Homemade Organic Fertilizer Recipe

Fertilizers Home Made Formulas

In this information you will find recipes and techniques that work to: Protect your house and lawn with special indoor and outdoor Shock Treatments: Ants, Snails, Slugs, Roaches, Fleas, Earwigs, Cockroaches, Silverfish, Beetles, Termites and Webworms. Say good-bye to those annoying yellow spots. Learn the secret to keep your grass greener in water restricted areas and in hot weather. Treat your lawn with a deworming concoction. (learn how and why you must do it once a year) Use effective Natural Insecticides (it's now time to learn what they are and how to use them. in the years to come, only natural insecticides will be permitted by cities!) Avoid serious plant, pet and child health problems caused by toxic commercial products. Protect yourself and your family against the nile virus in 1 minute. Kill ants and destroy the entire colony in 3 days or less. Kill harmful insects while fertilizing your soils. More here...

Fertilizers Home Made Formulas Overview


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Fertilizer Requirements 61 Fertilizer scheduling

Started applying chemical fertilizers. de Geus (1973) suggested a fertilizer dose of 45 45 45 kg N, P2O5 and K2O ha for Kerala, 67 34 100 kg N, P2O5 and K2O ha for Karnataka with half N in organic form and 45 34 45 kg N, P2O5 and K2O ha for Tamil Nadu. However, considering the low requirement of cardamom and the high status of N and K in cardamom-growing soils, a maintenance dose of 30 60 30 kg N, P2O5 and K2O ha was recommended for healthy and vigorous growth of plants (Zachariah, 1978). Based on further studies and the factors affecting the availability of nutrients in the soil, a fertilizer dose of 75 75 150 kg N, P2O5 and K2O ha was recommended under rainfed situation for a normal crop of 100 kg dry capsules ha. If the yield is more, the fertilizer doses are to be increased proportionately. Additional fertilizer dose of 0.65 kg N, P2O5 and 1.30 kg K2O ha is to be applied for increase in yield of every 2.5 kg dry capsules over normal yield (Anonymous, 1976 Kologi, 1977). Results of...

Fertilizer Value of Sewage Sludge

Sewage sludge is increasingly used as a fertilizer because land application is considered a more environmentally friendly disposal method and because of its great fertilizer value (Table 3.3). Nowadays, sewage sludge can be produced for agricultural use as dry granular, palletized, or fortified organic-based materials, which have more specialized uses in agriculture and horticulture compared with the conventional forms 23 . The technology for applying sludge is advanced and includes surface spreading and injection of the material into the soil, a practice that helps reduce odor problems and facilitates proper incorporation into the soil. The optimum dose of application is difficult to determine because of restrictions that depend on soil parameters, such as pH, clay content, and contaminant and nutrient content in sludge 24 . Usually, if no other restricting factors are present, the rate of application should not exceed 10 t ha-1 yr-1, equivalent to 250 kg N ha-1 25 .

Soil amendments and fertilizers

Composted animal manures provide organic matter and improve soil structure, while supplying plant nutrients. Lime adjusts soil pH, as well as supplying calcium, and, if from dolomite, it also supplies magnesium. Pineapple root development can vary dramatically among locations, so a site-specific understanding of root development is important to determine whether or not plants will respond favourably to the use of soil amendments. Soil amendments can be broadcast immediately after knock-down so that they can be incorporated by tillage operations. Preplant fertilizers can be banded just below or adjacent to the plant line during bed formation to allow early interception by the developing roots. Ideally, amendments and preplant fertilizers should provide all the needed nutrients in conjunction with side-dressing or foliar fertilization, or both, while maintaining a good soil tilth, which will encourage a healthy root system. For best results, nutrient...

Fertilizer and cultural management practices

Although the use of Fe-efficient plants is generally the best approach to preventing Fe availability problems (Goos and Johnson, 2000 Hansen et al., 2003 Jolley and Brown, 1994), several fertilizer and cultural management strategies are also available for use alone or in combination, to prevent correct Fe deficiency, including 1) lowering soil pH, 2) applying foliar Fe fertilizer or acid sprays, 3) applying chelated complexed Fe fertilizers to the soil, 4) applying Fe fertilizer materials in a concentrated band near roots, 5) companion cropping with Fe efficient species, and 6) altering management of irrigation and drainage, fertility and seeding practices (Hopkins et al., 2005). Artificially lowering the soil pH would seem to be a viable alternative for correcting Fe deficiency (Lucena, 2003 Olson, 1950). For example, a pH drop from 7.5 to 6.5 would result in a ten fold increase in hydrogen ion activity and an associated 1000 fold increase in the solubility of soil Fe minerals....

Economics of Fertilizer

The farmers are generally not applying the recommended doses of fertilizers to soybean because of high prices, inadequate supply and risks involved in soybean's cultivation under rainfed situations. However, the efficient use and management of fertilizer is of great value. The common method of determining the profitability potential is a VCR that represents the value of extra crop produced per unit of money invested in fertilizer. A VCR > 1 mean a net profit while < 1 means a net loss. The higher the VCR, the more attractive the use of fertilizers. Generally, a VCR of 2-2.5 is considered to be attractive for a farmer to adopt fertilizer use. The economics of different nutrient management options for a soybean-wheat system under farmers' field conditions in representative villages of central India have been calculated (Sammi Reddy et al., 2007). The mean economic analysis of 2 years (2005-2006 and 2006-2007) across 16 field trials in soybean revealed that the INM 2 (50 NPKS + 5 t...

Fertilizer Application

The crop is mainly potassium (K) and nitrogen (N) exhausting magnesium (Mg) and phosphorous (P) removal being intermediary (Nagarajan and Pillai, 1979 Lee et al., 1981). Results of analyses of vegetative plant parts give a similar trend. Plant parts development and yield response to timing of fertilizer application aimed at achieving fertilizer use efficiency is presented in Table 7.1. Levels of trace elements Mg K maximum arsenic 5, lead 10, copper 20, and zinc 50 are the prescribed levels fixed by processors in ginger of commerce (See also Roy et al., 1992). Therefore, application of minor elements is necessary for successful ginger technology. But the question is the rationale for fertilizer usage in ginger production if the economics of the process is carefully worked out. Fertilizer mix used varies from place to place, and is based on farmers' experience. The variable doses are of interest because of possible environmental pollution effects and to ascertain...

Fertilizer Recommendations

The Brazilian Government (IPEAN 1966) has developed fertilizer recommendation based on the following scheme. Equations have been developed for predicting the changes in soil nutrient levels per kilogram of fertilizer active ingredient applied. Table 4.1.A2 Brazilian government's fertilizer recommendation. Initial soil Fertilizer - Initial soil Fertilizer - Different types of organics are applied in varying quantities in the pepper growing countries. In India green leaves, dry leaves, wood ash, cattle manure, oil cakes, neem cake and bone meal are the common organics used. In Malaysia organic cakes, prawn refuse, guano, fish meal, etc are used. In Micronesia every pepper field will have a compost pit also. In addition sea cucumbers (Holothurian sp.) are dug into the soil around vines. (Zaiger 1964). Here the recommended fertilizer dose is a mixture of urea, cottonseed meal, potassium chloride and superphosphate at the rate of 0.66, 6.6, 1.1, 1.8 pounds per vine per year (Lawrence 1981).

Preparing the Field and Applying Base Fertilizers

High Yield Ginger Plants Images

The ginger root system is underdeveloped and its nutrient-absorbing ability is poor. So it cannot endure drought or waterlogging. The ginger field should be fertile, should have deep soil that is rich in organic substances, capable of retaining moisture and fertilizer, can be irrigated and drainedeasily, and isomewhat acidic. It is better to rotate crops for three to four years. It is not advisable to plant ginger continuously in the same plot and the land becomes unfit for ginger planting at least for three to four years if the crop has been infected with blast. In the north of China, making ridge and planting in ditch is often being adopted. The ditch is in an east to west or south to north direction, and is about 25 to 30 cm deep. Farmers in the north often apply bean cake or cooked beans as fertilizer. In general, 1,125 to 1,500 kg ha crushed cake or 750 to 1,125 kg ha cooked and fermented bean is spread in the ditch (Figure 6.9). In addition, 225 kg (NH4) 2 SO4, 375 kg calcium...

Soiltestbased Fertilizer Recommendations in Soybean

Liebig's law of minimum states that the growth of plants is limited by the plant nutrient element present in the smallest amount, all others being in adequate quantities. From this, it follows that a given amount of a soil nutrient is sufficient for any one yield of a given percentage nutrient composition. Ramamoorthy et al. (1967) established the theoretical basis and experimental proof for the fact that Liebig's law of minimum operates equally well for nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. This forms the basis for fertilizer application for targeted yields, first advocated by Truog (1960). Among the various methods of fertilizer recommendation, the one based on yield-targeting is unique in the sense that this method not only indicates a soil-test-based fertilizer dose, but also gives the level of yield the farmer can hope to achieve if good agronomic practices are followed in raising the crop. The essential basic data required for formulating fertilizer recommendations for a targeted...

