List of Figures

A1.1 Illustrations of terminology used to describe temperate tree fruit 4

C1.1 Growth in peach tree dry weight and the partitioning into tree organs as affected by tree development over many years 24

C1.2 Effects of increasing crop load on partitioning of dry weight in dwarf apple trees 26

D1.1 Apple scab lesions on a leaf and on fruit 44

D1.2 Flyspeck, sooty blotch, and white rot on apple fruit at harvest 48

F1.1 Electron micrographs of flower development in buds of'Delicious'apple 77

F1.2 Uneven fruit shape caused by incomplete pollination 81

F2.1 Anthocyanidins 85

F3.1 Fate of floral tissues in development in a stone fruit and pome fruit 92

F3.2 General seasonal pattern of diameter and fresh and dry weight growth of apples and other pome fruit as percent of the final harvest value 95

F3.3 General seasonal pattern of diameter and fresh and dry weight growth of stone fruit as percent of final harvest value 96

F3.4 General dry weight growth rate per day for apples and stone fruit, representative of expolinear and double-sigmoid growth patterns 97

F3.5 Development of size and form of 'Delicious' apple fruit from its inception in the flower to the fruit at harvest 100

F4.1 Schematic illustration of the increase in fruit quality during maturation and ripening, and concomitant loss of storage potential 106

F4.2 Generic starch-iodine chart 109

H1.1 Various styles of aluminum stepladders used to hand harvest tree fruit crops 122

H1.2 A rigid canvas picking bucket commonly used to harvest apples, pears, and peaches 123

H1.3 Mechanical harvest aids 125

H1.4 A shake-and-catch mechanical harvester being used to harvest cling peaches 127

H2.1. Tree density and training system effects on 'Golden

Delicious' light transmission and packout 133

11.1 Anal comb on the last abdominal segment of an oriental fruit moth larva, differentiating it from a codling moth larva 141

11.2 Ladybird beetle, an extremely important predator of aphids in orchard ecosystems 147

L1.1 Orchard cultural practices to manage light 164

N1.1 Peach seedling root system heavily infected with root-knot nematodes 180

N1.2 Apple tree broken at graft union due to tomato ringspot virus infection 181

N1.3 Nectarine orchard with dead and declining trees due to prunus stem pitting disease, caused by tomato ringspot virus 183

P1.1 Commercial packing line with 'Golden Delicious'

apples prior to color grading and weight sizing 210

P1.2 Near-infrared technology measuring sugar content of apples on a commercial packing line 216

P2.1 A schematic representation of responses of plant tissues to chilling stress 222

P3.1 A comparison of the differences in crop load, fruit size, and physiological effects that occur when synthetic auxins are applied in springtime as chemical thinners, or in fall to control preharvest drop of apple 241

P5.1 Pathways for nutrient and water uptake by roots 253

T1.1 Freezing response of internodal xylem of peach, flowering dogwood, and willow subjected to differential thermal analysis 329

T1.2 Monthly profiles of bark proteins of sibling deciduous and evergreen peach trees 334

T2.1 Influence of pruning severity on flower clusters of'Delicious'apple 342

T2.2 Effect of preharvest water sprout removal on packout of'Redskin'peach 345

T3.1 Fruit tree training systems 353

W1.1 Movement of water from the soil to the leaf 362

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