Concluding Remarks

in the near future, photoautotrophic or sugar-free micropropagation will be commonly used, especially in developing countries, for producing a large number of genetically superior and pathogen-free transplants at low production cost. in fact, the photoautotrophic micropropagation system has been commercialized widely in Kunming, China (Xiao et al., 2000) and partly in Vietnam. At the same time, the photoautotrophic micropropagation system will be adopted on a large scale as a useful means for solving the global problems of environmental conservation, food production and bio-resource production in the 21st century.

Photoautotrophic micropropagation can be done either by using small, conventional culture vessels with gas permeable filters for enhancing natural ventilation or large culture vessels with air pumps for forced ventilation. in a photoautotrophic micropropagation system using large vessels with forced ventilation, the production cost of plants in vitro was about 40 percent lower than that of plants in the photomixotrophic micropropagation system (Xiao and Kozai, 2004).

The concept of photoautotrophic micropropagation can be further expanded into the idea of 'closed transplant production system'. With a closed transplant production system, the quality of transplants can be further improved; the consumption of artificial energy (electric energy and/or fossil fuels) and other resources (labor, facilities, supplies, etc.) can be decreased; and the release of environmental pollutants can be minimized (chun and Kozai, 2000).

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