Fertilizer Application Practices

A fertilizer management program should start before an orchard is planted. At that time, fertilizers can be easily incorporated into the soil to the depth of 25 to 30 centimeters, i.e., the zone of high root activity. This is particularly important for P, K, Mg, and Ca fertilizers as well as Zn, Cu, Mn, and Fe, which move very slowly down the soil profile. When applied to the soil surface in mature orchards, these fertilizers will need a long time to reach the main part of the root system. In the first two years after planting, fruit trees are usually fertilized individually by uniformly spreading fertilizers around each tree in a circle two to three times larger than the canopy. Depending upon local soil conditions, such applications may involve N and or other fertilizers. In young, nonbearing orchards, N applications are often split into two or more applications that start in early spring prior to the beginning of current season growth and extend into midsummer. Later applications...

Postplant sidedressings and foliar fertilizers

Side-dressings or foliar fertilizers are used where nutrients in the soil are not sufficient to meet the plant's nutrient requirements. Fertilizer may be applied as a dry side-dressing to the soil, often close to the base of the plant or, in some cases, in the lower leaf axils of mature plants. Care must always be taken to avoid plant damage due to exposure to high osmotic concentrations from dissolving nutrients. The basal white tissue of young and expanding leaves is particularly sensitive to fertilizer burn. If manure is to be used as a postplant source of nutrients, infor Foliar fertilizer sprays are particularly effective for pineapple plants and application is easily mechanized (Fig. 6.17A-C). The leaves absorb nutrients through the cuticle and nutrients such as nitrogen, potassium, iron, zinc and boron are readily translocated throughout the plant. The morphological structure of the pineapple plant also facilitates receiving foliar sprays and funnelling them to the adventitious...

Experimental Studies On The Effects Of Different Fertilizers On Metal Removal From Contaminated Soils Using Wheat

To optimize and manipulate the process of metal phytoextraction successfully, the author studied the effects of three fertilizers (urea, horse manure, and ispolin fertilizer on the basis of mixture of organic fertilizers, humic acids, and industrial population of worms) on yields and physiological characteristics of wheat (Triticum aestivum) and removal of metals from two Podzol soils with loam (site 1) and sandy loam (site 2) textures. Soil in site 2 was contaminated with several metals (Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn), and soil in site 1 was relatively clean. Wheat seedlings were grown in the two soils for 36 days. Urea, manure, and ispolin were incorporated into the soils at rates of 10 mg kg-1, 100 mg kg-1, and 100 mg kg-1, respectively. Metal concentrations in the initial soils before and after application of different fertilizers are presented in Table 28.4. No statistically significant differences were present between concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn in the fertilized and nonfertilized...

Banded preplant fertilizers

The precision placement of preplant fertilizers can ensure both vigorous rooting and the early uptake of N, P and K prior to the development of the leaf canopy. Banded fertilizer should be applied in sufficient amounts to enhance rooting and carry the young plants for 3-4 months, until the canopy is sufficiently developed to make foliar fertilizer applications efficient and effective. Placement is usually just below or adjacent to the plant line to allow the earliest interception by the developing roots. Plastic mulch can protect fertilizer from leaching or volatilization. However, water applied by drip irrigation can contribute to losses by leaching. Many types of fertilizers are available, such as urea, ammonium sulphate, potassium nitrate, superphosphate and treble superphosphate, ammonium phosphate, magnesium sulphate, muriate or sulphate of potash, and others. The choices should complement both the previously incorporated broadcast amendments and, where foliar fertilization is...

Fertilizer Trials

Application of fertilizers is a standard practice in the countries where A. mangium is a major plantation species. In most cases, however, the nature of fertilizers and their quantity are not based on systematic research. Fertilization levels and time of application have been decided tentatively, probably based on a few studies or on experience with other species in the area. The main aim of fertilizer application is to produce uniform, fast-growing plantations. Uniformity makes it easier to prescribe operations (thinning, pruning) on time fast growth ensures that the site is quickly captured. A few examples of fertilizer trials are given below. 1. SAFODA adopted the following fertilizer regime for A. mangium plantations 2. Wan Rasidah et al. (1989) concluded in Malaysia that the soils are low in nutrients, especially in phosphorus. A number of fertilizer trials have been carried out to determine the best schedule for fertilizers. Table 7.8 summarizes diameter and height growth...


Adding nutrients to agricultural systems is essential to enhance crop yield, crop quality, and economic returns. Commercial fertilizers are typically used to supply needed nutrients to crops. Nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and An Amish farmer uses a horse team to spread fertilizer on a field in An Amish farmer uses a horse team to spread fertilizer on a field in potassium (K) fertilizers are used extensively. Other secondary and mi-cronutrient fertilizers are generally required in small quantities to correct Commercial fertilizers contain a guaranteed quantity of nutrients, expressed as fertilizer grade on a label showing the weight percentage of available N, P2O5, and K2O equivalent (N-P-K) in the fertilizer. Additional nutrients in fertilizer formulations are listed at the end of the fertilizer grade with the nutrient identified. Commonly used commercial fertilizers include ammonium nitrate (fertilizer grade 33-0-0), urea (45-0-0), urea-ammonium nitrate (28-0-0), anhydrous ammonia...


Ginger responds well to the application of biofertilizers. Studies conducted by Vilasini (1996) indicated that soil solarized for 30 days and incorporated with Trichoderma (125 g m2) and amended with neem cake (500 g m2) could control the disease effectively and increase the yield considerably. Sharma et al. (1997) found that inoculation with Glomus mosseae at the spore stage (10 X 102) g soil gave taller ginger plants, with higher yield (46.5 g per pot) and greater number of tillers per plant than other treatments under the subtropical conditions of Himachal Pradesh, India. Soil application of Gigaspora margarita (2.5 g per rhizome) at the time of planting increased plant height, number of leaves and tillers, root weight, and yield of ginger, which is similar to that of pine needle organic amendment and seed treatment with Trichoderma harzianum.

Development Of Carnivory

Many plants today are adapted to foliar feeding. That is, when a nutrient (fertilizer) solution is sprayed on the leaves, the plant can absorb the nutrients through the leaves into the plant body. The beginning of carnivory could have taken place when some leaves formed shallow depressions in which rain water was retained for a period of time after a rain shower. These leaves would be ideal water reservoirs for insects. In the process of obtaining a drink, some insects would drown and eventually be decomposed

Food Production On Limited Resources

There are certain restraints to the production of food and other agricultural products. These are the effects of fertilizer, weather, pestilence, water (including irrigation), soil, energy, variety of new crops, and temperature (for example, compare Tibet (cold) and Sahara (hottest and driest, 1800 miles north of the equator), which are at the same latitude (30 N). However, Tibet has a polar climate). We might ask ourselves how much allelopathy influences the world's soil resources

Cases of B Deficiency Correction

The availability of B from fly ash has been compared to common B fertilizers (i.e., borax) by means of pot and field experiments 22,23,25,87 . In a pot experiment, Martens et al. 22 found that application of three alkaline fly ashes containing high levels of total B (319, 415, and 618 mg kg-1) at various rates increased B uptake by alfalfa grown in a silt loam soil, at levels similar to those resulted from the application of borax at equal rates. Similarly, Plank and Martens 25 used two U.S. fly ashes (acid and alkaline) with high B content as B sources for alfalfa in a 3-year field experiment and compared the results to those obtained by the use of borax. Fly ashes were applied at rates equivalent to 1.7 and 3.4 kg B ha-1 (based on their total B content) in a single dose in the beginning of the experiment borax was applied in the beginning of each growing season. They found that yield and B uptake by alfalfa was significantly increased upon application of both fly

Longterm trends in rice prices and yields

Lower prices are clearly a boon for consumers, but they represent a deterioration in the situation of farmers if all other factors are constant. But other factors have been far from constant. Production per unit land soared in Asia during this period, with paddy rice yields increasing from an average of just 2.1 t ha ' between 1964 and 1966 to 3.9 t ha*1 from 1996 to 1998, an increase of 89 (Fig. 4). Clearly, not all of the increase in yields is solely attributable to rice research. Increased use of fertilizer and increased investment in irrigation have also made important contributions. Yet rice research allowed these additional inputs and investments to have a large impact, and farmers have benefited tremendously from the resultant gains in

Oxidation Reduction Processes and pH in Aerobic Conditions

It is well known that the pH of aerobic soils depends on the nature of the parent material, the degree of weathering and leaching, and the effects of any additions of amendments such as agricultural lime or fertilizers. In aerobic soils, the pH is not affected very much by the oxidation and reduction processes involved in aerobic respiration. For the glucose - pyruvic acid and oxygen - water couples protons and electrons are produced in equal numbers and are utilized in equal numbers by oxygen. This appears to be so in all oxidation steps in the breakdown of cellulose. There is no net gain or loss of protons during aerobic respiration. Although some of the steps in the respiration chain linking pyruvic acid to O2 may not involve equal numbers of protons and electrons, the steps are cyclic and the overall reaction is balanced. However, CO2 is produced by aerobic respiration, and an increase in partial pressure of CO2 reduces pH via the H2CO3-HCO3-CO3- system in the soil water 2 . The...

