101 Toxic Food Ingredients
Capsaicinoids are a natural group of alkaloids responsible for the pungency and hotness of the Capsicum fruits. Increasing interest in both their role in food additives and their pharmacological properties has led many researchers to conduct more investigations. This chapter deals with their biochemistry, toxicology and analytical methods for determination. Human risk of intoxication with these compounds was reported to be low. Chromatographic analytical methods, including liquid and gas chromatography, were found to be the most convenient for their determination, while spectrophotometric methods were advised for total capsaicinoid measurement.
Vogt and Rauch (1991) evaluated the effect of essential oils as food additives for chicken. Neither with caraway oil nor with coriander, thyme, garlic or onion oils in different doses they found any significant influence on weight or feed efficiency. When checked at the end of the experiment in the organoleptic test, they did not found any typical taste or smell of the meat resembling to the corresponding essential oil in either of the cases.
Immobilized cell cultures of Capsicum and biotransformation to produce secondary metabolites of importance
The production of high value food metabolites, fine chemicals and pharmaceuticals can be achieved by biotransformations using biological catalysts in the form of enzymes and whole cells (Armstrong et al., 1993 Rhodes et al., 1994 Berger, 1995 Cheetham, 1995 Dornenburg and Knorr, 1996 a,b Meyer et al., 1997 Scragg, 1997 Krings and Berger, 1998 Ramachandra Rao and Ravishankar, 2000a Ravishankar and Ramachandra Rao, 2000). Consumer sensitivity about synthetic food additives has stimulated interest in the manufacture of natural and nature identical food ingredients using novel biotechnological methods. From an industrial point of view, biotransformations performed by plant cell culture systems can be desirable when a given reaction is unique to plant cells and the product of the reaction has a high value.
This is also known as beehive ginger, due to the peculiar shape of the spike. The plants are large, growing up to 8 feet, and the inflorescence is large and very attractive. The spike turns from yellow to red on aging. Because it has a shelf life of a few weeks, it is widely used as a cut flower. It is also used as a flavoring agent and an ornamental plant (Holttum, 1950). This species is widely used in Malay traditional medicine (Brukhill and Haniff, 1930) and is very popular in cultivation in the United States. It comes in
From a biotechnological viewpoint, interest in fructans has continued to increase as they have been recognised as beneficial food ingredients. As part of the human diet, they are considered to be prebiotics as they selectively promote the growth of beneficial intestinal bacteria. Furthermore, fructans are assumed to have anti-cancer activity, promote mineral absorption, decrease cholesterol levels and decrease insulin levels. Fructans are normally isolated from plants with low agronomic value, such as the Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus) and chicory. Thus, attempts have been made to produce transgenic plants with higher fructan yield or making fructans with specific properties. Transformation of sugar beet with an SST gene from Jerusalem artichoke resulted in the conversion of 90 of the vacuolar sucrose into fructan (Sevenier et al., 1998) since the sugar beet accumulates to concentrations approaching 600 mM sucrose, this represents a massive fructan yield. Weyens et al....
Environmental chemicals include, but are not limited to, prescription, over-the-counter, and illegal drugs cigarette smoke solvents alcohol pesticides herbicides and food additives (see Table 9-1 on page 107). One needs only to visit a suburban neighborhood or home to observe the extent to which potentially toxic chemicals permeate people's lives. One finds lush green and weed-free lawns well-fertilized and pest-free gardens, which are the result of using herbicides and pesticides. There are also sparkling homes with the fresh scent of clean,'' thanks to the advent of cleaners, grout and tile mildew retardants. And there are shiny vinyl floors still off-gassing in the summer sun and pervasive deodorizing chemicals. These are but a small sample of the total and daily exposure that people in the Western world endure from childhood throughout life. Time spent away from home means additional exposures in classrooms, offices, grocery stores, and cars.
Pueraria lobata leaves can be separately used for the production of phytochemicals. Inherent chemicals in P. lobata leaves have been found to be unique and to differ from the chemicals in the rhizome. Among others, chemicals found in P. lobata leaves include a tobacco flavoring and others identical to certain food flavoring components. The leaves also contain a high level of chlorophyllin, a chlorophyll derivative that is able to inhibit the action of certain mutagens.
Many of the most important plant species grown for human consumption are in the grass family, which includes rice, corn (maize), wheat, rye, barley, teff, millet, and other species. Many species of the grass family are also grown for animal consumption or as lawn grasses examples include timothy, fescue, and bluegrass. Another group of great economic importance is the palm family, which includes coconuts, dates, and the oil palm. In addition to these foods, the palm family provides construction materials for housing, thatching, and a variety of tools and implements in many parts of the world. The largest family of monocots, in terms of number of species, is the orchid family. Although orchids are widely grown as ornamentals, only one species, the vanilla orchid, is grown as a food plant. The flavoring agent vanilla is extracted from the podlike fruits of this species.
Among vegetables, Alysum desertorum, Amaranthus viridis, Bauhinia varie-gata, Brassica campestris, B. rapa, Chenopodium album, Cichorium intybus, Ficus spp., Lamimum amplexicaula, Lathyrus aphaca, Medicago polymorpha, Nasturtium officinale, Plantago lanceolata, Raphanus sativus, Rumex chalpensis, R. hastatus, Solanum spp., Taraxacum officinale, and Torilis leptophyla are commonly utilized species. Allium cepa, A. sativum, Coriandrum sativum, Capsicum annuum, Mentha spp., Oxalis corniculata, and Pimpinella diversifolia are used as condiments and spices. The season for collection varies. Allium cepa, A. sativum, Brassica campestris, B. rapa, Chenopodium album, Cichorium intybus, Ficus variegate, Nasturtium officinale, Raphanus sativus, and Taraxacum officinale, are collected in early spring, while Amaranthus viridis, Capsicum annuum, Medicago polymorpha, Mentha spp., Oxalis corniculta, Pimpinella diversifolia, Plantago lanceolata., and Rumex spp. are collected in early winter. Allium...
