bristle-like. Ovary egg-shaped, silky-hairy and surmounted by 2 slender styles. Flowers Nov.-Jan.
Fruits: Light brown capsules, silky downy, elliptical-cylindrical, 1.5-2 X 0.3-0.5 cm, 2-celled, separating from summit to near base. Several overlapping seeds in each cell, flattish, about 0.5 X 0.1 cm with a terminal wing about 0.2 cm long. Mature May-Jul.
Wood: Sapwood pale yellow and generally quite narrow for a rainforest species, about 3 cm wide and sometimes attacked by Lyctus; heartwood light to dark pinkish brown, straight grained, fine textured, density 530-730 kg m-3. The wood is prone to warping and needs careful stacking when drying. In the past the timber was used to make very attractive furniture, internal joinery and plywood.
Climate: Altitudinal range: 100-1000 m; Hottest/coldest month: 27-30°C/4-6°C; Frost incidence: low to moderate; Rainfall: 1000-1700 mm per year, summer max.
Distinctive features: Trifoliolate leaves with serrate leaflets, large rounded stipules at the base of the petioles, red blaze of the inner bark, sapwood surface which becomes yellow on exposure, and cylindrical, capsular fruit. The large stipules are very distinctive on seedlings.
Geissois benthamiana 1. Adult leaf with two new adult leaves 2. Seedling with stipules 3. Part of an inflorescence 4. Flower (S.E.M.) 5. Pair of seedling stipules 6. Two fruits, one closed and one opened 7. Branchlet with inflorescences 8. Fruits 9. Tree, Wiangaree State Forest, near Kyogle, N.S.W. 10. Seedling with cotyledons 11. Adult leaf nervation 12, 13. Tree buttresses
Crabapple White Birch, White Cherry (Qld)
Crabapple is a tall tree up to 30 m in height with a stem diameter of 1-2 m. The trunk is cylindrical, often slightly buttressed at the base of larger trees, and the crown is compact with a rounded dense canopy of light green foliage.
Crabapple is found as scattered trees in rainforests from Mt Dromedary near Narooma, New South Wales, to Fraser Island. It also occurs on the Eungella Ranges west of Mackay and near Tully Falls. The species reaches its best development on the Dorrigo Plateau, New South Wales, and the Killarney Ranges, Queensland.
The species occurs mainly in sheltered positions but also in exposed positions such as in the eastern Dorrigo and Washpool areas of New South Wales. The soils are generally of low fertility, being derived from shales and other sedimentary material. Crabapple also occurs on more fertile alluvial soils and red clay loams derived from basalt.
Crabapple occurs in mostly warm temperate rainforests (simple notophyll vine forests) but also in subtropical (complex notophyll vine forests) and cool temperate rainforests (microphyll fern forests). On soils of poor fertility the most common associated species is coachwood (Ceratopetalum apetalum).
Related species: Crabapple is one of two tree species of Schizomeria in Australia. The other is white birch (S. whitei), which occurs in Queensland and has large leaves up to 15 cm long with recurved margins and inconspicuous teeth on the leaf edges.
Publication: Edinburgh NewPhilos. J. 9, 95 (1830). Type: Australia, George Caley.
Names: Botanical—Schizomeria, from the Greek schizo (to split), plus meros (share, a part), in allusion to the petals which usually appear as if pieces have been cut out; ovata, egg-shaped, of the leaves. Common—crabapple refers to the similarity of fruit to that of the other crabapples (Malus spp.).
Bark: Grey, smooth to wrinkled in small to medium-sized trees, becoming deeply furrowed, hard and tough on larger and older trees. A thick red gum exudes from the surface soon after the bark is blazed.
