Major parasitoid groups found in conventional orchards include species of parasitic wasps belonging to the Braconidae, Ichneumo-nidae, and Eulophidae families as well as parasitic flies belonging to the Tachinidae family. Leafminer pest species can be controlled to acceptable levels in conventional orchards by parasitoids, and populations of other pests can be substantially reduced by their presence.


The most important predators found in conventional orchard ecosystems are generally associated with control of mite and aphid species. These include predaceous mites (Family Phytoseiidae) and ladybird beetles (Family Coccinellidae) (Figure I1.2) for control of mites. For control of aphids, the most common include fly species belonging to Syrphidae, Asilidae, and Cecidomyiidae families, green lacewings (Family Chrysopidae), as well as ladybird beetles.

Although insect and mite pests described here are of present-day importance on a global scale, new pests could emerge as management practices change, new insecticide and miticide chemistries are introduced, and new tree cultivars are planted. Furthermore, the potential impact of global climate change as well as introduction of exotic insects and mites to new regions also could lead to new pest problems.

FIGURE I1.2. Ladybird beetle (Family Coccinellidae), an extremely important predator of aphids in orchard ecosystems (Source: Courtesy of Mark W. Brown, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Kearneysville, WV.)




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