous, open tree; leaves alternate, frequently lobed, crenate or serrate or dentate, scabrous or glabrous; buds of 3 to 6 overlapping scales.

Flowers unisexual, male and female in separate inflorescences, usually on separate trees (dioecious), sometimes on the same tree (monoecious), appear with leaves.

Fruit a syncarp, ovoid or cylindric, length 1 to 4 centimeters, red/purple or pink/white, resembles a blackberry.

Papaw, Northern (also Pawpaw; Asimina triloba (L.) Dunal.)

Family Annonaceae.

Deciduous, small tree; leaves alternate, oblong and obovate, drooping. Flowers purple, on hairy stalks, axillary, open before leaves. Fruit a berry, usually oblong or elliptical, length 7 to 12 centimeters, usually green/yellow to brown/bronze when ripe; seeds compressed.

Persimmon (Diospyros L.)

Family Ebenaceae.

Deciduous or evergreen, dioecious tree or shrub; leaves alternate, variable shapes; buds ovoid, a few outer scales. Flowers usually white or yellow, unisexual, female solitary, male in cymes.

Fruit a berry, usually globose or oblate, diameter 2 to 10 centimeters, usually orange/yellow, turning brown/black, large persistent calyx; seeds large, compressed, 1 to 10.

Jujube, loquat, medlar, pomegranate, and serviceberry also are grown in temperate zones. These shrubs or small trees are described in an encyclopedia on small fruit, to be edited by Robert Gough and published by The Haworth Press, Inc.

Knowledge of taxonomy and anatomy is important in studies on fruit physiology and culture. Moreover, classification and description systems have practical applications, such as ensuring graft compatibility and increasing fruit set.

Related Topics: CULTIVAR SELECTION; FRUIT GROWTH PATTERNS; ROOTSTOCK SELECTION

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Bailey, Liberty Hyde, Ethel Zoe Bailey, and staff of the Liberty Hyde Bailey Hortorium (1976). Hortus third: A concise dictionary of plants cultivated in the United States and Canada. New York: Macmillan Publishing Co. Westwood, MelvinN. (1993). Temperate-zone pomology: Physiology and culture. Portland, OR: Timber Press.

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