Nutrient Cycling in Rain Forests and the Consequences of Deforestation

Since most nutrients are held in the vegetation aboveground, clearing and burning of rain forests concentrates nutrients in the ground. Some nitrogen and sulfur are lost during burning, but large quantities of other nutrients are deposited in ash. Leaching, due to heavy rainfall, washes these nutrients far beyond the shorter roots of new grasses or shrubs. This severely disrupts the nutrient cycle, leaving barren tracts that remain unproductive or that require the ecologically unsound overapplication of fertilizers. Moreover, the clearing and removal of logs by heavy machinery result in soil compaction, water runoff, and, eventually, soil erosion. When a large area of forest is cleared, the soil becomes drier and warmer, and most of the mycorrhizae die out. Aided by nutrients, mycorrhizae, and seeds from nearby intact rain forest patches, regrowth occurs in small areas of clearance, but this is impossible for large clearings, where herbaceous vegetation colonizes infertile soils.

System Stability and Change

Agroecologists use the idea of an agricultural ecosystem as a focus for the study of farming systems that are converting from single crops and synthetic inputs to ecologically based design and management. Ecological concepts and principles are applied for the development of alternative practices and inputs. A good example is research done by Sean Swezey and his colleagues on apples in California. After three years of using organic farming techniques, an apple orchard had begun to show a reduction in the use of fossil fuel energy. Nutrients were supplied from compost and annual cover crops planted in the rows between the trees during the winter season. Nutrient recycling and storage in leaves and branches within the apple agro-ecosystem improved soil conditions, reduced the need for fertilizer, and even led to increased yields. Insect pests normally controlled by synthetic pesticides were reduced instead by beneficial predatory insects that were attracted to the organic orchard by...

Preserving Carnivorous Plants

Pollution is another factor that leads to the demise of carnivorous plant stands. The extensive use of fertilizers and pesticides produces residues which alter the habitats of carnivorous plants. Waste products from industrial processes also have an effect. Waterways in the Pine Barrens of New Jersey, U.S.A., home of several carnivorous plant species, exhibit oil slicks. One wonders what other chemicals may be dissolved in the water which are not visible.

Biological Nitrogen Fixation by Soybean

One of the major features of soybean that makes it an attractive crop in many cropping systems is its efficient BNF in association with Bradyrhizo-bium in the root nodules soybean thereby requires low nitrogen supplies in the form of chemical fertilizers for meeting its own nitrogen requirement. The quantum of nitrogen fixed varies with the climatic conditions experienced during growing period, soil conditions, agronomic practices followed, genotype and so on. There is a wide variation in the proportion of nitrogen derived from nitrogen fixation and the quantum of nitrogen fixed by soybean (Table 2.4), and this is clearly due to the diverse conditions under which it is cultivated in different countries. Furthermore, the methods used to quantify the exact amount of nitrogen fixed by the crop are not always accurate. The nitrogen fixation is often quantified by indirect methods rather than the most accurate methods such as 15N techniques. Each method has its own merits and limitations...

Spacing And Soil Care

Control winter herbaceous flora until the end of the rainy season, when fertilizers must be applied. In these areas 2 4 tillages from February March to September October are satisfactory. Tillage is the least polluting technique used for keeping weeds under control, but it is difficult to apply on terraces (Figure 3.3). Negative effects of intensive mechanical cultivation are evident in soils which are rich in fine particles, where a compact 'plow sole' below the cultivated layer will appear after a few years. Movements of equipment affect soil structure. Organic matter is quickly reduced by tillage. Because of these detrimental effects, farmers are careful to apply the 'minimum tillage to reduce weed growth and protect soil. Some herbaceous growth is tolerated not only in the rainy season but also in summer to an extent. In other words, weed elimination is not an automatic procedure but a choice.

QTL Analysis in Plant Breeding

Abstract To maintain the quality of life on earth, agriculture has to colonize marginal areas and decrease its dependence on pesticides, herbicides, fertilizers and water. Plant breeding should integrate the latest innovations in biology and genetics to better face this challenge. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis allows the location and effect-estimation of the genetic elements controlling any trait by the joint study of segregation of marker genotypes and of phenotypic values of individuals or lines. QTL analysis is now seen as a procedure to fill the gap between omics and the field. This chapter is focused on recent advances of three applications of QTL analysis in plants (1) the genetic integration of agronomical, physiological and gene expression related traits (the scientific value of QTL analysis) (2) Marker-assisted selection (MAS) in breeding programs and (3) the utilization of wild germplasm to improve quantitative traits with breeding tomato for salt tolerance as an...

Regulation of Stem Elongation

In contrast to RHT, the semi-dwarf sd-1 mutation leading to the rice Green Revolution is recessive, and normal height can be restored by exogenous application of GA, indicating that sd-1 is defective in GA production. sd-1 is one of the most important genes deployed in modern rice breeding. Its recessive character results in a shortened culm with improved lodging resistance and a greater harvest index, allowing for the increased use of nitrogen fertilizers. The sd-1 gene was first identified in the Chinese variety Dee-geo-woo-gen (DGWG), and was crossed in the early 1960s with another high-yielding variety to develop the semi-dwarf cultivar IR8. IR8 produced record yields throughout Asia, and formed the basis for the development of new, high-yielding semi-dwarf plant types. Since the 1960s, sd-1 has remained the predominant semi-dwarf gene present in rice cultivars (Hedden 2003). Three research groups have isolated the SD-1 gene independently. SD-1 was shown to encode GA 20-oxidase...

Origins of Agriculture

Fallowing is an important technology perfected in the Middle Ages as part of the crop rotation pattern. The first year a legume is planted and the soil is enriched by the nitrogen-fixing crop the next year a cereal is planted. The third year the land is rested to regain soil moisture and restore soil health. This pattern approximates a natural ecosystem and is more sustainable over the long term than continuous cropping. The fallow crop rotation system maximizes resources but is not elastic enough to accommodate an increasing human population that has come to rely on continuous cropping or heavy use of inputs (such as fertilizer, pesticides, and irrigation) in single crop per year monocultures.

Selection and Breeding

Recent yield improvement traces back to the rediscovery of Austrian botanist Gregor Mendel's (1822-1884) classic experiments on the heredity of garden peas. For the first time the plant breeding community had a set of principles by which to proceed with the crop improvement process. Products of this era are hybrid corn, changes in the photoperiod response of soybeans, and the dwarf-stature wheat from the International Center for the Improvement of Wheat and Corn (in Mexico) and rice from the International Rice Research Institute (in the Philippines). These late 1960s Green Revolution cereals and the genes they hold (dwarf stature and fertilizer responsive) now enter the food supply of three billion plus people and are directly responsible for feeding more than eight hundred million people by their increased yield alone. Never in world history had there been such a dramatic yield take-off as the Green Revolution. The hope is that the new and developing biotechnologies will have a...

Goods and services of plantation forests

Forests based on an analysis of several publications. As shown in the table, the main service of plantations is the provision of resources (especially raw materials such as timber, energy sources such as palm oil, and to a lesser extent food, fodder and fertilizer). The reduction of surface run-off, erosion, and storm and flood damage are also important services. Compared to natural forests, however, the provision of most other forest services is reduced.

Results And Discussion

Fly ash application increased soil pH significantly. Soil pH progressively increased from 5.02 in the control to 6.62 in the low fly ash treatment to 7.48 in the high fly ash treatment (Table 4.6). The addition of sewage sludge to fly ash did not further increase soil pH because pH in the sewage sludge treatments was not greater than that in the fa1 treatment. This finding was expected because the initial pH of sludge was 6.5 (Table 4.1). The application of the inorganic fertilizer, however, decreased soil pH by about 0.2 units, probably due to nitrification of ammonium.

Fungal Interactions with Human Activities

All of the above roles of fungi in natural ecosystems are increasingly influenced by human activity. In Chap. 6 we will examine some specific interactions between anthropogenic impacts and the function of fungi, together with how fungi may be used to mitigate some of the effects of human-induced disturbance and pollution. Fungi are negatively influenced by acidifying pollutants, such as sulfur dioxide, which damages the physiological capacity of fungi (Arnolds, 1991 Dighton and Jansen, 1991 Newsham et al., 1992a, b Shaw, 1996). Atmospheric nitrogen deposition, resulting from industrial process and automobiles, acts as an acidifying pollutant and as a fertilizer to cause changes in the nutrient cycles affected by fungal processes (Wallander and Nylund, 1991 Jonsson, 1998). Fungi may be adversely affected by heavy metals in the environment (Kuperman and Carriero, 1997 Martino et al., 2000), but are able to immobilize these metals (Morely et al., 1996 Kottke et al., 1998 Miersch et al.,...

In Situ Immobilization

Chemical immobilization using phosphate amendments, such as mineral apatite, synthetic hydroxyapatite, and phosphate salts, has proven effective in reducing heavy-metal solubility by the formation of metal-phosphate complexes 39 and by increasing the number of negatively charged exchange sites 40 . These additions reduce metal bioavailability not only to plants, but also for humans who may have ingested contaminated soil 41 . The solubility of lead in soil can be greatly reduced by the formation of chloropyromorphite Pb5(PO4)3Cl . Several microcosm studies have shown that chloropyromorphite can be formed through the addition of hydroxyapatite Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2 42,43 . Brown et al. 44 demonstrated that phosphate fertilizers could poten-

Potting and Maintenance of Rooted Cuttings

The potted cuttings are weaned in shade for one month before being transferred to transplanting beds with 50-607 light intensity. When they reach 3-4 months of age. they are fully exposed to sunlight. Compound fertilizers, such as NPK Blue (15 15 15) are applied at a rate of I g plant per month, starting one month alter potting.

