Celery Top Pine

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Phyllocladus aspleniifolius (Labill.) Hook. f.

Celery top pine is a medium-sized to tall tree, reaching 30 m in height and 1 m in diameter, but often less than 20 m tall. Although double leaders are fairly common, celery top pine usually has a straight trunk without buttresses, dark bark (often looking black in wet conditions) and a rather dense dark green crown highlighted by the paler leaves of new growth in spring and autumn. The foliage tends to be grouped at the ends of branches.

The main occurrence of this species is in western and south-western Tasmania, with small areas on Maria and Bruny Islands, on the Tasman Peninsula and at Blue Tier in the north-eastern highlands. The species was present on King Island until World War II, after which time it was cleared for soldier settlement.

Much of western Tasmania is mountainous and, although celery top pine is common on undulating country, it occurs on a wide range of topography. Soils range from clays to shallow peats overlying quartzite or schist.

Celery top pine is a common constituent of the Tasmanian cool temperate rainforests (nanophyll moss forests) where it is associated with myrtle beech (Nothofagus cunninghamii), southern sassafras (Atheros-perma moschatum), leatherwood (Eucryphia lucida) and blackwood (Acacia melanoxylon). It also occurs commonly in the mixed tall open forests (wet sclerophyll forests) where eucalypts such as Smithton peppermint (E. nitida), swamp gum (E. ovata), alpine ash (E. delega-tensis), mountain ash (E. regnans) or messmate (E. obliqua) have an understorey of rainforest trees, and in open forests where it may be associated with trees such as woolly tea-tree (Leptospermum lanigerum) and pittospo-rum (Pittosporum bicolor), and shrubs such as horizontal (Anodopetalum biglandulosum).

Related species: No other Phyllocladus species occur in Australia. The six other species in the genus occur in New Zealand, New Guinea, Borneo and the Philippines. Podocarpaceae in Australia was reviewed by Hill (1998).

Publication: Hooker's London J. Bot. 4, 151 (1845). Type: Tasmania, J.J. Labillardiere.

Names: Botanical—Greek phyllon (leaf), clados (a young shoot or branch), alluding to the 'leaves' that are flattened branches or cladodes; aspleniifolius, after Asplenium a genus of fern, plus Latin folium (leaf), hence with fern-like leaves. Common—alludes to the similarity of the 'leaves' to those of edible celery.

Bark: Dark grey or reddish brown, with many lenticels. On older trees bark is darker and splits into rectangular scales.

Leaves: Seedling—not examined. Adult—reduced to minute scales along the edges of flattened branchlets (cladodes) which are wedge- or diamond-shaped with rounded lobes and small teeth; the surface of the cladodes is dark glossy green with numerous conspicuous veins running from the midrib to the distal margin; oil cavities are numerous.

Australia Map Plain

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Strobili: Male and female strobili are produced separately, sometimes on separate trees. They are inconspicuous; the pollen cones are cylindrical, up to 0.5 cm long, single or a few together on lateral branches. Female strobili are usually clustered 3 or 4 together in a short spike or on the margin of a cladode. Each strobilus consists of an ovule in the axil of a bract which becomes fleshy and pink to red. The seed on ripening becomes hard and greenish black, surrounded by a white fleshy aril. Seed is extremely difficult to germinate under horticultural conditions, but recently disturbed sites abound in natural regeneration. The species grows readily from cuttings.

Wood: Sapwood and heartwood light cream to very pale brown similar in appearance to huon pine (Lagarostrobos franklinii), with fairly easily discernible growth rings, hard, strong with little shrinkage, bends and works well and is very durable, density 510-800 kg m-3. It has been used for railway sleepers, strainer posts, boat building, truck and house flooring, joinery and chemical vats. Because this species grows on a wide range of sites and appears to be sensitive to climatic conditions, its patterns of ring width and wood density are being used to investigate past climate.

Climate: Altitudinal range: near sea level to 1000 m; Hottest/ coldest month: 18-20°C/0-3°C; Frost incidence: moderate to high (light snowfalls are typical); Rainfall: 1000-3000 mm per year, uniform to winter max.

Distinctive features: A conifer with celery-like 'leaves'.

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Phyllocladus aspleniifolius 1. Cladodes and immature fruit 2. Cladodes from mature tree 3. Males (S.E.M.) 4. Bark 5. Immature fruit (S.E.M.) 6. Stand, Mt Field National Park, Tas. 7. Seedling showing cladodes and leaves 8. Mature fruits 9. Tree, Mt Arrowsmith, near Queenstown, Tas.

