Parasites

Major parasitoid groups found in conventional orchards include species of parasitic wasps belonging to the Braconidae, Ichneumo-nidae, and Eulophidae families as well as parasitic flies belonging to the Tachinidae family. Leafminer pest species can be controlled to acceptable levels in conventional orchards by parasitoids, and populations of other pests can be substantially reduced by their presence.

Predators

The most important predators found in conventional orchard ecosystems are generally associated with control of mite and aphid species. These include predaceous mites (Family Phytoseiidae) and ladybird beetles (Family Coccinellidae) (Figure I1.2) for control of mites. For control of aphids, the most common include fly species belonging to Syrphidae, Asilidae, and Cecidomyiidae families, green lacewings (Family Chrysopidae), as well as ladybird beetles.

Although insect and mite pests described here are of present-day importance on a global scale, new pests could emerge as management practices change, new insecticide and miticide chemistries are introduced, and new tree cultivars are planted. Furthermore, the potential impact of global climate change as well as introduction of exotic insects and mites to new regions also could lead to new pest problems.

FIGURE I1.2. Ladybird beetle (Family Coccinellidae), an extremely important predator of aphids in orchard ecosystems (Source: Courtesy of Mark W. Brown, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Kearneysville, WV.)

Related Topics: DISEASES; PLANT-PEST RELATIONSHIPS AND THE

ORCHARD ECOSYSTEM; SUSTAINABLE ORCHARDING

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

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McPherson, J. E. and R. M. McPherson (2000). Stinkbugs of economic importance in America north of Mexico. New York: CRC Press.

Penman, D. R. (1976). Deciduous tree fruit pests. In Ferro, D. N. ed., New Zealand insect pests (pp. 28-43). Canturbury, New Zealand: Lincoln College of Agric.

Sands, D. P. A., W. J. M. M. Liebregts, and R. J. Broe (1993). Biological control of the fruit piercing moth, Othreis fullonia (Clerck) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in the Pacific. Micronesia 4:25-31.

Travis, J. W., coordinator (2000). Pennsylvania tree fruit production guide. State College, PA: Pennsylvania State Univ. College of Agric.

Van Der Geest, L. P. S. andH. H. Evenhuis, eds. (1991). Tortricidpests: Their biology, natural enemies and control. Amsterdam, the Netherlands: Elsevier.

Van Driesche, R. G. and T. S. Bellows (1996). Biological control. New York: Chapman and Hall.

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