Enhancing biomass growth

Forest stand growth is determined by (a) site quality (the main factors are climate, microclimate, soil and relief) and (b) how well trees capture resources. The latter is influenced by genetic pool, stand development and degree of stocking. The genetic stock and other silvicultural factors, most of which can be altered by managers, may prevent the potential site productivity from being attained (Mead, 2005). On sites where nutrients and water are limiting factors to plant growth, the potential for enhancing and accelerating biomass production and yield by fertilizer application and irrigation may be considerable (e.g. Nilsson, 1997 Stromgren and Linder, 2002 Adams et al, 2005 Bergh et al, 2005 Mead, 2005). However, whether fertilization also results in enhanced long-term C sequestration (Pettersson and Hogbom, 2004) is less clear and probably only valid in some cases. Site preparation for enhancing biomass growth through manual, mechanical and chemical measures and prescribed burning...

Nutritional aspects with special reference to organic nitrogen

Mineral and organic fertilizers can significantly improve plant growth and tree vigour as was shown in reforestation and revitalization experiments carried out in the Alps at 1750 m a.s.l. in an area where the timberline is at an elevation of 2000 m a.s.l. (Glatzel et al. 1991). In general, low availability of N is limiting the productivity of boreal and temperate forests in the northern hemisphere, at least at the timberline. It is therefore of great interest to compare the possible role of ectomycorrhizal and ericoid mycorrhizal

Nutmegclovecardamom mixed cropping system

Cardamom, in addition to nutmeg and clove, a few tall growing shade trees at regular intervals were retained. However, the problem of comparatively less shade was circumvented to a considerable extent by providing sprinkler irrigation throughout the plantation for all the three crops. As the area is exclusively utilized for cardamom, nutmeg and clove, the plantation requires heavy manuring and after care for getting steady yields. Due share of fertilizer has to be given to each crop as per recommendation.

Effects of Excess Nutrients on Ecosystems

The nutrients most commonly limiting for plant growth in both terrestrial and aquatic systems are nitrogen and phosphorus. Both are often added as fertilizer to agricultural ecosystems. Nitrogen is generally readily soluble and leaches from soils to surface and ground waters. Phosphorus is strongly absorbed in most soils and typically reaches surface waters attached to particles eroded from agricultural fields. Both nutrients may promote excess algal growth in lakes and the ocean. When large quantities of algae grow, die, and are decomposed in the water, dissolved oxygen is depleted and aquatic organisms may die. Scientists have known since the 1960s that nitrogen and phosphorus were negatively affecting some lakes and rivers. During the 1980s and 1990s dissolved oxygen levels declined in the Gulf of Mexico. By the late 1990s, a large area of the Gulf was almost devoid of aquatic life apparently due to nutrients transported by the Mississippi River. see also Agricultural Ecosystems...

Leaf and Branch Problems

Many natural predators keep aphids in check, including parasitic wasps, lady beetles, and hover flies. To attract aphid predators, grow nectar-producing flowers, such as dill and buckwheat, near your trees, or spray commercial or homemade yeast-and-sugar mixtures on your trees. Introduced lacewings often control aphids. Buy these at commercial insec-taries or from organic farm supply companies. Ants often introduce an aphid infestation trap ants with sticky barriers around the trunks. Avoid excessive use of high-nitrogen fertilizer, which favors aphid reproduction.

Tillage Seedbed Preparation

Tillage is physical manipulation of the soil. It is done to create conditions conducive for good germination and plant growth, control weeds, mix fertilizers and manures into the soil, incorporate the straw of a previous crop or a green manure into the soil and so on. For a good seedbed preparation for soybean, two or three cultivations, harrowings or ploughings are generally sufficient for most soils. Tillage intensity as well as type of tillage, however, may vary with the presence or absence of residue from the previous crop, weeds and the soil type.

Nodulation with Interaction with Other Treatments

In a nursery experiment on the effect of liming and inoculation of A. mangium in the presence or absence of NPK fertilizer, Cali (1991) reported that inoculation independently improved height, shoot biomass. nodule weight, and nitrogen content and uptake of A. mangium. The relationship between shoot biomass and nodule number, nodule weight, and N-uptake was highly significant.The study used Annam clay with pH 5.9 and 0.74 OM and Adtuyon clay loam with pH 6.2 and 5.31 OM. In Adtuyon clay loam, the local Rliizobium isolate Am could replace about 91 of the N requirement for A. mangium growth. In that study, Cali (1991) also found that liming did not improve seedling growth and nodule development. The seedlings grew well in both soils when fertilized with 2(X) kg N lia + 1(X) kg PK ha the second best treatment was inoculation with Rliizobium in the presence of only P and K. Height, diameter, and nodule weight were significantly affected by the interaction of lime, inoculation, and...

Nutrients and Food Web Dynamics Isotope Addition Experiments

Mutchler et al. (2004) have developed a field methodology for the isotope addition experiments, based on the mesocosm work of Winning et al. (1999). In these experiments, 14N-labeled (i.e. 15N depleted), slow-release fertilizer is used to both simulate eutrophication and generate differential iso-topic compositions of H. wrightii and its epiphytes. After only 20 days of exposure to water column enrichment, the S15N values of the epiphytes were significantly different from those of the seagrass ( 78 o vs. 31 o, respectively, Fig. 11).

Nutritional Constraints of Soils Supporting Soybeanbased Cropping Systems

In India, soybean is mostly grown on vertisols and associated soils in central parts of the country. Vertisols, in general, are low to medium in organic matter content. Intensive cultivation with double cropping coupled with imbalanced fertilizer application by farmers (only nitrogen and phosphorus, and that at lower rates than recommended) has led to the emergence of multinutrient deficiencies in the soybean-growing areas of central India. A survey conducted in central India has shown that more than half of the soil samples are low (< 0.5 ) in organic carbon (Table 8.1). The total nitrogen of all the fields tested was low (< 0.07 in the top 0-15 cm of soil). Almost all fields were low in potentially mineralizable nitrogen (< 94 mg kg-1 soil). More than half of the fields were low in available phosphorus (< 4.9 mg kg-1 soil). The available potassium concentration of the soils analysed was generally high (> 56 mg kg-1 soil). About 46 of soil samples were found to be deficient...

Stable Isotopes Future Developments

Or examine export of organic matter to other habitats. Despite the numerous difficulties of applying isotope additions in such open systems, advances continue to be made to permit isotope additions in the field. Along with direct isotope additions via spraying (Ottosen et al., 2001 Carman and Fry, 2002 Fry et al., 2003) or incorporation into fertilizer (Mutchler et al., 2004), organisms themselves could be labeled in the laboratory and 'released' into the field. Isotope signatures of specific beds (Stapel et al., 2001) or unvegetated sediments could be manipulated and the fate of the tracer monitored. Indeed, multiple isotope additions (e.g. 13C, 15N, and34S) may be applied (Carman and Fry, 2002).

Effect of Other Nutrients

The increasing world population makes high yield crop production a necessity in agriculture. The use of fertilizers has raised crop yield considerably (Stewart et al. 2005). The expansion of agriculture has lead to an important increase in global K+ consumption 4.4 per year between 1999 and 2005 and K+ fertilization to maintain crop production is a regular cultural practice. Global K+ consumption reached 33.9 Mt K2O in 2008. In some cases, over-fertilization occurs, which implies a financial and an environmental cost. Moreover, the high input of fertilizers to crops may lead to the inhibition of K+ acquisition because of the presence of high concentrations of other nutrients. It is, therefore, important to optimize the efficiency of fertilizer usage. Cultivating crops that acquire and or utilize K+ more efficiently can reduce the use of K+-fertilizers which would be environment and economic friendly (White and Brown 2010) . Efforts to minimize fertilizer input and to develop...

Factors Threatening Species

Pollution threatens 7 percent of the plant species of the United States. Water pollution can alter the water chemistry so severely that aquatic plants cannot grow. Increased inputs of nitrogen and phosphorus compounds into the water from sewage and agricultural fertilizers can result in algal blooms that shade out and kill native plants. In the land environment air pollution in the form of smog, acid rain, and nitrogen deposition can cause plants to slow down in growth or die. In some cases, this death may be related to the decline and death of the sensitive soil fungi (mycorrhizae) that have mutu-alistic relations with plants, providing water and mineral nutrients and receiving carbohydrates in return. And lastly, about 1 percent of plant species is threatened by disease and parasites. While this number may not seem very great, some of the most important woody plants in the forests of North America, such as chestnuts, elms, and dogwoods, are in severe decline due to introduced...

Legumes form a symbiosis with noduleinducing bacteria

Initially it was thought that the nodules of legumes (Fig. 11.1) were caused by a plant disease, until their function in N2 fixation was recognized by Hermann Hellriegel (Germany) in 1888. He found that beans containing these nodules were able to grow without nitrogen fertilizer.