Brown Pine She Pine, Yellow Pine, Plum Pine

Podocarpus elatus R. Br. ex Endl.

Brown pine is a medium-sized to tall tree reaching 40 m in height and over 0.9 m in diameter. Tree trunks are often irregularly channelled, spirally fluted or flanged, especially at their bases. The crown is dense and the mature foliage is predominantly dark green, the new foliage in spring being conspicuous because of its lime-yellow colour. The new foliage is soft and stiffens as it ages.

This species occurs more or less continuously from near Nowra, New South Wales, to near the New South Wales-Queensland border. Farther north in Queensland isolated stands occur near Gympie, Proserpine and Rocky River in the Mcllraith Ranges near Coen. It is also reported from New Guinea.

Brown pine prefers coastal lowlands where it occurs on deep alluvial soils beside riverbanks.

Brown pine is a rainforest species occurring in subtropical rainforests (complex mesophyll vine forests) with associates such as black bean (Castanospermum australe), silky oak (Grevillea robusta) and in littoral rainforests (mixed notophyll vine forests) with associates such as tuckeroo (Cupaniopsis anacardioides), red ash (Alphitonia excelsa) and brown laurel (Cryptocarya triplinervis). The species also occurs in riverine rainforests with associates such as cabbage-tree palm (Livistona australis) and tamarind (Diploglottis cunninghamii).

Related species: There are over 100 species of Podocarpus in the world and six endemic to Australia: P. grayi is a large tree with long, narrow, juvenile leaves which occurs in northern Queensland and Arnhem Land, Northern Territory; P. dispermus and P. smithii are endemic to the Atherton Tableland region in north-eastern Queensland; P. drouyniana, is a small shrub and is restricted to the south-western part of Western Australia. P. lawrencei is usually a small alpine shrub occurring in Tasmania, Victoria, New South Wales and the Australian Capital Territory, while P. spinulosus, a shrubby species closely related to P. drouyniana, occurs in central-coastal New South Wales.

Publication: Syn. Conif. 213 (1847). Type: Hunter and Paterson Rivers, New South Wales, R. Brown 3117.

Names: Botanical—Podocarpus, from the Greek pous, podos (a foot), plus carpos (a fruit), alluding to the fleshy foot-stalk of the fruit of many species; elatus, from the Latin elatus (lofty, high, tall), in reference to tree height. Common—refers to the colour of either the heartwood or bark, and because it is a conifer.

Bark: Outer bark is brown to dark brown, usually fibrous and finely fissured but may be scaly on old trees with narrow vertical scales up to 1 cm wide. Blaze on large trees is pink towards the outer margin passing through salmon to brownish shades to the pure white thin inner margin, which turns brown after a few minutes exposure. More than half the bark thickness is composed of dead bark.

Leaves: Cotyledons—two, sessile, linear, about 3-4 X 0.2-0.3 cm, planoconvex in cross-section, dark green. Seedling—apparently in spirals of 4-5 leaves, linear to narrow-lanceolate, about 2 X 0.3 cm, midrib distinct, glossy

Map Australia With State Borders

dark green. Adult—alternate, shortly petiolate (petioles 0.3 cm long), somewhat distichous, simple, entire, broadly linear-lanceolate, about 4-18 X 0.6-1.2 cm, with a short sharp point at the tip, upper surface shining and smooth dark green, paler undersurface, thick and leathery with recurved margins. Midrib alone distinct but usually raised and more prominent on the upper surface. The winter resting buds consist of several triangular bracts, about 0.2 X 0.1 cm, having aristate apices and thin edges.

Strobili: Male and females are produced on separate trees. Males—near base of spring foliage in narrow cylindrical catkins, 0.5-2 X 0.1-0.2 cm, arranged in sessile axillary clusters of 2-10; sporangia in pairs, usually separating before dehiscence, dehiscing from the base of the spike upwards, clustered over the catkin spike, scales at base. Females— axillary, pedicellate, consisting of usually one but occasionally more ovules at the end of the very short, special, lateral branches or receptacles, a pair of bracts at the base. Usually only one seed develops to maturity.

