Phenolic Compounds In Pome And Stone Fruit

Quantitative data on total phenols and the major types of flavonoids, the most important class of polyphenols, in pome and stone fruit are incomplete. Furthermore, there is considerable variability in the existing data, even for fruit that have been quite extensively analyzed. Since the flavonoid composition of apples has been investigated in more detail than that of other tree fruit, apples are used in Table N2.3 to illustrate that much of the inherent variability in phenolic content arises from genetic factors. The phenolic content and composition are also greatly influenced by an array of orchard and postharvest factors as well as differences in analytical methodology. The data in Table N2.3 further illustrate the varied distribution of phenolics within the fruit itself. The peel of apples (and most pome and stone fruit) generally has a much higher concentration than the pulp.

In a majority of the pome and stone fruit analyzed to date, flavonols, flavan-3-ols, and anthocyanidins—three subclasses of flavonoids— have been detected. In addition, other types of flavonoids have been reported for specific fruit, e.g., chalcones in apples, flavanones in almonds and tart cherries, and isoflavones in tart cherries. No quantitative data are yet available on these flavanones (naringenin and naringenin-glycosides) in cherries and almonds, but the amounts present in almonds appear to be substantial (Almond Board of California, preliminary data).

Temperate tree fruit are a moderate source of dietary fiber and potassium, and a fair source of vitamin C and vitamin A. Many of the pome and stone fruit contain significant amounts of phenolic com-

TABLE N2.3. Variation in content of select individual phenolic compounds in some apple cultivars

Cultivar/Tissue

Flavan-3-ols

Procyanidin B1

Procyanidin B2

Procyanidin B3

Catechin

Epicatechin

Golden Delicious/cortex

1.4

8.8

Golden Delicious/pulp

15.3

1.0-1.1

2.3-3.2

2.1-2.7

2.8-4.9

1.9-3.4

Golden Delicious/peel

61.7

3.2-5.3

6.9-16.6

2.5-6.6

6.6-16.4

8.2-16.8

Golden Delicious

9.8

0.5

3.2

0.1

0.2

2.0

Granny Smith/pulp

56.8

6.2-8.4

9.7-10.5

6.1-10.0

13.6-18.2

7.1-9.7

Granny Smith/peel

173.7

17.3-24.1

55.8-57.4

7.0-12.4

37.4-48.6

24.6-31.2

Granny Smith

20.0

1.7

4.1

0.2

0.6

2.7

Reinette/pulp

44.9

5.7-6.7

8.2-9.4

3.3-4.1

11.3-13.6

9.1-11.1

Reinette/peel

188.0

10.3-24.2

38.8-58.1

12.5-15.8

22.9-46.0

23.8-43.9

Reinette

42.9

3.7

11.5

0.3

1.4

6.9

Delicious/pulp

1.1-2.1

3.4-5.4

2.0-2.8

4.4-7.0

3.6-5.9

Delicious/peel

12.7-17.2

43.3-65.9

1.1-1.4

29.7-44.5

24.8-48.1

Delicious

38.4

3.4

7.9

0.4

1.6

6.4

Sources: de Pascual-Teresa et al., 2000, J. Agrie. FoodChem. 48:5331-5337; Escarpa and González, 2001, Eur. Food Res. Technoi. 212:439-444; Sanoner et al., 1999, J. Agrie. Food Chem. 47:4847-4853.

pounds, suggesting a potential role of these fruit in promoting human health.

Related Topics: FRUIT COLOR DEVELOPMENT; POSTHARVEST FRUIT PHYSIOLOGY

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