The descriptions are generally arranged in a two-page format with the text and the map of the species distribution on the left and a composite plate of botanical and tree photographs on the right.
The botanical names of species follow current nomenclature. The nomenclature for the eucalypts mainly follows Brooker et al. (2002). The common names for species mostly follow the 'Nomenclature of Australian Timbers' (Australian Standard 1970). The main common name is given prominence with alternative names in smaller type.
The text for each species usually follows a basic pattern. The first four paragraphs contain comments on habit, distribution, ecology and associated species. The first paragraph includes a description of a typical tree plus such details as tree height, stem diameter at breast height (dbh), tree form, crown shape etc. An arbitrary scale was used to divide the species into four height groups, i.e. small (less than 10 m), medium-sized (10-25 m), tall (25-50 m) and very tall (greater than 50 m). Tree heights and stem diameters were usually assessed visually.
The second paragraph provides details on the species distribution, often citing specific localities, which may be familiar to readers or readily located using a map or gazetteer.
The third paragraph provides ecological details on the species, including, where applicable, information on site, aspect, parent material and soil. In most instances only the general conditions and not unusual or extreme conditions are indicated. Soil descriptions have been kept simple and generalised. Most provide information on the main textural classes—for more detailed information on Australian soils the reader is referred to Isbell (1996) and McKenzie et al. (2004).
The fourth paragraph describes the forest communities in which the species usually occurs. For non-rainforest communities we have broadly followed the classification devised by Specht et al. (1970), and for rainforest communities we have used the older more familiar climatic classification, e.g. tropical, subtropical, temperate and so on, followed usually by, in brackets, the structural classification of rainforests devised by Webb (1968, 1976). An indication is also given of the main species (mostly tree species (referred to generally as 'associated') likely to be found in association with or near the species being described.
For some species the third and fourth paragraph may be combined where limited text was required to describe their ecology and associations. Sometimes a fifth paragraph may provide additional general information.
The remaining paragraphs are in smaller print. These cover mainly botanical information, often in abbreviated form. An explanation for each heading in the order that they appear is as follows.
Related species: Information is provided, where appropriate, on the names of closely related species and the key features on how to distinguish them. On some occasions species not closely related but commonly confused with the species under discussion are indicated. For the section on eucalypts, the discussion follows Brooker (2000), as this is the most recent species-level classification published (see pp. 201-202 for a discussion). This replaces the classification of Pryor and Johnson (1971), that was used in the 4th edition. Where appropriate, various other studies are referred to in this section and these are cited in the References section.
Publication: The publication for the original description of each species name is given. This is provided for completeness so that the reader can examine an original description if necessary. The titles of the publications are abbreviated in the manner recommended (with small changes) by Stafleu and Cowan (1976-1987) for books and Lawrence et al. (1968) for periodicals and journals. All abbreviations of the names of authors of species follow Brummitt and Powell (1992).
Where known, the location and collector(s) of the type specimen(s) are also given. A type specimen is usually cited or designated by the author as the main reference specimen used to typify the name of the species. Type specimens are critical if a taxonomic revision or name change for a species is necessary. Such studies use type specimens to reference and validate new taxonomic names. This information is considered useful in that any major variant observed in a natural population can be referred to the standard for the species (the type) for comparison. This aids overall understanding of the range of variation within the particular species in question.
Names: The meanings of the generic and specific names are given. These usually, but not always, involve a translation from either Greek or Latin words. The names often allude to features that characterise particular genera and species. The reason for the main common name is given if known. In some cases the common names used for eucalypts may not reflect the common names used in higher order groupings. For example, despite its common name 'Queensland peppermint', Eucalyptus exserta, which has peppermint-scented leaf oils, belongs in the 'red gum group' (subgenus Symphyomyrtus, section Exsertae) not with the true peppermints (subgenus Monocalyptus, section Aromatica). Many common names given to eucalypts were coined based on their most conspicuous field character rather than their phylogeny.
Bark: Notes on the texture and colour of the bark are provided. For some rainforest species the characteristics of the blaze, i.e. the colour determined from a slash made on the tree trunk by an axe or knife are also given.
Leaves: This section is divided into features of the cotyledons, seedling and adult leaves but some information has been omitted when not pertinent. Juvenile and intermediate leaves commonly occur in a number of groups, particularly eucalypts and some acacias, and these are described where appropriate. Nearly all seedlings for these descriptions were raised from seeds collected from natural trees and grown in pots in a temperature-controlled glasshouse. Where problems were experienced in either obtaining or germinating seeds we resorted to collecting seedlings found growing in the field. This occurred mainly for a few rainforest species and such specimens are indicated in the captions to the photographic plates.