Fruits: Immature fruits are green and covered with a waxy bloom, the foot-stalk smaller in diameter than the seed; mature fruits are fleshy and plum-like, bluish black, receptacle up to about 2.5 X 2.5 cm bearing at its summit a slightly fleshy, resinous globular seed, 0.8-1.2 cm diameter. The edible stalk enlarges rapidly and has a mucilaginous texture and a resinous plum-like taste (eaten by Aboriginal people). Seed is enclosed in a woody nut. Mature Mar.-Jul.

Wood: Sapwood not susceptible to Lyctus borer, marine borer or termites; heartwood pale brown to brown, highly durable, strong, fine textured, soft, non-aromatic, occasional branch knots adding a silken mottling to the otherwise unfigured wood, density about 600 kg m-3. The wood is used for turnery, furniture, joinery, boat planking and piles in salt water.

Climate: Altitudinal range: near sea level to 1000 m; Hottest/ coldest month: 24-30°C/5-8°C; Frost incidence: low; Rainfall: 1000-1500 mm per year, mainly summer max.

Distinctive features: A conifer with a dark green crown, long narrow flat leaves, fibrous bark and fruit with fleshy footstalks. Fruits used by the native bushfood industry and marketed as 'Illawarra Plum'.

Podocarpus elatus 1. Fruits with single seed 2. Fruits with twin seeds 3. Pair of cotyledons 4. Seedling 5. Trees, near Kiama, N.S.W. 6. Branch with male strobili 7. Close-up of male strobili 8. Bark 9. Adult leaves

ANGIOSPERMS—DICOTYLEDONS

White Cheesewood Milky Pine, Milkwood

Alstonia scholaris (L.) R. Br.

White cheesewood is a medium to large fast-growing tree attaining 35 m in height and 1 m in diameter. The trunk is usually flanged at ground level and these flanges extend for a considerable distance up the trunk. The stem is frequently slightly lobed in cross-section and this causes difficulties in milling.

White cheesewood has a wide distribution in Queensland ranging from near Sarina to Thursday Island. An isolated western occurrence is in Kinrara Crater, east of Einasleigh in north Queensland. The species is also widespread in New Guinea, South-east Asia, India and Sri Lanka.

Soils vary from skeletal to deep well-drained loams on basalt, granite, metamorphic rocks, alluvium and lat-eritic outcrops.

White cheesewood grows in a wide range of rainforest types and is associated with a large number of tree species.

Related species: There are about 45 species of Alstonia with six species represented in Australia. Close relatives of A. scholaris include A. actinophylla, hard milkwood (A. muelleriana), A. spectabilis and quinine (A. constricta).

Publication: OnAsclepiad. 65 (1810). Lectotype: 'Lignum scholare' Rumphius, Amb. 2, 246, t. 82 (1741).

Names: Botanical—Alstonia, honours Dr C. Alston (16851760), a Scottish physician and professor of botany at Edinburgh University (1716-60); scholaris, because of the use of the wood for school boards in Burma. Common—alludes to the creamy, soft, easily cut wood.

Bark: Nondescript to slightly tessellated in texture, cream to yellowish in colour. The outer blaze is cream with a milky exudate that is abundant and flows rapidly.

Leaves: Cotyledons—petiolate (petioles about 0.2 cm long), ovate to elliptical, about 0.5-1.2 X 0.3-0.5 cm, glabrous, green; the cotyledon has a distinct midrib and is similar to later-developed leaves. Seedling—initially opposite, subsequently whorled. Adult—whorled with 4-8 leaves in each whorl, petiolate (petioles 1-1.5 cm long), obovate to elliptical tapering towards the base, 7.5-15.5 X 3-5 cm; lateral veins about 25-40 pairs forming an intramarginal vein close to the edge of the leaf blade.

Inflorescences: Terminal or appearing terminal in the upper axils, paniculate, cymose. Flower buds cream, more or less cylindrical; calyx lobes ovate, pubescent, about 0.15 cm long; corolla tube hairy, about 0.9 cm long, lobes pubescent, about 0.4-0.5 cm long overlapping in the bud, throat of the corolla tube closed by a dense ring of hairs. Stamens 5, attached to the corolla tube and alternating with the corolla lobes. Anthers enclosed in the tube. Ovary of two distinct carpels each containing numerous ovules; carpels united only by the style. Stigma thickened, club-shaped (knobkerrie). Flowers Oct.-Dec.