Leaves: Seedling—opposite, petioles to 2-3 cm long, simple, lanceolate, acuminate, 3-5 X 3-4 cm, edges serrate. Adult— opposite, petioles to 1-2.5 cm long and swollen at the base, simple, ovate to ovate-lanceolate, obtuse or acuminate, 7-15 X 3-8 cm, with irregular obtuse teeth, shortly narrowed at the base, glossy green, discolorous; nervation visible both surfaces, raised beneath; stipules small, up to 0.5 X 0.2 cm, glabrous, from ovate to lanceolate, soon shed to leave a scar encircling the stem near the base of the petiole; there is a form with entire leaves on Browns Knob near Barcoongere State Forest, Coffs Harbour district.
Inflorescences: Axillary cymes of white flowers. Calyx 4-5 lobed and slightly hairy at the apex of the sepals. Petals shorter than the calyx, toothed or lobed at the end. Stamens 8-10 inserted outside an 8-10 lobed disc and between the lobes.
Ovary 2-locular, free except at the broad base. Styles 2 and distinct, short, recurved. Flowers Sept.-Oct.
Fruits: Drupes, ovoid to globular 1-2 cm diameter, whitish, outer part fleshy with a sharp acid flavour, inner part hard, 2-celled with each cell containing 1 seed that is quite difficult to germinate. Mature Feb.-Jul.
Wood: Sapwood not always clearly differentiated and may be up to 15 cm wide; it is very susceptible to Lyctus attack. Heartwood colour is variable and is usually light grey-brown but often has pink and also blue tints, grain usually straight but may be interlocked, texture fine, density 500-720 kg m-3. The timber is not durable. It is easily worked, peels and turns well, glues readily and is easily stained.
Climate: Altitudinal range: 150-1000 m; Hottest/coldest month: 26-30°C/1-5°C; Frost incidence: low to moderate; Rainfall: 1000-2000 mm per year, uniform to summer max.
Distinctive features: Astringent taste of the bark, sharp acid flavour of the succulent, white apple-like fruits and glossy green, opposite, simple leaves with toothed margins.
Schizomeria ovata 1. Adult leaves, upper and lower surfaces 2. Adult leaves and inflorescence 3. Adult leaves and fruit 4. Adult leaves indicating the absence of joints on the petiole 5. Adult leaf nervation 6. Flower (S.E.M.) 7. Fruits 8. Seedling, collected in the field 9. Tree, Cangai State Forest, near Grafton, N.S.W. 10. Bark, old tree 11. Bark, young tree
Silver Quandong Blue Quandong, Blueberry Ash, Blue Fig
Silver quandong is a tall tree attaining 35 m in height and stem diameters of about 2 m. The stem is prominently buttressed at the base. The crown is rather open in appearance and the leaves are usually displayed stiffly in small finger-like tufts. The older dead and senescent leaves in the crown are bright red and contrast with the live leaves of the canopy.
Silver quandong occurs along the eastern coast of Australia from the Taree area, New South Wales, to near Maryborough, Queensland. Farther north small populations occur on the Eungella Ranges, west of Mackay, and near Proserpine. It also occurs between Ingham and Cooktown and on Cape York Peninsula with occurrences near Coen, Mcllwraith Range and Bamaga. Unusual isolated and widely disjunct stands are found beside the mouth of the Daly River and on the Tiwi Islands in Northern Territory.
In the southern parts of its range, silver quandong grows typically along the banks of creeks, but in higher rainfall areas in the northern parts of its distribution it is less habitat specific. The soils are usually derived from alluvia or occasionally basalts.
Silver quandong occurs in subtropical to tropical rainforests. Associated species commonly found growing with silver quandong include yellow carabeen (Sloanea woollsii), booyong (Argyrodendron spp.), rosewood (Dysoxylum fraserianum), red cedar (Toona ciliata), Flindersia spp. and white beech (Gmelina leichhardtii).
Related species: E. reticulatus and E. obovatus. E. reticulatus differs in the strongly reticulate nervation, the more regularly spaced leaf teeth, white to pink flowers, more elliptical-shaped fruit. E. obovatus has small leaves (5-7 cm long), toothed leaf margins, white petals and dark blue fruit.
