Vertical And Horizontal Trellis Systems Vertical Canopies

The palmette trellis originated in Italy and France and is most commonly used in areas where growers prune and harvest their trees from moveable platforms. Trellis height is 3.0 to 4.5 meters. Trees are trained to a two-dimensional form, with branches tied to a horizontal or an oblique position. An adaptation for dwarf apple trees is the Penn State low trellis hedgerow, developed by L. D. Tukey. Several interesting vertical trellises marchand, drapeau, and Belgian cordon orient trunks and limbs...

Orchard Groundcover Advantages

Soil fertility provides the foundation for productivity in any crop system, and it is especially important in perennial crop systems where there are few options for supplementing nutrient availability in the deeper root zone, because direct placement of fertilizer into the rhizosphere is difficult and can damage roots. Furthermore, stringent soil, climate, and infrastructure requirements of orchards usually cause growers to replant the same or similar fruit crops repeatedly in the same...

Fertilizer Application Practices

A fertilizer management program should start before an orchard is planted. At that time, fertilizers can be easily incorporated into the soil to the depth of 25 to 30 centimeters, i.e., the zone of high root activity. This is particularly important for P, K, Mg, and Ca fertilizers as well as Zn, Cu, Mn, and Fe, which move very slowly down the soil profile. When applied to the soil surface in mature orchards, these fertilizers will need a long time to reach the main part of the root system. In...