Summary and Conclusions

Recommended on nitrogen-deficient soils. Optimum rates of application of phosphorus and potassium depend upon their availability in the soil. If soils contain higher available phosphorus, maintenance fertilization is recommended. Repeat applications of phosphorus and sulphur lead to their accumulation in the soil, which may reduce the rates of application in subsequent crops. Therefore, these fertilizers should be applied on the basis of soybean-based cropping systems as a unit, rather than as a single crop. Among the micronutrients, zinc deficiency is most widespread. An application of 5 kg Zn ha-1 as zinc sulphate to soybean has been found to adequately meet the zinc requirements of both soybean and wheat crops in soybean-wheat rotation on black soils of central India. The application of 4 kg borax ha-1 has been found to be effective in correcting boron deficiency on black soils of India. Keeping in mind multinutrient deficiencies, the balanced application of all deficient nutrients...

Modification of Gene Expression

Although all cells in an organism contain essentially the same DNA, cell types and cell functions vary because of qualitative and quantitative differences in their gene expression. Overexpression and downregulation of key genes will provide plants with the necessary resources to grow properly in the global warming challenge. The nutrition of K+, one of the most important macronutrients presently found in most commercial fertilizers, could be improved in this way. Thus, enhanced expression of K+ transporters and channels could result in an increase in plant K+ uptake which could lead to high-yield production. At the same time, improved K+ nutrition could lead to enhanced salt tolerance, because of the aforementioned competition between K+ and Na+, or to alleviation of drought stress as K+ is a known osmolite (Amtmann et al. 2004 Romheld and Kirkby 2010).

Heavy Metal Contamination Of Soil And Associated Agricultural And Environmental Problems

Furthermore, it may also be noted that the use of heavy metals like Hg and As as components of pesticides in agriculture has been nearly discontinued, and the contamination of the land mass by these through agricultural practices is now only history. Also, although the use of fertilizers may result in contamination of the environment by various heavy metals present in them 26,27 , this is unlikely to be of much significance because these are continuously removed from the soil along with each harvest.

Precipitationdissolution Reactions Of Metals And Metalloids

For many of the more abundant elements, such as Al, Fe, and Mn, precipitation of mineral forms is common and may greatly influence or even control their solubility. For most trace elements, direct precipitation from solution through homogeneous nucleation appears to be less likely than adsorption-desorption, by virtue of the low concentration of these metals and metalloids in soil solutions in well-aerated dryland soils. When soils become heavily polluted, metal solubility may reach a level to satisfy the solubility product to cause precipitation. Precipitation may also occur in the immediate vicinity of the phosphate fertilizer zone, where the concentration of heavy metals and metalloids present as impurities may be sufficiently high. Precipitation of trace metals as sulfides may have a significant role in metal transformation in reduced environments where the solution sulfide concentration is sufficiently high to satisfy the solubility product constants of metal sulfides (Robert and...

Where and How to Fertilize

Fertilizers are applied in various ways Trunk injection. The fertilizer is injected directly into the sap flow in liquid form. This requires skilled labor as the dosage needs to be carefully calculated and the conductive tissues must be located precisely. The method has been criticized by some authors as opening the way to pathogens and pests. As a general rule, the period from late fall through winter is the ideal time to fertilize, so that the nutrients will be available at the right moment in late winter or early spring. However, in heavy rainfall areas or in winter-cold regions it is better to apply fertilizer during early spring or late summer, when root activity is greatest, so that it is not washed away before the tree roots can absorb it. This applies only for normal situations, where fertilizing is aimed at maintaining the trees in good condition. In some cases, however, a special and immediate fertilization may be required to rectify a glaring nutrient deficiency, for...

Bacterial Root Zone Communities Beneficial Allelopathies And Plant Disease Control

The release of root exudates from plants encourages the formation of beneficial bacterial communities in the root zone capable of generating secondary metabolites that improve plant health and crop yield. Metabolites with antibiotic or lytic action have been identified , while others are known to induce systemic disease resistance in the host plant, or interfere with the nutritional requirements of phytopathogens. However, despite existing positive relationships between bacterial communities and their plant hosts, man-made attempts at applying bacteria for biocontrol purposes have met with limited success. Inconsistent performance of biocontrol bacteria in the field may be due to the variable expression of genes involved in the biocontrol action, or simply the resistance of established soil communities to a sudden and inundative influx of adventive bacterial species or strains. Regardless of the inherent capacity of 'naturally occurring' soil microbial ecosystems to buffer...

Soybean rotational benefits

Within the US corn belt, rotation of corn (Zea mays) and soybean is preferred to continuous cropping (Wilhelma and Wortmann, 2004) because the rotation produces greater grain yield of both crops (West et al., 1996). Input costs are often less in particular, less nitrogen fertilizer is needed for the corn-soybean rotation (Katupitiya et al., 1997) compared with continuous corn. A corn-soybean rotation also reduces deep leaching of nitrate nitrogen relative to continuous corn. Reduced stress from pests and diseases may also improve yields in rotations. This chapter concentrates on the nitrogen-saving benefits. In the first instance, it has already been indicated that in Brazil, 80 of the direct nitrogen for soybean comes from nitrogen fixation, with a global input of around 58 , so there are direct benefits for the grower of the soybean crop (Herridge et al., 2008 Salvagiotti et al., 2008). The magnitude of the benefit has also been indicated to increase via the use of supernodulating...

K V Peter P Indira and C Mini

The cultivation practices of Capsicum vary in different countries and the practices followed in India are described here under the subheadings soil and climate, season, nursery preparation and transplanting, fertilizer application, growth regulators, irrigation, intercultiva-tion, weed management, harvesting and yield. Drying the harvested fruits to a safe moisture level, cleaning and grading are the different steps in processing. Different modifications and equipment to speed up the processes have been described.

Nutrients and environmental quality

When growers strive for maximum production, the use of large amounts of fertilizer can result in nutrient losses, especially nitrate losses, in drainage water. A recent study of nitrate leaching in pineapple (Reinhart, 2000) showed that the loss of nitrate below a depth of 30 cm was greatest where large amounts of N (more than 300 kg ha-1 applied to a soil with high residual nitrogen) in inorganic fertilizer were applied prior to planting. Losses were negligible where manure was used in lieu of inorganic fertilizer (Reinhart, 2000). Foliar fertilization with over 700 kg N ha-1 did not increase leaching losses. Chemical losses through runoff and soil loss may also be significant when pineapple is cultivated on ridges on slopes without soil cover. They reached 63 kg N ha-1 year-1, 44 kg K ha-1 year-1 and 56 kg Ca ha-1 year-1 in an experiment on volcanic soils in Martinique (Khamsouk, 2001). Nitrogen losses due to leaching, runoff and erosion may be an important problem, especially in...

Conclusion and Future Perspective

Plant cultivation and consumption are important for human survival. However, water and soil resources around the world are increasingly contaminated by xenobiotic compounds. For example, in many parts of the world, soil is becoming increasingly arid as a result of many factors, such as wild irrigation and misuse of fertilizers. Consequently, hunger is a significant global problem. Every year, 15 million children die of hunger. It may be possible to solve, or at least alleviate, this problem by using soil and water resources more effectively. Unless plants are able to obtain sufficient nutrients and water from their growth media, they cannot survive. In general, environmental stresses negatively affect plant growth. Consequently, understanding the interaction between plant nutrients and stressors is critical. Currently, there is ample knowledge about the interactions between stressors and mineral nutrients however, information about the underlying molecular mechanisms and genetic basis...

Deficiency and Toxicity Symptoms

When some element is deficient or present in such high concentration as to be toxic, plants often have symptoms somewhat characteristic of the particular condition afflicting them. For example, yellowing of leaves, or chlorosis, often indicates a deficiency of nitrogen. Nevertheless, visual identification of deficiencies or toxicities is not a reliable procedure. For example, sulfur deficiency may result in symptoms very similar to those of nitrogen deficiency. Therefore even experts check their visual impression by analyzing the tissue to find out whether its content of the suspected element is in fact below the value deemed adequate for that particular crop or present in excess. Often, such unrelated conditions as diseases caused by fungi or bacteria may result in the development of symptoms that mimic those of nutrient disorders. see also Biogeochemical Cycles Fertilizer Halo-phytes Hydroponics Nitrogen Fixation Soil, Chemistry of.

Chlorinecontaining Anions

Perchlorate, an environmental contaminant, is a known competitive inhibitor of the iodine sodium symporter and decreases thyroid function by inhibiting iodine uptake by the thyroid at doses of 200 mg per day or more.16 Perchlorate is found in fireworks, explosives, and solid jet and rocket fuel, and is a contaminant found in some fertilizers. Perchlorate is often consumed in plants such as lettuce and leafy greens, drinking water, and milk, generally accumulated from contaminated groundwater. Studies have found that the majority of dairy milk samples and all samples of breast milk tested contained perchlorate. A recent study demonstrated a mean perchlorate level in breast milk of 10.5 mg L, suggesting that the average breastfed infant consumes more than twice the recommended maximum daily level of perchlorate established by the National Academy of Sciences.17 Studies of perchlorate levels in drinking water and their relation to diseases in the United States have provided conflicting...

Accomplishments of Plant Breeding Programs Some Examples

Concomitantly, management practices changed. The average grain yield of maize increased from 30 to 120 bushels per acre from the 1930s to the 1990s. About 50 percent of the increase is due to genetic changes mediated by breeding for higher yield of grain, resistance to biotic and abiotic stress, and the ability to respond to more intensive management (e.g., increased application of fertilizer and seeding rates).