Publication: Bijdragen tot de Flora van Nederlandsch Indie 120, (1827). Type: Java.
Names: Botanical—Elaeocarpus, from the Greek elaia (the olive tree), plus karpos (fruit), probably alluding to the similarity of the fruit of the first-named species in the genus to that of the olive; Latin angusti (narrow), Latin folium (leaf), in reference to the narrow leaves. Common—quandong refers to the similarity in shape of the fruits of this species to that of true quandong (Santalum acuminatum).
Bark: Grey, rather smooth, slightly wrinkled on large trees, not scaly but has small longitudinal fissures. The dead bark is rather thin. The cut blaze is yellowish brown becoming light yellow towards the sapwood, somewhat granular in texture.
Leaves: Cotyledons—cryptocotylar. Seedling—alternate, petioles to 0.3-0.5 cm long, simple, elliptical to narrow-elliptical, acute to acuminate, 3-19 X 1-3.5 cm, margins serrulate, glabrous, green, discolorous; nervation, reticulate, midrib and lateral veins prominent both surfaces; foveolae present in the axils of the midrib and lateral veins. Adult— alternate; petioles to 1-1.5 cm long; elliptical, narrowed at both ends, 8-12 X 2-3 cm, margins finely toothed, discolorous; midrib, lateral veins and net veins visible on both surfaces; stem distinctly ridged below each leaf insertion;
stipules small and caducous; foveolae in the axils of the midrib and lateral veins have a characteristic elliptical entrance.
Inflorescences: Narrow racemes 5-10 cm long, arising from the branchlets near the scars of the fallen leaves and behind the leaves. Flowers often turned to one side giving the raceme a distinctive one-sided pendulous appearance. Flowers 1-2.5 cm long, with 5 narrowly pointed sepals about 1 X 0.3 cm; 5 creamy-white petals alternate with the sepals; petals slightly longer than the sepals and about twice as broad. Apices of the petals are fringed consisting of 10-20 narrow segments of irregular length but up to one-third of the length of the petals. There are 5 compact bundles of 12-14 brown, bristle-like stamens per bundle; each stamen consists almost entirely of the anther, which is about 0.5-0.7 cm long on a very short filament. Pollen is discharged through a terminal slit. Stamens are finely tubular and covered with very minute hairs. Ovary and base of style covered with silky hairs. Style relatively long, about 1.5-2 cm in length, often protruding about 0.5 cm beyond the tips of the petals. Stamens and ovary situated on a hairy, lobed, perigynous disc. Flowers May-June.
Fruits: A drupe, globular, bright blue, up to 3 cm diameter, outer part fleshy enclosing a very hard 'stone' with a deeply wrinkled surface. The 'stone' contains 5 locules each containing a single, dark-coated, narrowly oval seed about 1 cm long.
Wood: Sapwood is similar in colour to heartwood and is up to 10 cm wide, and susceptible to attack by Lyctus; heartwood is white to straw-coloured, straight grained, uniform to coarse-textured, density about 465 kg m-3. The wood is easy to glue and stain and is very suitable for bent work. The timber, now largely cut out, was used for plywood, furniture, joinery, racing oars, boat planking and for light aircraft.
Climate: Altitudinal range: near sea level to 500 m; Hottest/ coldest month: 28-33°C/5-18°C; Frost incidence: low (but up to 5 per year at some sites); Rainfall: 1000-3500 mm per year, summer max.
Distinctive features: A rainforest tree with stiff, serrulate adult leaves that turn red as they die, fringed flowers that are pendent on one side of the raceme; smooth, blue fruits.
Elaeocarpus angustifolius 1. Foveolae on underside of leaf (S.E.M.) 2. Adult leaves with foveolae at major junctions of veins 3. Flowering branch showing pendulous nature of flowers 4. Fruits 5. Flower 6. Tree, near Coffs Harbour, N.S.W. 7. Seedling 8. Bark
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