Types of speciation

Previous reviews of fern and lycophyte speciation (Haufler, 1996, 1997) have proposed three different speciation modes (descriptions of the different pathways resulting in speciation) for ferns and lycophytes: primary (divergence of a single lineage, usually at the diploid level, to initiate a new lineage), secondary (initiation of a new lineage resulting from hybridization and/or poly-ploidy of existing lineages), and tertiary (speciation through changes in poly-ploid species, e.g., via reciprocal gene silencing). Each of these major categories includes a variety of mechanisms that result in new species. A discussion of each and examples from fern and lycophyte studies follows.

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