Vetiver Grass For Phytostabilization Of Metalliferous Ecosystems

The most conspicuous characteristics of vetiver grass include its fast growth, large biomass, strong root system, and high level of metal tolerance therefore, it is an important candidate for stabilization of metal-contaminated soils. Results from glasshouse studies show that, when adequately supplied with nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers, vetiver can grow in soils with very high levels of acidity, aluminum, and manganese. Vetiver growth was not affected and no obvious symptoms were observed when soil pH was as low as 3.3 and the extractable manganese reached 578 mg kg-1, and plant manganese was as high as 890 mg kg-1. Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon), which has been recommended as a suitable species for acid mine rehabilitation, has 314 mg kg-1 of manganese in plant tops when growing in mine wastes containing 106 mg kg-1 of manganese 112 . Vetiver also produced excellent growth at a very high level of soil aluminum saturation percentage (68 ), but it did not survive an aluminum...

Gigartinales Solieriaceae

CSMCRI has developed an integrated method for simultaneous production of nutrient rich liquid sap (liquid fertilizer) and a residue rich of kappa-carrageenan (U. S. Patent No. 6,893,479 dated May 17, 2005). The liquid fertilizer found to be very effective on different crops. Commercially cultivated in India

Significance Of Siliconaccumulating Grasses For Integrated Management And Remediation Of Metalliferous Soils

Silica is the second most abundant element in the Earth's crust, so it would be useful for amelioration of aluminum (Al) toxicity in acidic soils. Ranking of silicon accumulation in the subfamilies of Poaceae is shown in Figure 21.2. Subsoil acidification is a serious global environmental concern. Acid soils occupy nearly 30 (3.95 ha) of the arable land area in tropical and temperate belts. In addition to the natural processes, farming and management practices such as high use of nitrogen fertilizers, removal of cations by harvested crops, and leaching and runoff of cations resulted in acidification of soils. In many industrialized areas, the atmospheric deposition of sulfur and nitrogen compounds is a major source of proton influx to soils. More than the low pH of the soils, the major problem associated with acid soils is the toxicity of Al and manganese and the deficiency of phosphorus, calcium, magnesium, and potassium.

Provision of environmental services

The more degraded the soils are, and the slower the process of natural recovery, the more positive the effect of plantations on ecosystem stability. Nevertheless, from a financial point of view, it is generally not attractive to grow trees on degraded soils as growth rates are slow and natural risks high. Thus, smallholders, like large companies, prefer good soils for tree growing to avoid high fertilizer and pesticide inputs (Hoch et al, 2009). Consequently, the environmental contribution of plantations established for the generation of income is potentially low and may be even negative (see Chapter 5).

Management of Diseased Garden

Malnutrition often results in incidence of disease in pepper plants. Deficiencies of nutrients like P and K have been indicated as the reason for diseases (Harper 1974, DeWaard 1969). DeWaard stated that a fertilizer mixture having 400 kg N, 180 kg P, 480 kg K, 425 kg Ca and 112 kg Mg applied to one hectare with appropriate mulching will control the disease and yield 2.0-2.5 kg dry pepper vine-1. Slow decline of pepper was first reported by Menon (1949) in Wynad, Kerala and a crop loss of 10 per cent was recorded. Nambiar et al. (1965) worked out tentative ratios of K2O (total) N, K2O (available) N and CaO+K2O+MgO N in soil, and found that slow decline of pepper occurred when these ratios were below 14.1, 0.05 and 3.8 respectively. Slow decline is attributed to fungal infection, soil moisture stress and deficiency of K and P (Nambiar and Sarma 1977) and nematode (Ramana and Mohandas 1987). Wahid and Kamalam (1982) found that K levels of the leaves of healthy vines were considerably...

Shortrotation Woody Crop Systems

SRWC systems are essentially tree plantations that combine traditional agricultural and forestry practices. Most tree plantings usually are done with minimal site preparation following a timber harvest however, intensive site preparation occurs prior to planting SRWC systems. Site preparation includes tillage to break up the soil, herbicide applications to reduce existing weeds, pre-emergent herbicides to reduce weeds during tree establishment, and the addition of lime or granular fertilizer to increase the pH or nutrient availability of the soil (Dickmann and Stuart 1983). Irrigation or fertigation is often provided, allowing SRWC systems to be grown on less than optimal soils. Typically, trees are planted in a grid pattern spacing depends on the desired product. Narrow spacing (e.g. 1.5 x 1.5 m) often is used in coppice plantations, where the end product can be used for pulp or energy (Kenney etal. 1993, Peterson etal. 1996, Hughes 1997). Wider spacing (e.g. 3 * 3 m) is used for...

The potential of traditional treegrowing schemes

Growing trees is already an intrinsic part of most smallholder production systems (Smith et al, 1996 Simmons et al, 2002 Summers et al, 2004 Hoch et al, 2009), which shows that smallholders already have the interest, motivation and the skills and resources to grow trees for their own purposes. However, the smallholder-driven tree-growing initiatives generally show some important differences to the plantation schemes envisaged by external actors. Most important, nearly all smallholder-driven tree-growing schemes are low-input systems (Hoch, 2009) in which, instead of systematically planting seedlings of one species in a larger area, a variety of different techniques, ranging from natural regeneration through protection, transplanting or simply promotion of the species present, are adopted. Smallholder systems also avoid the application of fertilizer and pesticides, and also waive time-consuming treatments. In addition, smallholders confine tree-growing activities to periods when the...

Bioprotectant Behavior Of Am Fungi

Plant diseases can be controlled by manipulation of indigenous microbes or by introducing antagonists to reduce the disease-producing pro-pagules (Linderman, 1992). AM fungi and their associated interactions with plants reduce the damage caused by plant pathogens (Harrier and Watson, 2004). These interactions have been documented for many plant species (Tables 1 and 2). With the increasing cost of inorganic fertilizers and the environmental and public health hazards associated with pesticides and pathogens resistant to chemical pesticides, AM fungi may provide a more suitable and environmentally acceptable alternative for sustainable agriculture.

Toxicity of Nutrients

The affected leaves show dark brown to black spots initially at the edges, then extending to a striking interveinal pigmentation. In normal leaf, manganese concentration is 700 ppm and that of affected leaf is 1000 ppm or more. The 0.1 per cent Mn in some commercial compound fertilizers is now believed to be too high and enough to cause manganese toxicity (Sim 1973).

Plant Growth And Survival During Moderate And Severe Salinity Stress

Excess salinity in the soil solution to which plant roots are exposed can be derived from geochemical sources, sea water infiltration of coastal ground waters, sea water salts in wind and rain, excess fertilizer application to soils or supplementary irrigation with salt-containing irrigation waters (the water evaporates leaving salts to accumulate in the soil). Excessive accumulation of salts in the rhizosphere can lead to growth inhibition, leaf necrosis, accelerated onset of senescence, wilting and death. Different physiological mechanisms can be involved. An osmotic mechanism involves the build-up of salts in the rhizosphere or in the small volume of fluids in the apoplastic cell

Conclusions and Future Prospects

The knowledge shared, if well utilized, will make the soybean economy and soybean production more robust, enabling farmers to meet the ever-increasing demands of both national and international markets. The ideas shared will enable all stakeholders in soybean production and the value chain to comply with the global clarion call to reduce agrochem-ical inputs into agricultural production and utilize eco-friendly strategies to overcome the challenges posed by pests. In this regard, the recent advances in soybean nematode management - such as stringent exclusion and quarantine strategies, nematode-suppressive soil, breeding for nematode resistance and crop performance, remote-sensing utilization and host plant resistance, biofertilizers and biopesticides - could form a viable roadmap for soybean nematode management. Networking among different specialists in specialized areas of nematology, such as nematode taxonomy and nematode management, is essential to enhance the quality of research...

Summary And Implications For Research Needs

Where M. x giganteus can be grown with little or no N fertilizer, nitrate leaching losses will likely be low compared to crops such as maize that have a high N requirement. However, because M. x giganteus is slow to establish, large losses of nitrate to leaching are possible during the establishment year, although the quantity will likely depend on weather and prior land use. More research is needed to quantify the N leaching and N2O emissions for a variety of N fertilizer rates and timings in settings where M. x giganteus responds to N fertilizer application. Additionally, the possibility of using cover crops in the establishment year to minimize N losses without inhibiting M. x giganteus establishment deserves investigation (Fig. 9).

Reactive Nitrogen Inflow

The form of added N plays a role in regulating N losses and influencing NUE. Among these forms, NO3 is the most susceptible to leaching, NH4 the least, and urea moderately susceptible. Ammonia and urea are more susceptible to volatilization loss of N than fertilizers containing NO3. Urea is the most widely used N fertilizer in India. The studies showed the importance of selecting ammonium-based N fertilizer early in the season to reduce N leaching due the mobility of urea and nitrate source in irrigated rice and wheat systems (Prasad and Prasad 1996). Nitrate containing fertilizers when applied to rice proved less efficient because nitrate is prone to be lost via denitrification and leaching under submerged soil conditions in normal and alkali soils (Prasad 1998). In saline soils, however, it is beneficial to use NO3 containing N fertilizers as it compensates the adverse effects of Cl- and SO42- on absorption of NO3 by plants (Choudhary et al. 2003). soil solutions, which leads to N...