Inflorescences: Details on the kinds of inflorescences and descriptions of the individual floral organs are given. For the gymnosperms, information on the strobili is given. The normal flowering times, if known, are also presented.
Fruits: Details on the kind of fruit and fruit colour, texture and dimensions are usually given. For eucalypts the information provided is for fruits after dehiscence has occurred. The usual months in which mature fruits can be obtained are given when known. A brief description of diagnostic seed characters is also given. For the gymnosperms, information on the cones is given.
Wood: General characteristics of the sapwood and heartwood, including the Lyctus-susceptibility of the sapwood, are given. The densities stated in kilograms per cubic metre (kg m-3) are for wood at 12 per cent moisture content (air dried) because this is the usual moisture content of seasoned timber when marketed. Details of the more common uses of the timber, where known, are also provided.
Climate: A summary of meteorological data that could be useful when considering a species for cultivation are provided. These are based on climate conditions that prevail over the natural distribution of the taxa. Given are:
• Altitudinal range—metres above sea level (m);
• Hottest/coldest month—the mean maximum of the hottest month and mean minimum of the coldest month (°C);
• Frost incidence—the incidence or frequency of frosts occurring over the natural range of a species. These are categorised as: low = nil or very low incidence of frost throughout range; moderate = moderate incidence of frost at least in some years or in some part of the range; high = heavy frosts in most years over all or a substantial part of the range;
• Rainfall—the mean annual rainfall range (mm) and rainfall seasonality Rainfall may have a strong seasonal influence and fall predominantly in either winter (winter max.) or summer (summer max.), or may be distributed throughout the year without a strong seasonal pattern (uniform).
The climatic software package by (Houlder et al. 2000) was used to generate climatic data for all new species treated and for species where these data warranted revision. Climate data from cultivated stands outside the natural range of a species were not included in analyses.
Distinctive features: Attention is drawn here to the most distinctive characteristics of the species. These features are normally vital for identification of the species.
The composite black and white photographic plates include field and laboratory macrophotography and sometimes flash photography for leaf venation, and scanning electron micrographs (S.E.M.) of small features of interest, e.g. flowers. For all species an attempt has been made to include photographs of glasshouse-raised seedlings, adult leaves, inflorescences, fruits, bark and tree, together with various extras such as leaf venations, flowers etc., where appropriate. All field photographs are from natural stands (unless otherwise indicated), the locations of which are described in the captions to the plates. Many of these photographs come from the historical collections of CSIRO and are only available in black and white.
The distribution maps are compiled in a 'spot' style. Shaded circles or dots indicate actual collections of species; where more than one taxa are mapped squares, and in some instances triangles are used. In some maps an open circle is used to draw attention to a limited or remote geographic occurrence.
Some Vegetation Types of Australia
1. Closed tropical rainforest, Atherton Tableland, Qld 2. Closed temperate rainforest, Bulga National Park, Vic. (Image: O. Strewe) 3. Closed warm temperate rainforest, near Bodalla, N.S.W. 4. Gallery rainforest, Eungella National Park, Qld
5. Mixed Eucalyptus-Angophora open forest, near Sydney, N.S.W. 6. Gympie messmate (E. cloeziana) open forest, near Herberton, Qld 7. Spotted gum (E. maculata)-blackbutt (E. pilularis) open forest, Rosedale, South Coast, N.S.W. 8. Karri (E. diversicolor) tall open forest, near Margaret River, W.A.
9. Lemon-scented gum (Eucalyptus citriodora) open forest Auburn Range, Qld 10. Smooth-barked apple (Angophora costata)-blackbutt (E. pilularis) open forest, near Woy Woy, N.S.W. 11. Scribbly gum (E. rossii) open woodland, near Canberra, A.C.T. 12. Bloodwood (E. subgenus Corymbia) open savanna woodland, near Dunmarra, N.T.
13. Salmon gum (E. salmonophloia) open forest, near Southern Cross, W.A. 14. Gimlet (E. salubris) open woodland, Koolyanobbing, W.A. 15. Narrow-leaved ironbark (E. crebra)-Brown's box (E. brownii) open woodland, Valley of Lagoons, Qld 16. River red gum (E. camaldulensis) open woodland, Marshall River, N.T.
