Partitioning To Tree Organs

To grow and produce a crop, all the critical organs of a fruit tree must receive carbohydrates for growth and maintenance. A unique feature inherent to perennial crops is that flower buds for the next year's crop are developing on a tree during the growth of the current year's crop. So although growers and consumers are interested in the fruit component, the perennial nature requires that vegetative organs (shoots, roots, and structure) and developing flower buds receive an adequate share of...

Vertical And Horizontal Trellis Systems Vertical Canopies

The palmette trellis originated in Italy and France and is most commonly used in areas where growers prune and harvest their trees from moveable platforms. Trellis height is 3.0 to 4.5 meters. Trees are trained to a two-dimensional form, with branches tied to a horizontal or an oblique position. An adaptation for dwarf apple trees is the Penn State low trellis hedgerow, developed by L. D. Tukey. Several interesting vertical trellises marchand, drapeau, and Belgian cordon orient trunks and limbs...

Fertilizer Application Practices

A fertilizer management program should start before an orchard is planted. At that time, fertilizers can be easily incorporated into the soil to the depth of 25 to 30 centimeters, i.e., the zone of high root activity. This is particularly important for P, K, Mg, and Ca fertilizers as well as Zn, Cu, Mn, and Fe, which move very slowly down the soil profile. When applied to the soil surface in mature orchards, these fertilizers will need a long time to reach the main part of the root system. In...