Strategies for Minimizing N Pollution in Agriculture

Various strategies were adopted to minimize the N loss from the agricultural fields. Split application of N, use of slow-release fertilizers, nitrification inhibitors (NIs), and the use of organic manures are some agronomic techniques used. Bulk of the fertilizer nitrogen in India is broadcast on surface and both surface runoff (on sloppy lands) and ammonia volatilization lead to N losses. This can be easily overcome by deep placement of N a few centimeters below soil surface. For example, Sarkar (2005) showed that in wheat surface broadcast application of urea as band or top dressing caused 15-20 loss of N due to agriculture volatilization. Surface broadcast application followed by its mixing with top soil reduced the volatilization loss to 10 , while side band placement of urea reduced it further to only 5 . Thus the farmers need to be told about the advantage of incorporation in surface soil or if possible its placement using a ferti-drill or a pore in upland crops. Split...

Yield Prediction from Soil Fertility Management Parameters

Equation was found to be highly significant (p< 0.0001). The prediction model was developed after taking into account the soil fertility, fertilizer application and related factors. But the author stresses the point that the ultimate fate of pepper in the area is hinged on the disease problem, as pepper life span is seriously cut short by Fusarium wilt. Chemical treatments can slow the progress of disease, but cannot stop it completely. The colonists there, were playing a losing battle using fungicides, and in that process, several farmers suffered chemical poisoning. Any pepper yield prediction should also take into account the Fusarium wilt incidence. The following parameters have been suggested for modeling the incidences (Fearnside 1981)

Soil Management andPPlant Fertilization

A soil's natural store of nutrients may be sufficient to satisfy nutritional needs of fruit trees. Under most conditions, however, nitrogen (N), potassium (K), and calcium (Ca) and, less often, phosphorus (P), magnesium (Mg), boron (B), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), and or zinc (Zn) must be supplied as fertilizers. Fertilizer needs of fruit trees are defined as the total amounts of all mineral nutrients that have to be applied as fertilizers to sustain normal growth, high productivity, and optimal fruit quality. Fertilizer and nutritional needs are numerically different because (1) the soil always satisfies at least a portion of plant needs for a given nutrient and (2) the efficiency of fertilizer recovery by plants is less than 100 percent due to losses caused by leaching, volatilization, or other chemical or biological interactions in the soil. 298 CONCISE ENCYCLOPEDIA OF TEMPERATE TREE FRUIT METHODS OF ESTIMATING FERTILIZER NEEDS

Regulation of rootshoot interactions Highyielding trials

Using high-yielding varieties and slow-release fertilizer, a very high yield was attained for various field crops in Sapporo (43 03'N), Japan (Osaki et al 1991c. 1992c, 1995b Table 1). These high-yielding varieties (HYVs) were characterized by the fact that the total amount of dry matter (DM,) and the amount of nitrogen absorbed (N, ) in a whole plant increased linearly with growth until harvest (Osaki et al 1991b.c). indicating that photosynthetic rate and root activity remained high during maturation. This type is designated as nitrogen absorption type. In contrast, in standard-yielding varieties (SYVs), nitrogen absorption ceased at the maximum shoot growth stage, and at the same time N, in the nonreproductive organs started to decrease, followed by cessation of the increase in dry matter. This type is designated as nitrogen efficiency type.

Current Threats to Wetlands

Excessive amounts of pollution entering a wetland over a long period of time is likely to cause long-term changes in the wetland. One of the world's most famous wetlands, the Everglades of southern Florida, has suffered for years from pollution from fertilizers used by farms upstream from it. The pollution has resulted in some major changes in the plant community and suspected declines in the diversity of animals it supports.

Flowering tobacco Annuals

Sow seed indoors in April bottom heat will speed germination. Or, direct-seed outdoors in late spring. Do not cover very small seeds, which need light to germinate. Seedlings appear within 3 weeks and grow rapidly. Thin or transplant to 9 apart. Nicotiana grows best in average soil in full sun or partial shade. Water well during hot, dry weather. Give less fertilizer and water in late summer to keep plants blooming longer. Nicotiana self-sows but may not come true to color.

Managing Extreme Soil Environments Acid Soils

Induced leaching of soil cations, particularly Ca and Mg. The process is exacerbated by heavy N fertilization with acidifying fertilizers, e.g., ammonium sulfate, urea, or ammonium nitrate. As growers increasingly adopt environmentally friendly technologies to gain universal acceptance for the fruit they produce, mineral nutrient management will become more precise. The past practice of applying fertilizers as an insurance policy is no longer acceptable and has been replaced by practices based in sound science. With further advancements in estimating plant mineral nutrient requirements, acquisition, and use, new fertilization practices will supply nutrients only when needed to organs requiring them the most, and at optimal times from the standpoint of plant needs. Not only will this approach assure high productivity and quality of fruit, but it also will effectively protect the environment and conserve the soil.

Female receptivity and the cessation of gynoecial growth

Other studies have also implicated the phytohormone cytokinin in game-tophyte development and maintenance of receptivity. Pischke et al. (2002) and Hejatko et al. (2003) demonstrated that CKI is expressed in the female gametophyte until fertilization and it is essential for gametophyte viability. Previous research showed that overexpression of CKI results in cytokinin independency in somatic tissues (Kakimoto, 1996 Glover et al., 2008). If CKI functions in a similar manner in the female gametophyte, it may play a significant role in maintenance of gametophyte viability via a cytokinin-related pathway. Female receptivity can also be positively influenced by the application of nitrogen fertilizer (Williams, 1965 Tromp et al., 1994), and by stigmatic secretions induced by pollination, that can help release carbohydrates from the transmitting tissue and prolong embryo sac viability (Herrero, 1992).

Sustainable Orcharding

Conventional orchard management is guided by the goal of maximizing bearing potential per hectare in order to increase short-term gains. Within this framework, growers typically rely on management practices that are linked to external or off-farm inputs. These external inputs include synthetic pesticides used to control insects, diseases, and weeds synthetic fertilizers and irrigation systems and synthetic growth regulators used to control numerous aspects of fruit production, such as budbreak or bloom, fruit set, preharvest drop, size, and color. Shortcomings of reliance on these inputs include pesticide resistance, soil degradation, collateral injury to nontarget organisms, and concerns for human health. Given their reliance on off-farm inputs to establish and maintain production, these management systems reduce long-term sustainability despite increases in short-term gains. Sustainable production in agricultural systems must include consideration of economics and profitability,...

Quality Control and Benchmarking

Mycorrhizal inocula, as well as other microbial bio-inoculants and organic fertilizers available on the market, share a common problem quality control and its regulation. It is very difficult to ensure that the products are of standard quality. In India and comparable countries, most commercial organic fertilizers are not covered by the type of national or international standards which govern the quality of chemical fertilizers. Thus, specific protocols for quality control of AM fungal inocula need to be developed and standardized for application. This is essential not only as a guarantee for producers and users but also for the protection of ecosystems. Moreover, this would also help in quality management and assessment of inoculum potential with every batch of inocula produced. Quality control of commercial AM fungal inoculum is extremely important for developing faith among the user community, along with its effectively demonstrated potentials. Unless this is achieved, the...

Mycorrhizae and Coupling Beneficial Organisms Complete Package for Organic Systems

One key biotechnological goal is to use combined inoculation of selected rhizospheric micro-organisms to minimize fertilizer application and to maximize plant growth and nutrition (Linderman 1986 Barea and Jeffries 1995 Barea et al. 1998 Probanza et al. 2001). Literature reports confirm that selected combinations of microbial inocula enhance the positive effect

Potential Tool for Organic Farming

In recent years, the world has seen a growing awareness of health and environmental issues, and sustainability has become a key word in discussions on economic development, particularly in relation to developing countries. The community is becoming more and more conscious of these issues globally, and government policies in industrialized as well as developing countries are increasingly being formulated to encourage organic and sustainable agriculture. Producers are turning to certified organic farming systems as a means of lowering input costs, decreasing reliance on non-renewable resources, capturing high-value markets and premium prices, and boosting farm income. Organic farming severely restricts the use of artificial chemical fertilizers and pesticides. Instead, it relies on developing a healthy, fertile soil and growing a mixture of crops. Supplementing the nutrient requirement of crops through organic composts manures is essential for sustaining soil fertility and crop...

Fertilization weeding and irrigation

Vegetable soybean, being a legume, fixes atmospheric nitrogen in the soil through the Bradyrhizobium bacteria, and normally it does not require nitrogen fertilizer application. However, depending upon a soil test and the amount of fertilizer applied to the previous crop, a starter nitrogen fertilizer of 25-30 kg N ha-1 can be applied at the time of sowing. Based on soil tests in Taiwan, the recommended fertilizer application is about 10 t ha-1 of compost, 60 kg N ha-1, 30 kg P ha-1 and 50 kg K ha-1. Half of the nitrogen fertilizer is applied as a basal dressing and the other half as a top dressing at the flowering and pod-formation stage. To ensure optimum size and good quality of seed, another dose of 20 kg N ha-1 can be given at the seed-filling stage (Chen et al., 1991). In Japan, compost is applied at 10-150 t ha-1. The nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizer rate is 30-40, 150, and 80-100 kg ha-1, respectively (Kamiyama, 1991). Lime is also applied at the rate of 1000 kg...