Fruits: Two-lobed pendulous follicles, each follicle up to 30 cm long and containing numerous flat, brown seeds about 0.4-0.5 X 0.1-0.15 cm with a group of fringing hairs to 1 cm long at each end.

Blank Map Australia And New Zealand

Wood: Sapwood susceptible to Lyctus attack; heartwood creamy white, soft, uniform in texture, light, density 440 kg m-3. Works, carves and dresses well, but is not durable.

Climate: Altitudinal range: near sea level to 450 m; Hottest/ coldest month: 30-32°C/13-22°C; Frost incidence: low; Rainfall: 1600-4400 mm per year, summer max.

Distinctive features: Milky exudate from the bark, cream blaze, simple leaves in whorls of 4-8, twigs, petioles and leaves exuding a milky exudate when broken, cream flowers, long narrow bilobed follicles, and seeds with tufts of long hairs at each end.

Alstonia scholaris 1. Adult leaves 2. Adult leaves and fruits 3. Seedling 4. Flowers 5. Fruits releasing seeds 6. Tree, Gordonvale, near Cairns, Qld 7. Bark 8. Seed with appendages (S.E.M.)

Grey Mangrove White Mangrove

Avicennia marina (Forssk.) Vierh.

Grey mangrove is usually a small robust tree, 3-8 m in height and 0.2-0.4 m in diameter with some specimens in northern Australia attaining 25 m in height and 1.5 m diameter. The crown is compact, dense, rounded and spreading. Numerous, erect, peg-like aerial roots (pneu-matophores) up to 20 cm tall and 1 cm wide (at their bases) protrude through the mud from a horizontal rooting system close beneath. There are three subspecies.

Subsp. marina has a discontinuous occurrence in Western Australia from Bunbury in the south to the Kimberley region in the north. Subsp. eucalyptifolia extends from near Wyndham in Western Australia to Mackay in Queensland. Subsp. australasica extends south from Rockhampton in central Queensland to Ceduna in South Australia.

This species typically occurs around the fringes of coastal estuaries away from the surf. In Australia it occurs throughout the intertidal zone often forming monospe-cific groves between the extreme landward and seaward portions of the tidally inundated zone. It colonises soils derived from a wide range of substrates, viz. sand, silt and clay. The species often forms monospecific pioneer communities on newly accreting mudbanks in estuaries. Soils are typically moist and have little profile development.

Grey mangrove often grows in low closed forests in dense, pure stands and is a major pioneer species in coastal areas. In southern New South Wales it often grows in association with the river mangrove (Aegiceras corniculatum), which is the only other species of mangrove to extend so far south. In northern areas where there may be up to 36 species of mangroves, grey mangrove forms the seaward fringe along gently sloping shorelines, being replaced by other species such as Rhizophora spp., Bruguiera spp. and Ceriops spp. farther inland. In south-eastern Australia it may be associated with swamp oak (Casuarina glauca) where the tidal inundation is infrequent.

Related species: Five species in the mangrove genus Avicennia, were recognised by Duke (1991). Grey mangrove has affinities with A. alba and A. rumphiana.

Publication: Subsp. marina: In Denkschr. Kaiserl. Akad. Wiss., Math.-Naturwiss. Kl. 61, 435 (1907). Type: Arabia, Yemen, Forskal s.n. Subsp. eucalyptifolia (Valeton) Everett: Telopea 5, 629. Lectotype: Timor, Indonesia, Zippelius s.n. Subsp. australasica (Walp.) J. Everett: Telopea 5, 628. Lectotype: sheet 14630 (with no annotations), Thunberg Herbarium.

Names: Botanical—Avicennia, honours the Persian physician Ibn Sina (980-1037); Latin marinus (of the sea). Common— mangrove is a general name applied to species with characteristic root formations, which grow along tidal waterways and other estuarine areas. 'Grey mangrove' refers either to the distinctive colour of the undersides of adult leaves or to the colour of the bark.

Bark: Fissured, pustular, light grey or brown (australasica) or smooth, green to chalky white (marina, eucalyptifolia) often with thin, stiff, brittle flakes giving older trees a rather scaly, fissured appearance. Blaze thin bark and white sapwood.