The genus Capsicum encompasses a number of species differing in size, shape, colour and pungency. Due to these differences some of them are used as vegetables, while most others are valued as condiments and culinary supplements. The post-harvest handling and processing technologies for Capsicum have developed considerably as a consequence of the increased production and newer applications of this crop. Bell peppers and a sizable quantity of chillies are consumed fresh and their harvesting indices and scientific handling protocols have been standardized. Chillies and paprika are initially dried and stored in preparation for processing. The accumulated scientific evidence shows the role of various processing factors on the quality of the processed products like chilli powder, oleoresin and colour extract. In keeping with this knowledge, process parameters have been modified to develop new technologies for obtaining superior products. The emergence of the industrial food processing...
Dry chilli is used extensively as a spice in all types of curried dishes in India and abroad. Grinding roasted dry chilli with other condiments such as coriander, cumin, turmeric and farinaceous matter makes curry powder. It is also used in seasoning egg, fish and meat preparations, sauces, chutneys, pickles, frankfurters and sausages. Bird chilli is used in making hot sauces, such as pepper sauce and tabasco sauce. 'Mandram' is a West Indies stomachic preparation made by adding cucumber, shallot, lime juice and Madeira wine to the mashed fruits of bird chilli.
The changed recreational behavior and the correlation with several diseases in which sunlight or artificial light sources play a major role in the causation of clinical conditions (e.g. porphyrias, polymorphic photodermatoses, Xeroderma pigmentosum and skin cancers) have been well documented. As a result, in some countries (e.g. Australia) public services inform people about the potential risk of extended periods of sun exposure every day. The problems are often aggravated by the phototoxic or photoallergy reactions produced by a variety of environmental pollutants, food additives or therapeutic and cosmetic drugs. On the other hand, if properly used, light-stimulated processes can induce important beneficial effects in biological systems, such as the elucidation of several aspects of cell structure and function. Novel developments are centered around photodiagnostic and phototherapeutic modalities for the treatment of cancer, artherosclerosis, several autoimmune diseases, neonatal...
Food additives, such as sodium nitrate, monosodium glutamate, and aspartame, are thought to induce migraine headaches by modifying vascular tone. Each patient must be individually assessed for various causes and relationships to foods prior to establishing an allergic causation of the headaches.
The increase in industrially processed foods has constantly increased the demand for flavoring agents over the last ten years. The world production of natural essential oils is estimated at around 45,000 tons per annum. The price of essential oils ranges between 1.25 Euro kg for orange oil and 60,000 Euro kg for genuine Melissa oil (Table 8.3.2). Therefore, genuine essential oils are often replaced by mixtures of synthetic compounds.
Tool handles, and handicrafts, and as fuelwood, mud roof thatching plant used for hedges and fencing. The seeds are used in sharbat, chutneys, and curries, as spices and flavoring agent seeds are edible. Phytochemicals Tannin, punico-tannic acid, mannite sugar, gum, pectin, ash, alkaloid pelletierine, oil liquid isopelletierine, inactive alkaloids methyl-pelletierine, pseudo pelletierine, citric acid, sorbitol, mannitol, pelletierine, isoquercetrin, B-sitosterol, friedelin, D-mannitol, estrone, glucose, fructose, sucrose, maltose, oxalic _acid, organic acid 1, 25 ._
Apart from salt (sodium chloride), spices are the most important taste and flavor enhancers. Spices are often used in association with the term condiments both are used indiscriminately and interchangeably. However, for the chef, food technologist, and connoisseur of food, spices and condiments mean different things. Spices are fragrant, aromatic or pungent edible plant products, which contribute flavor and relish or piquancy to foods or beverages. Condiments, on the other hand, are prepared food compounds containing one or more spices or spice extractives, which when added to a food, after it has been served, enhances the flavor of the food (Farrell, 1985). So condiments are compound food additives and they are added after the food has been served. Seasoning is another term that is related to both spices and condiments. Seasonings are compound preparations containing one or more spices or spice extractives, which when added to a food, either during its manufacture or in its...
Glucuronidation, involving the incorporation of glucuronic acid with toxins, helps to detoxify the body of numerous drugs, aspirin, menthol, synthetic vanilla, benzoates and other food additives, and some hormones. Gilbert's disease affects 1 in 20 individuals and results in fasting serum bilirubin levels in the range of 1.2-3.0 mg dL. Bilirubin is metabolized by the conjugating biotransformation enzyme UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A1. Consumption of S-adenylmethionine (SAMe), which fuels glucuronidation, has been shown to help support individuals with this condition.10 Cruciferous vegetable intake has also been shown to reduce bilirubin concentrations with particular enzyme polymorphisms,11 possibly due to the sulfor-aphane found in these vegetables. Also of potential clinical significance is consumption of limonene-rich foods, such as caraway oil, citrus peel, and dill weed seed, to support UDP-glucuronyl transferase, the enzyme required for glucuronidation.
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