Growth Potential of Outplanted Seedlings

Growth and survival of outplanted seedlings are affected by nursery practices. Production of high-quality seedlings requires close attention to all phases of nursery management, including preparation of nursery beds, soil management, planting procedures, use of fertilizers, irrigation, root pruning, inoculation with mycorrhizal fungi, and pest control. Seedling quality also is influenced by time of lifting, duration of cold storage of seedlings, storage temperature and humidity, as well as handling of seedlings during lifting and planting.

Measurement Of Plant Nutrient Uptake

Months, in which nutrient content in their tissues can be easily related to its uptake during a known period of time. However, in other crops such as woody plants in which cultivation lasts for several years, the time when the nutrient content measured in plant tissues was absorbed is more difficult to estimate. Redistribution processes among the different parts of the plant are common in woody plants. For example, in rose plants, endogenous N is redistributed within the plant during each flowering cycle (Cabrera et al., 1995). Therefore, in these cases, the measurement of nutrient content in plant tissues can be carried out by using isotopically labelled fertilizers and tracing the fate and recovery of these nutrients by the crop (Strong, 1995). Nitrogen is the element that has been most widely used as labelled 15 N for being quantitatively the most abundant in plant tissues. 15 NO3 and or 15 NH4+ fertilizers have been used in several crops (Dong et al., 2001 Gonzalez-Mas et al.,...

Root hairs and nutrient uptake

Nutrient deficiency limits crop growth and yields worldwide. Fertilizer application alone cannot always ameliorate this limitation. Certain nutrients, such as phosphorus, become unavailable to plants by forming insoluble complexes at both high and low pH. Further, as with iron, diffusion rates are generally low because the ions readily bind to soil particles.

Short Rotation Forestry Using Sewage Sludge and Biosolids Implications

Short-rotation forestry (SRF) is advocated as a means of phytoremediation and for disposing of sewage sludge 157 . Fast growing trees such as Salix (willow), Populus (poplar), Alnus (alder), and Eucalyptus (eucalypts) are ideal trees for SRF and have gained importance in mitigating CO2, industrial effluents, and other air pollutants. Large quantities of fertilizer and water are required to sustain the intensive management of SRF. This demand prompted the application of sewage sludge, with the additional benefit of providing a viable alternative for the waste disposal 157-160 . A substantial body of data now indicates that biomass plantations are irrigated with sewage effluents this helps in recycling effluents, biosolids, and other wastes. Current research on the use of sludge as a fertilizer for SRF indicates strongly that willow plantations may be able to perform the majority of the required cleanup steps well. SRF could be used as vegetation filters to utilize the nutrients in...

Sludge Usage International Regulations

In general, heavy metals and persistent organic compounds cause damage to the environment by accumulating, while the introduction of nutrients may harm the environment through the leaching of nutrients to the aquatic environment. The extent to which organic compounds are accumulated has not yet been clarified. The effects of heavy metals and organic compounds on the soil fauna have not been sufficiently investigated. One of the most important sources of pollution from persistent organic compounds is pesticides the pollution caused by heavy metals arises from industrial deposition and fertilizers.

Organic Production Systems

A few studies have evaluated the impact of substantial changes in production practices, such as organic farming, on the level of biological control or on densities of antagonists. Organic farming replaces synthetic fertilizers and pesticides with organic fertilizers (plant material and animal manure), crop rotation, and resistant cultivars. Persmark (1997) sampled 11 pairs of organically and conventionally managed farms and found no difference between the two management systems in either the densities of nematode-trapping fungi, numbers of nematodes in the rhizosphere of pea, or organic matter. In a field plot experiment, organically managed plots had more species of nematophagous fungi and two species, Arthrobotrys dactyloides and Nematoctonus leiosporus, were more abundant than in conventionally managed plots (Jaffee et al. 1998). However, soils from organic and conventionally managed plots did not differ in level of suppression of M. javanica. In another similar study, the number...

Production and Forest Management

Forest management techniques that promote mushroom production have been studied in many countries. To encourage matsutake mushroom production in Japanese forests, for example, various silviculture treatments have been applied. Overstorey trees are thinned, tree species composition is altered, nonhost under-storey shrubs and herbs are cut, and organic litter is removed from the forest floor (Hosford et al. 1997). In North America, such intense management of forests for pine mushroom production does not occur. Studies in Europe show that nitrogen deposits from air pollution (Arnolds 1991) and applications of nitrogen fertilizers (Termorshuizen 1993) reduce the productivity of edible ectomycorrhizal fungi. Information on the effects of pesticide application or grazing on edible mushrooms is currently not available for any country. More research is required to determine how silviculture techniques could be used to promote the fruiting of economically important fungi in forests across the...

Gluconacetobacter spp

The response of a sugarcane crop to nitrogen fertilizer can be rather low, depending on the cultivar used. A sugarcane crop accumulates between 100-200 kg N ha-1 per season and most of the fixed nitrogen is removed from the field at harvest because the trash representing about 25 of the senescent leaves is almost always burned off before cutting and less than 10 of the fixed-N remains in the field (Oliveira et al. 1994). Thus, the continuous cropping of sugarcane should quickly deplete soil N and cane yields should decline. However, such effects are not usually observed even after decades or centuries of cane cropping. Therefore, it had to be postulated that sugarcane must have a significant N-input through biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) and indeed this could be demonstrated by the quantification of the nitrogen budget including 15N-dilution analysis in sugarcane plants (Urquiaga et al. 1992). When grown with irrigation and ample phosphate fertilizer and molybdenum is applied as...

Trace Metal Accumulation In Manuretreated Soils

Because some soils can have fertility levels that are out of balance (Table 33.6), animal manures have historically been applied to soils as a fertilizer and to improve the soil's physicochemical properties 51,52 . A large portion of the approximately 10 million Mg of broiler litter (a mixture of manure, wasted feed, feather, and bedding materials such as wood shavings) produced annually in the southeastern U.S. is applied to hay field, pasture, and row crops 53 . After applications of poultry litter to low-fertility soils (Table 33.7), monthly monitoring of trace metal concentrations in topsoils shows that levels do not change dramatically within 1 year after application. Although manures contain essential micronutrients and organic matter, their high trace metal concentration is recognized as a significant source for trace metal accumulation in soils 7,10,14,26 .

Practical Control System

The potential of AM fungi to enhance plant growth is well recognized but not exploited to the fullest extent. These organisms are rarely found in nurseries due to the use of composted soil-less media, high levels of fertilizer and regular application of fungicide drenches. The potential advantages of AM fungi in horticulture, agriculture, and forestry are not perceived by these industries as significant. This may be due in part to inadequate methods for large-scale inoculum production. Monoxenic root-organ in vitro culture methods for AMF inocula production have also been attempted by various workers (Mohammad and Khan, 2002 Fortin et al., 2002) but these techniques, although useful for the study of physiological, biochemical, and genetic relationships, have limitations in terms of producing inocula of AM fungi for commercial purposes. Pot cultures in pasteurized soils have been the most widely used method for producing AM fungi inocula but are time-consuming, bulky, and often not...

Historical development

The breeding and widespread adoption of high-yielding varieties in the 1960s led to a rapid intensification in the tropical lowlands of Asia. The release of semidwarf short-duration varieties such as IR8 (1966), IR20 (1969), and IR36 (1976) triggered investments in irrigation infrastructure and allowed farmers to grow two to three rice crops per year. The new varieties had a short growth period and more efficient biomass partitioning, were short-statured and lodging-resistant, and responded well to fertilizer N additions. Tillage and management intensity increased and soils remained submerged for longer periods. The use of external inputs such as fertilizers, water, energy, and pesticides increased and the diversity of rice varieties used in the irrigated systems decreased. By growing two or three short-duration crops per year, each at a higher yield level than before 1965, annual crop nutrient removal increased five- to sevenfold compared with the pre-Green Revolution period. The use...

Production of Seedlings in Nurseries

Production of high-quality seedlings requires close attention to all phases of nursery management. These include preparation of nursery beds, soil management, planting procedures, control of seedling density, use of fertilizers, irrigation, and pest control. Sometimes they also may include root pruning and inoculation with mycorrhizal fungi (Chapter 7). For discussion of nursery practices, see Chapter 7 and books by Duryea and Brown (1984), Duryea and Landis (1984), Duryea and Dougherty (1991), and van den Driessche (1991a,b).

Plant Nutritional Status

Nutrient Deficiency Pineapple

The nutritional status of the pineapple plant has a large influence on plant growth and, consequently, on yield and fruit quality. For pineapple, plant indicators that reflect plant nutritional status have been identified and, in conjunction with soil analysis, can be used to manage fertilization of the pineapple crop. The alternative to the use of plant indicators and soil analysis is the use of calibrated fertilizer trials in each area where the crop is grown. This practice is more common where pineapple is grown on small farms and where access to technology is limited (Souza, 1999). To sustain growth and obtain good yields, it is important to provide adequate supplies of all nutrients in proper balance. Balanced nutrition based on the principles of best management practices ensures that excess nutrients of one type do not induce deficiencies of others or, in the case of N and P, lead to environmental degradation. likely to retard growth and provide growers with the information...

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