Labor required in conventional micropropagation systems includes 1) medium preparation, dispensing and discarding, 2) vessel washing, handling and transportation, 3) autoclaving, 4) excising and transplanting plants and explants, 5) capping and uncapping, 6) removal and discarding of dead and contaminated plants, 7) acclimatization, 8) equipments and room sterilization, 9) recording jobs and labeling on culture vessels, and 10) supervision.

The cost for labors mentioned above accounts for 40-60% of the total production cost. On the other hand, the labor cost per hour has been increasing in most countries where micropropagation is an important industry. Thus, reduction of labor cost is essential to reduce the total production cost.

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