Vertical And Horizontal Trellis Systems Vertical Canopies

The palmette trellis originated in Italy and France and is most commonly used in areas where growers prune and harvest their trees from moveable platforms. Trellis height is 3.0 to 4.5 meters. Trees are trained to a two-dimensional form, with branches tied to a horizontal or an oblique position. An adaptation for dwarf apple trees is the Penn State low trellis hedgerow, developed by L. D. Tukey. Several interesting vertical trellises marchand, drapeau, and Belgian cordon orient trunks and limbs...

Fertilizer Application Practices

A fertilizer management program should start before an orchard is planted. At that time, fertilizers can be easily incorporated into the soil to the depth of 25 to 30 centimeters, i.e., the zone of high root activity. This is particularly important for P, K, Mg, and Ca fertilizers as well as Zn, Cu, Mn, and Fe, which move very slowly down the soil profile. When applied to the soil surface in mature orchards, these fertilizers will need a long time to reach the main part of the root system. In...