Leaves: Cotyledons—shortly petiolate, with one cotyledon folded and clasping the other folded cotyledon in a D-shaped formation about 3 X 2.5 cm; cotyledons remain folded while seedling germinates; large, fleshy, and when unfolded, reniform, about 2.5 X 5.5 cm; hypocotyl glabrous but root collar consists of a mass of brown hairs to 0.3 cm long. Juvenile—opposite, petiolate, lanceolate. Adult—opposite, petiolate (0.8-1.2 cm long), thick, ovate-elliptic (marina, australasica) or lanceolate to narrowly lanceolate (eucalyptifolia), about 4-9 X 2-4.5 cm, bright green and glossy above and white or grey and hairy underneath. The leaves are palatable to stock.

Inflorescences: Small dense cymes, 3-5 flowers each, on angular peduncles 1-1.5 cm long. Flowers, fragrant with a winelike scent, small, up to 0.8 X 0.5 cm. Calyx lobes small, 5 imbricate segments, outer surface hairy (australasica) or glabrous with basal hairs (marina, eucalyptifolia). Corolla tubular, orange, nearly twice as long as the sepals, finally dividing into 4 ovate lobes, 0.3-0.4 X 0.3-0.4 cm, almost glabrous upper surface, hairy beneath. Stamens 4, with anthers large relative to the short filaments, which are adnate to the corolla between petaloid lobes. Ovary superior, hairy and globular, style glabrous with 2 stigmatic lobes. Flowers Jan.-Jun. (australasica), Nov.-Feb. (eucalyptifolia), Dec.-Mar. (marina).

Fruits: Two-valved capsules, small, ovoid, about 5 X 3 cm, yellow just before falling, containing one seed. Seedcoat thin with a sandpaper texture. Fruit mature Apr.-Feb. (australasica), Mar.-Apr. (eucalyptifolia), Mar.-Nov. (marina). Fruits dispersed by tidal action, occasionally viviparous.

Wood: Sapwood pale, not susceptible to Lyctus attack; heartwood greyish, extremely tough, hard, conspicuous brown growth rings, density about 880 kg m-3; used for knees and elbows in boat building.

Climate: Altitudinal range: sea level; Hottest/coldest month: 25-34°C/5-19°C; Frost incidence: nil or rare; Rainfall: 2002500 mm per year, mainly summer max.

Distinctive features: A tidal foreshore species with leaves that are grey underneath and shiny green above. Pencil-thin pneumatophores.

Avicennia Marina Isolated Leaves

Avicennia marina 1. Adult leaves indicating the grey undersides 2. Inflorescence 3. Fruiting branch 4. Tree (subsp. australasica), between Macksville and Nambucca Heads, N.S.W. 5. Floral buds indicating the shape of the inflorescence 6. Flower (S.E.M.) 7. Bark 8. Seeds 9. Seedling showing one cotyledon clasped inside the other

Boab Baobab, Bottle Tree, Dead Rat Tree, Gadawon

Adansonia gregorii F. Muell.

Boab is a small to medium-sized tree reaching 9-12 m in height. Trunks of individual trees commonly have spectacularly large, swollen bases that are barrel- to bottle-shaped and up to 15.7 m in circumference. Trees are deciduous during the dry winter period and the new leaf, produced in late spring and early summer, forms an attractive light green canopy offinger-like leaves. Canopies of younger trees are broadly conical and extremely dense compared with those of older trees, which are umbrella-shaped and sparse. Large terminal white flowers appear while the species is in leaf but the trees are often leafless when in fruit. Large trees are believed to be of great age.

This species occurs in the Kimberley region of Western Australia where its distribution extends from near Broome, Western Australia, to the Fitzmaurice River region, north of the Victoria River estuary, Northern Territory. Populations do not usually extend far inland but large populations occur about 300 km inland in the Glenroy and Tablelands areas.

Boab is common on the plains of the Ord and Fitzroy valleys, on rocky outcrops and on the limestone hills of the Oscar and Napier Ranges. The species is common on the Cockatoo Sands and other light textured soils around Kununurra but also grows on soils derived from sandstone and basalt.

Boab occurs in open woodlands where individual trees are usually spaced widely apart. Occasionally small copses of boabs occur and these are usually the result of regeneration from one or more parent trees. In addition, boab is occasionally distributed along creek lines. Bloodwood eucalypts are common associates while the understorey contains numerous species of grass.

Related species: There are three species of Adansonia, viz. A. digitata of Africa, A. madagascariensis of Madagascar and A. gregorii.

Publication: Hooker's J. Bot. Kew Gard. Misc. 9, 14 (1857). Type: collected beside the Victoria and Fitzmaurice Rivers and Point Pearce, Western Australia by A. Cunningham.

