where V is the volume of air in the vessel (L), Cin is the CO2 concentration in the vessel (mol mol-1), l is the conversion coefficient from CO2 moles to volume (L) at the air temperature inside the vessel, P is the net photosynthetic rate of the plantlets inside the vessel (mol CO2 h-1), N is the number of air exchanges of the vessel (h-1), and C<mt is the CO2 concentration outside the vessel (mol mol-1). The dCin implies the difference in Cin for a short time interval dt. Assuming that the Cout and Cin are stable i.e. dCin /dt ~ 0 (in steady state or equilibrium conditions) as is often observed in late photoperiod, the following equation 2 will be derived

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