Key concepts for minimizing amounts of resources and pollutants in future micropropagation systems are: 1) closed plant production systems, and 2) photoautotrophic (photosynthesis-dependent) micropropagation systems for growing plants using sugar-free culture medium. Use of porous or fibrous root supporting materials, which can be used repeatedly, or transplanted with transplants, is also important in future micropropagation systems. Definition and characteristics of photoautotrophic micropropagation systems and the use of porous supporting materials have been described elsewhere. Those of closed plant production systems are described in the following section.
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