The velocities of chloroplast movement were measured for both avoidance and accumulation responses. The velocities of the accumulation response in two-dimensional gametophytes of A. capillus-veneris were always constant at about 0.3 ^m min-1 regardless of whether they were induced by red or blue light with different fluence rates (Kagawa and Wada, 1996). However, in Ara-bidopsis leaves the velocities of the avoidance response are dependent on fluence rate: the higher the fluence rate of blue light, the faster the chloroplasts move (Kagawa and Wada, 2004). Moreover, the velocity seems to depend on the total amount of photoreceptor (phototropin2) (Kagawa and Wada, 2004). Whether ferns have a similar system is not known and similar experiments should be performed using fern gametophytes. However, this is not possible at the present time because crossing gametophytes is difficult and transformation has proven to be challenging in fern systems.
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