Names: Botanical—Adansonia, honours M. Adanson (17271806), a French naturalist and explorer who first discovered the African baobab (A. digitata) in 1748; gregorii, honours A.C. Gregory (1819-1905), who explored north-western Western Australia, Queensland and the Northern Territory. Common—after the common name for the African baobab (A. digitata), boab being a shortened version of baobab.

Bark: Smooth surfaced, somewhat shiny, often pock-marked especially on very old trees, dull grey. The bark retains inscriptions for long periods as demonstrated by the inscription 'H.M.C. Mermaid 1820' which was carved on an old boab trunk and is still legible today.

Leaves: Cotyledons—petiolate to 0.4-0.5 cm long, broad-ovate to 4 X 4 cm, light green, large and crumpled in the seed-coat, 7-9 digitate veins, glabrous; junction of radicle and hypocotyl is swollen. Seedling—first pair alternate, petiolate to 1 cm long, lanceolate, up to 3.5 X 1 cm,

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discolorous; subsequent pairs, alternate, petiolate, digitate to 6 leaflets with some leaflets lobed, individual leaflets oblanceolate about 5-6 X 1-3 cm, midrib raised and prominent beneath; pair of deciduous, subulate, stipules about 0.3 X 0.1 cm, at base of each leaf. Adult—alternate, petiolate to 7-11 cm long, petioles terete and slightly swollen at bases; digitate, to 7 leaflets, leaflets shortly petiolate (petiolules 0.1-0.3 cm), broad-lanceolate to obovate with larger leaflets from 9-11 X 3-4 cm but with smaller basal leaflets much reduced, being about 6 X 2 cm; bright green above and dull beneath, glabrous, discolorous; nervation highly reticulate, midrib raised beneath.

Inflorescences: Solitary, pedicellate 1.5-4.5 cm long; floral buds about 8 X 2 cm with 5 fused, brown-furry, sepals; apices of sepals free, triangular about 1 X 1 cm; petals imbricate. At flowering, sepals split and curl backwards towards base of flower in 4-5 segments. Flowers about 9 X 3 cm with oblanceolate, white, waxy, petals about 11 X 2 cm, which taper towards their bases to about 0.6 cm wide. The stamens are conspicuous, numerous (greater than 50), about 5-6 cm long and extend beyond the tops of the petals, bases fused into a relatively short small tube, about 2 X 0.7 cm, outside hairy. Ovary, 5- to 10-locular. Style longer than stamens, white, tipped with a spherical stigma that has small splits at the top. Flowers appear Nov.-Dec. and have a slight sweet smell.

Fruits: Pedicellate, the pedicels 10-20 cm long, twisted, spongy, brown-velvety, gourd-like, 15-25 X 10-20 cm, brownish to black. Seeds dark brown to black, bean-like, 1-1.5 X 0.5-1 cm enclosed in a powdery mass. Mature: Jan.-Apr.

Wood: Soft and porous, spongy, somewhat fibrous.

Climate: Altitudinal range: near sea level to 400 m; Hottest/ coldest months: 35-39°C/13-18°C; Frost incidence: low; Rainfall: 500-1500 mm per year, summer max.

Distinctive features: A large deciduous tree with large swollen trunks, digitate leaves and pendulous velvety gourdlike fruit. Aboriginal people obtain water trapped in deep hollows inside large trees, or by chewing the roots. A white powder which fills the seed pods and surrounds the seeds can be made into a kind of bread or used to make a drink, or eaten dry.

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Adansonia gregorii 1. Tree, near Kununurra, W.A. 2. Stand, near Kununurra, W.A. 3. Adult leaves and a floral bud 4. Seedling with cotyledons and thickened rootstock 5. Tree, Kimberleys, W.A. 6. Adult leaves and a flower 7. Adult leaves 8. Flower 9. Fruit 10. Fruits attached to tree 11. Bark

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How To Have A Perfect Boating Experience

How To Have A Perfect Boating Experience

Lets start by identifying what exactly certain boats are. Sometimes the terminology can get lost on beginners, so well look at some of the most common boats and what theyre called. These boats are exactly what the name implies. They are meant to be used for fishing. Most fishing boats are powered by outboard motors, and many also have a trolling motor mounted on the bow. Bass boats can be made of aluminium or fibreglass.

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