2. Natural ventilation
3. Forced ventilation
3.1. Forced ventilation systems for relatively small vessels
3.2. Forced ventilation system for large culture vessels
3.2.1. Components of forced ventilation system with large culture vessels
3.2.2. Designing of a large vessel: a chronological development
4. Gas concentrations in culture vessels in relation to ventilation
4.2. Carbon dioxide
4.3. Relative humidity
5. Beneficial impact of ventilation
Key words; Aeration, carbon dioxide, diffusion, ethylene, forced ventilation, large vessel, natural ventilation, photoautotrophic micropropagation, relative humidity.
Micropropagation is a mass vegetative plant propagation system on an artificial nutrient medium under a control sterile environment to ensure pathogen-free, true-to-type and rapid production. The notion that the micropropagation technique can play a vital role in the production of pathogen free propagation was realized since the development of the 'totipotency' theory of the cell in the early twentieth century. Nearly three decades have elapsed since George Morel first proposed the application of plant tissue culture for the commercial clonal propagation of orchids. However, like many new technologies, progress in micropropagation is not as rapid as many expected, even now, relatively few crops are being produced commercially (Lumsden et al., 1994). The major reasons for the slow commercialization are i) loss of plants due to microbial contamination, ii) poor growth and development of in vitro plants, iii)
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