17. Desert oak (Allocasuarina decaisneana) open woodland, near Kaltukatjara, N.T. 18. Snappy gum (Eucalyptus leucophloia) open woodland, Pilbara, W.A. 19. Open mallee (Eucalyptus spp.) shrubland, Eyre Peninsula, S.A. 20. Mulga (Acacia aneura)-gidgee (A. cambagei) tall open shrubland, Nareen Station, Qld
21. Mulga (Acacia aneura) tall open shrubland, near Sandstone, W.A. 22. Western myall (A. papyrocarpa) tall open shrubland, near Madura, W.A. 23. Mulga (A. aneura) open shrubland with river red gum (E. camaldulensis) low open woodland along a creek, near Tibooburra, N.S.W. 24. Baarla (E. gongylocarpa) open woodland, Cosmo Newberry, W.A.
25. Sydney blue gum (Eucalyptus saligna) open forest, Styx River State Forest, N.S.W. 26. Mixed eucalypt forest Brooyar State Forest, Qld 27. Gimlet (E. salubris) open woodland, near Die Hardy Range, W.A. 28. Rib-fruited mallee (E. corrugata) open mallee woodland, Die Hardy Range, W.A.
Tall open forests: 29. Mountain ash (E. regnans), Bulga National Park, Vic. 30. Shining gum (E. denticulata)-blackwood (Acacia melanoxylon), Errinundra National Park, Vic. 31. Flooded gum (E. grandis), near Bulahdelah, N.S.W. 32. Round-leaved gum (E. deanei), Kedumba Valley, N.S.W. (Images: O Strewe)
33. Boab (Adansonia gregorii) open woodland, Crystal Creek, Kimberley, W.A. 34. Darwin stringybark (Eucalyptus tetrodonta)-Darwin blackbutt (E. miniata) open forest, Donydji, Arnhem Land, N.T. 35. White cypress (Callitris glaucophylla) open woodland, near Boggabri, N.S.W. 36. Coojong (Acacia saligna) open shrubland, Sanford River, W.A. 37. Variable-barked bloodwood (Eucalyptus dichromophloia) near Pine Creek, N.T. 38. Small-stilted mangrove (Rhizophora stylosa) low open woodland, near Coffs Harbour, N.S.W.
Clearing vegetation for agriculture has resulted in population fragmentation in many species, for example: 39. Sugar gum (E. cladocalyx) 40. Merrit (E. urna). Mature stands of cultivated native trees are now common throughout many parts of Australia, for example 41. Sydney blue gum (E. saligna) plantation near Bridgetown, W.A. 42. Bunya pine (Araucaria bidwillii) near Bodalla, N.S.W. (Image: O. Strewe) 43. Macadamia (Macadamia integrifolia) plantation, Dunoon, N.S.W.
Some Bark Types of Australian Trees
1, 2. Smooth-barked apple (Angophora costata)—the colour of all smooth-barked eucalypts varies with the season and stage of bark shed 3, 4. Spotted gum (Eucalyptus maculata)—showing variation in mottling 5. Grey gum (E. punctata) 6. Blackbutt (E. pilularis)
7. Scribbly gum (E. racemosa) 8. Flooded gum (E. grandis) 9. White gum (E. nobilis) 10. Carbeen (E. tessellaris) 11. Sydney blue gum (E. saligna) 12. Salmon gum (E. salmonophloia)
13. Red-flowered mallee (Eucalyptus erythronema) 14. Ribbon-barked gum (E. sheathiana) 15. Silver-topped gimlet (E. ravida) 16. Gimlet (E. salubris) 17, 18. River red gum (E. camaldulensis)—arid zone form (17), Murray-Darling Basin form (18)
19. Cleland's blackbutt (E. clelandii) 20. Red morrell (E. longicornis) 21. Gympie messmate (E. cloeziana) 22. Green mallee (E. viridis) 23. White box (E. albens) 24. Blue-leaved stringybark (E. agglomerata)
25. Marri (E. calophylla) 26. Red ironbark (E. sideroxylon) 27. Cooba (Acacia salicina) 28. Creekline miniritchie (A. cyperophylla) 29. Ironwood (A. estrophiolata) 30. Coojong (A. saligna)
31. Hoop pine (Araucaria cunninghamii) 32. Kauri pine (Agathis robusta) 33. Bunya pine (Araucaria bidwillii) 34. White cypress pine (Callitris glaucophylla) 35. Five-veined paperbark (Melaleuca quinquinervia) 36. Red cedar (Toona ciliata)
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